SAR - North South RailwayEnvironmental Challenges Gassim Al-Gassim Deputy CEO for Projects Saudi Railway Company (SAR)
Introduction• The initial studies were carried out over 15 years ago to develop the North-South Railway.• Council of Ministers on May 22, 2006 approved the licensing of a new company named Saudi Railway Company (SAR) a wholly owned by the Public Investment Fund of the Ministry of Finance, will manage the Implementation and operation & Maintenance.• Overall objective of PIF/SAR is to ensure timely implementation of operating North-South Railway to carry Ma’aden’s mineral traffic in an economical fashion from mines at Al Jalamid and Az Zabirah to industrial facilities in RasAzZawr. In addition, it is planned to operate passenger and general freight between Riyadh and Al Haditha on the Jordanian Border .
• Design JV Contract awarded to CANARAIL, SYSTRA and Khatib & Alami in March 2004.• Implementation Supervision Consultant (ISC) Contract – Louis Berger Group Inc., in association with CANARAIL Consultants Inc., SYSTRA and Khatib & Alami Engineering and Construction – signed on 29th November 2005.• Contracting Strategy based on International Competitive Bidding commenced in March 2006.
Quantities In SAR ProjectItem No. Item Total 1 Total alignment length 2380 km 2 Concrete-bridges 114 3 Concrete-Culverts 2679 4 Earth work 497 million m 5 Earth work in An’Nafud 0,915 million m /km 6 Sleepers More than 4.600.000 units 7 Rails More than 286.000 tones
Railway Expansion Program in Saudi Arabia Existing Network Al Jalamid Mine North-South Railway Al Haditha Saudi Landbridge Syria Western Railway Iraq Iran Al Jawf Kuwait Al Basayta Jordan Ras Az Zawr Gu Jubail lfEgypt Bahrain Ha’il Az Zabirah Mine Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Qatar Dammam United Arab Emirates Buraydah Al Madinah Al Hufuf R Re Oman (Medina) dS Yanbu Riyadh Se Haradh ea Eritrea YemenSudan Arabian Sea Jeddah Gulf of Aden Makkah (Mecca) Ethiopia Somalia THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA RAILWAY EXPANSION PROGRAM
Minerals, Passengers and General Freight Alignment Al-Haditha Al-Jalamid Station Mines 300 – 750 Km from An Nafud to Al-Haditha, CTW Hazm AL – Jalamidcontracts,Basayta Three major and Al – 7.2 Billion Saudi Riyals, awarded on 3rd Barclay Mowlem Civil and Awarded to Al-RashidApril 2007 for the– Mitsui Track Consortium In (Eastern Region , Al-Qassim ZabirahAl-Jowf , to Works CTW 200 – 440Km from Az , Hail , Junction And NorthernNafud – Awarded to the JV of China An Boarder Region), as following : Railway 18th Bureau and Al- Suwaiket Co. Al-Basayta Al-Jowf Station 877 Million Saudi Riyals - Station An Nafud - 4.2-2 awarded Km from Az Zabirah Mine to Ras Az- CTW 100 – 576 The total length of–the project is approx. Group.. Km) to Al-Khodari Co. Awarded to Saudi Binladen (2400 Zawr The total length of (Mineral)service is (1486 Km)939 Million Saudi Riyals Hail Station Ras Az ZawrٌAn Nafud – 4.2-1 awarded Bauxite Mine/Junctionto Al-Omaier / Al Fahad Co. CTW 400 – Recently Awarder with Jubail contract value 2.7 Billion Saudi Al-Qassim Station Riyals Majma’ah Industrial Station The total length of (Passenger,ganeral freight) 460Km from Az Zabirah Junction to Station in KKIA – Awarded toKm) services is (1418 Al Ayuni, Al Sudair Riyadh Station Omaier & CCECC.
