Mr. mohamad dichari   us standards for railroad types, infrastructure and arema verses uic design standards
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Mr. mohamad dichari us standards for railroad types, infrastructure and arema verses uic design standards

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Mr. mohamad dichari   us standards for railroad types, infrastructure and arema verses uic design standards Mr. mohamad dichari us standards for railroad types, infrastructure and arema verses uic design standards Presentation Transcript

  • Railroad DesignThe Second Kuwait Metro andRail Conference & Exhibition April 17, 2012
  • Outline of Presentation•Railroad Design –Understanding Railroads –Rail Infrastructure Types –Yards and Facility Design –AREMA and UIC StandardsHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • What Is Special About Railroading?• Trains covey a lot of freight and passengers quickly and efficiently – Trains - 18,000+ tons and over 2 miles long. – Rail is a “GREEN” - 1 ton / 500 miles / 1 gallon or 1 metric ton / 833 KM / 4 liters.• IEA estimates global averages for carbon intensity, by those estimates: – Passenger rail has 4 to 6 times lower carbon emissions then air transportation. – Freight rail has 7 to 13 times lower carbon emissions then long distance trucking.HDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • HDRRailroad DesignUnderstanding Railroads
  • USA Rail Design Standards AREMA Means American Railway Engineering & Maintenance Association. AREMA has committees with representative of all North American Railways to offer guidance on the design specification of railways and operational componentsHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Europe Standards UIC International Union of Railways, is an international rail transport industry body (French: Union Internationale des Chemins de fer)HDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • AREMA and UIC Standards• AREMA – American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association – merger of three engineering support associations• UIC – (French: Union Internationale des Chemins de fer), or International Union of Railways, is an international rail transport industry body.• North American rail system is one of the premier freight hauling systems, the cost to move a ton of freight are the lowest in the world.HDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • HDRRailroad Design Rail Infrastructure Types
  • Design Elements UIC and AREMA• Track Roadbed and bridges• Track Work, Spirals and Curves• Clearances for the width and height of the train• Locomotives• Freight Cars (Wagons)• Train Lengths, Trailing Tonnage and Train Dynamics• Construction Costs and Operating CostHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Main Line TrackHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Infrastructure Track Design Types Requires Different Design Standards• Main line (differing traffic densities)• Branch line or side tracks• Yard lead• Yard body tracks• Industry lead tracks• Industry spur tracks• Shop tracksHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Multiple Main Line Track & Siding TrackHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Types of Yards• Classification yards – Flat switching – Hump or mini-hump• Receiving yards• Departure yards• Storage or staging yards (coal, grain, other unit trains)• Intermodal yards (COFC, TOFC, autos)• Shop or maintenance yardsHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Yard TracksHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • HDRRailroad DesignYards and Facility Design
  • The Yard - Definition• A system of tracks other than the main tracks and sidings used for storing cars and assembling, sorting, classifying and forwarding trains.HDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Storage or “SIT” Yard• Store excess equipment• “Storage-in-Transit” for product awaiting sale or distributionHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Local Yards• Small yard used to sort and hold cars for nearby customers served by a “local” switching runHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Branch Line TrackHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Terminal or Division Yard• “A facility for separating trains or cuts of cars via prearranged plans for distributing the cars in blocks according to destinations, routes or commodities.”• Where most non-unit trains start and end their runsHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Mini-hump Classification Yard• Similar track arrangement to flat switching yard •Mini-hump •Crest •-0.5% •Dowty piston retardersHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Major Retarder Hump Classification• Tracks spread from hump in a “fan” •Major retarder hump •Group •retarders •Master •retarder •Crest •Tangent point •retardersHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Standard Ladder• Standard laddersHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Typical Track SectionHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Track Roadbed and Bridges Basic Design Criteria: Track consists of two steel rails that are 56 ½ inches apart, supported by timber or concrete crossties, resting on rock ballast and sub-ballast, which, in turn, rests on sub-grade or embankment of the land. The track structure must support loads generated by modern heavy-haul freight trains, which can weigh 17,000 tons or more and each wheel which carries 36,000 pounds or 18 tonsHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • AREMA Design LimitsTrack Structure Stresses•Wheel-Rail Contact Stress ~ 100,000 PSI• Rail Bending Stress < 25,000 PSI• Tie Bearing Stress < 200 PSI• Ballast Bearing Stress < 85 PSI• Sub-grade Bearing Stress < 20 PSIHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • AREMA Design Limits ContTrack Loading Range•Lateral Loads up to 15,000 lbs (side load against inside of rail)•Vertical Loads up to 36,000 lbs per wheel (Dynamic impact ~3X)•Longitudinal forces up to 20,000 lbs per rail (along the railtraveling direction of the train)Bridge Loading Rating –Cooper E 80 (design for two 4 axle driving engines weighing284 tons each and pull a 8,000 lb per linear foot loaded trainHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • HDRRailroad Design UIC versus AREMA Design Standards
  • UIC verses AREMA Design Standards• How to compare – Track Roadbed and Bridges – Track Work, Spirals and Curves – Clearances for the width and height of the train – Locomotives – Freight Cars (Wagons) – Train Lengths, trailing tonnage and train dynamicsHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • AREMA - UICPARAMETERS UIC AREMAAxel Loading 22-25 TPA 35.7TPA (English) (Metric) 32.4 TA (Metric)Bridge Rating 25 TPA Cooper E-80 Exceeds TPA requirementsWidth Clearance W 3150 mm (10’-4”) W3251mm (10’-8”)Height Clearance 3175 mm (10’-4”) Plate H rising to 4280mm 6147mm 14’-1/2” at track Center above Provide 20’-2” Min. above top of top of rail railCurvature 750 m curve radius 2 degree, 19 267 m curve radius 6 degree Max min Maximum curvature curvatureCant 120 mm Max. (4.72 in) 76.2 mm max (3 inches)Design Speed /Low Freight 120 kph Design speed 120 kph Design Speed 80 kph Operating Speed 120kph Operating Speed Recommend Specific Curve Speed in Mountain GradeDraft Gear Tensile Strength 224,800 pounds(lbs) 350,000 lbs standard HDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 191,080 for screw type 650,000 lbs Understanding Railroads Heavy Duty
  • Railway Design StandardsAREMA Standards will: • Provide for Railway that can handle the heavier axle loads • Provide Freight Car equipment that can carry the most freight per car (both in tonnage and in cubic capacity) • Provide for the longest size of trains and reduce daily operating costs • Provides for an open international market for suppliers of locomotives and freight cars to bid and compete in pricing to supply the highest quality and lowest cost equipment to the Middle Eastern countries. • Provides the flexibility to operate Double Stacked rail transport versus single stacked trailer on flatcar (TOFC) or container on flatcar (COFC).HDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • North American Double Stack trainHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • North American Auto Train Provides for the loading of up to 15 automobiles or 10 trucks or SUV into a single fright carHDR, Inc. © Copyright March, 2012 Understanding Railroads
  • Railroad Design Questions