NSR Integration Into GCC NetworkGCC NSR SRO Landbridge
Passenger Stations * SAR project include six passenger stations :• Riyadh (King Khaled Airport)• Sudair .• Qassim .• Hail .• jowf .• haditha . Internal view
What Are The Environmental Challenges?1 What the railway carries?2 Goals and Objectives of Environmental Protection3 How is the Environment protected from interaction with our freight?4 Crossing the desert5 Construction process6 Drainage7 Interaction with the local people8 Protection of wildlife and domesticated animals9 SABKHA10 Energy consumption and Environment11 Reducing energy consumption12 Operational consideration
What does the railway carry1 Phosphate Ore2 Bauxite Ore3 Sulphuric Acid4 Caustic Soda5 General Freight6 Passengers
Goals and Objectives of Environmental Protection• Conserve and protect environment of KSA.• Protect public health from hazard and environmentally damaging activities.• Protect and develop natural resources, minimize use of environmental planning integral to industrial, construction and agricultural activities.• Raise level of awareness regarding environmental issues
How Is The Environment Protected From The Interaction With Our Freight?1 All corrosive materials are carried in modern sealed wagons2 all wagons are inspected for leaks before leaving the loading facility and after the unloading process3 all wagons are inspected on a regular basis outside of the transit inspections
Crossing The Desert1 The main desert area is the an Naffud between hail and al Jawf approximately 300km2 Issues to be dealt with at this location were a. Moving sand dunes b. Wind bourn sand c. Isolation and inaccessibility of the route in general inspections
Crossing The Desert1 The majority of the embankments were constructed from compacted sand protected by a layer of compacted cohesive soils2 This caused additional environmental issues as borrow pits had to be found and the protective material hauled to site3 The estimated quantity of material to be moved for the project embankments is 295 million cubic meters4 While the estimated quantity of material moved for the project cuttings is 175 million cubic meters5 Resulting a total of required material of 120 million cubic meters
Construction in DesertThe majority of NSR Alignment will go through remotelocations So, for the construction camps the following had tobe taken into consideration:• Accommodation for more than 1,000 Inhabitants• Supply Chain for Daily Needs of Labors• Supply of Construction Material• Supply of Construction Consumables
Sand Dunes• NSR Alignment passes through a lot of desert and sand dunes area.• Deserts are generally characterized by the severity of sand blowing resulting in• Contamination of the Ballast Layer (Impact on System Elasticity).• Designers can only minimize the problem associated with blowing sand by understanding how sand moves and applying techniques tested and found to be successful.
Sand Dunes Mitigation• Providing sand trap areas at the railway toe-of-embankment.• Applying gravel blankets as a protection layer against erosion.• Using sand fence.• Frequent maintenance is required.
Construction Process1 These inaccessible sites required: a. The construction of access roads from the local highways b. Additional width of the construction footprint to allow adjacent site access roads C. Provision of general amenities and construction materials at locations where all provisions had to be hauled in by road
DRAINAGE1 The rain fall in the desert has serious impact on earthworks due to its intensity.2 The majority of embankments have culverts installed to allow the passage of storm water.3 Cuttings have been designed to allow the storm water easy egress away from the railway.4 Embankment protection has been provided not only to support the core structurally but from adverse weather conditions.
Interaction With The Local People1 The route has been designed to cause as little interference with the local public as possible.2 where ever possible the route horizontal alignment has been designed not to divide existing land holdings.3 where it has not been possible land owners have been compensated.4 the railway is fenced along its total route to prevent accidental access and potential accidents
Protection Of Wildlife And Domesticated Animals1 Total fencing has been the policy of the project2 Where the route traverses land where livestock has the need for access to either side: a. Special sized culverts have been use B. Camel crossing bridges with high parapets and gentle approach slopes have been constructed over the railway
SABKHA• Arabic term that describes a composition of Sand Deposits mixed with Silt, Clay with the presence of salt.• Always refers to saline, puffy, crust-surfaced flat basins with the presence of water.• Coastal Sabkha found in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia in low-lying plains and Inland Sabkha found in northern part.• Special attention is required due to water presence.• Low load carrying capacity (Settlement).
SABKHA Mitigations• Using Geotextiles in the construction of Railway on sabkha sub- grade.• Using rock fill for embankment under the sub-grade, ballast and sub-ballast.• Pre-Loading (Additional temporary load but time consuming).• Soil Replacement.• Mechanical Compaction (e.g. Stone/Sand columns)
Energy Consumption and Environment• Railways provide efficient and safe transportation for freight and passengers compared with other transportation systems.• Railways reduce emissions and pollutions.
Reducing Energy Consumption• Optimize Route Alignment / Geometry: Very few Curves.• Fuel efficient locomotives.• Modern Rolling Stock (low roll resistance).• Streamlined Efficient Passenger Trains design for aero-dynamics.• Consequent and strict maintenance for rolling stock and permanent way.
Operational Considerations• Sand Environment Impact on Operation: Special Sand removal equipment required to keep tracks clear.• Special “Pulse Filtration System” for Locomotives (EMD SD 70 Acs): Proven Technology in hot sandy desert conditions
Balises• Due to high temperature in Saudi Arabia specially during summer , temperature was measured and found during summer that exceed 80 C and readings from balises will be effected• For that reason Balises were equipped with covers (Shadow) to reduce temperature and assure their functionality.
Point Machine• Because of sand problems and in order to reduce maintenance, Point machines were designed with a special cover. This cover is IP67 / The where no. 6 means no ingress of dust, complete protection against contact and no. 7 means Ingress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when the enclosure is immersed in water under defined conditions of pressure and time (up to 1 m of submersion).
Hot Wheel and Hot Box Detector• Rolling stock detection devices are integrated with ETCS signaling system to ensure normal temperature in wheels and box. This is to avoid wheel damages which may lead to derailments.