Dr. mansour el bardisi -noise impact assessment for metro and railway
Noise impact assessment for metro and Railway - Case study Haramain High Speed Rail (HHR) In KSA By Dr / Mansour El Bardisi Ain Shamus university firstname.lastname@example.org
IntroductionThe population of the Western Province of the Kingdom of SaudiArabia is rapidly growing, with the construction of new cities and the extension ofexisting urban areas. This has led, over the past few decades, to a significant increasein both roads and air travel between the major cities of the region.Furthermore, in addition to normal daily traffic flows, travel demandincreases substantially at times of Hajj pilgrimage and particularlyduring the Holy month of Ramadan. In order to cater for theincreasing travel demand, the Government of Saudi Arabia, throughthe Saudi Railways Organization (SRO), has initiated a project,Haramain High Speed Rail (HHR) for the implementation of a newelectrified passenger railway line, approximately 450km in length,which will link the Holy Cities of Makkah and Medina via Jeddah witha commercial operating speed of 320km/h, the service will provideattractive journey times between the Holy Cities, Utilizing proventechnology that has been deployed by various manufacturersaround the world.Project DescriptionThe Government of Saudi Arabia, through the Saudi RailwaysOrganization (SRO), has initiated a project El Haramain High SpeedRailway (HHR) that will be a new electrified passenger railway lineof length approximately 450 km. this project will link the holy citiesof Makkah and Madinah via Jeddah as shown in (Fig. 1). Theservice will provide attractive journey times between the HolyCities, utilizing proven technology that has been deployed byvarious manufacturers around the world.The alignment crosses terrains with different topographic featuresand geologic formations, such as sand dunes, sabkha, and volcanicformations. It also passes through or adjacent to several urbanareas in Jeddah, Makkah and Madinah. The horizontal and verticalalignments have been kept as straight and flat as possible.
In order to achieve the target operating speed and journey times,taking into account a broad range of constraints and considerations,including the varying terrain, expropriation requirements, drainageand implementation costs. Fig.1: Shows the alignment of the railway In general, the alignment comprises the following segments: 1. Makkah – Jeddah Segment (From Km 0+000 to Km 76+600); 2. Jeddah – Wadi Rabigh Segment (From Km 76+600 to Km 217+250); 3. Jeddah Urban Section (Km 75+000 to Km 119+600); and 4. Jeddah – Madinah Section (Km 119+000 to Km 449+600). 5. The principal design parameters used in the development of the concept design of the railways alignment may be summarized as shown in (Table 1-1): Table 1: The principal design parameters
Item Urban Section Rural Section Design Speed (Km/h) 100 360 Absolute Minimum Horizontal Radius (m) 400 5460 Maximum Slope (%) Maximum Length of 3.5 3.5 3.5% Slope (Km) 6 6 Minimum Vertical Curve Radius (m) 2,500 33,000Noise impact assessment is a very important part of theEnvironmental Impact assessment it is expected to play anincreasing role in ensuring that projects meet sustainability criteria.To achieve the EIA must take a lead planning role in orientingconstruction and operation processes. It must also develop a clearenvironmental management and monitoring plan, whichrecommends self monitoring potentials and integrates such withrecommended command-and-control monitoring and compliancealternatives.3. Baseline Data3.1. Noise & vibrationMeasurement objectives :-The details of noise measurements must be planned to meet some relevant objective orpurpose. Some topical objectives would include:- Investigating complaints, if any at current situation. Record the current situation before the HHR erection and operation. Assessing the number of persons exposed now for high level noise. Collect a data base for the current level of vibration. Compliance with international regulations. Land use planning and environmental impact assessments for the HHR alignment. Evaluation of remedial measures if necessary. Calibration and validation of predictions for HHR. Research surveys for Saudi Arabia HHR alignment. Trend monitoring.
Determining the sound power level of the vehicle pass-bys as well as estimating the railways contours.Measurement locationsSpot Vibration MeasurementsThe study team performed a comprehensive and detail noise measurements that varyingfrom 24 hours to one hour depending on surrounding environment at each importantlocation along the alignment targeting to record the current situation without the HHR foreasy analysis and prediction . All measurement has a time and date stamp, the measurements was done in both horizontal and vertical direction Here some examples of vibration measurements in different locations1- Location (1) Point (1) starting of line at the bridge nearby the road 15m – 20m away Fig. 2 Google earth map for Vibration measurement Location (1)Point: Pt-1-VerticalMeasurement: 1 - bp Date: 12/08/2009 Time: 09:07:52
Date Time Amplitude (mm/s) 12/08/2009 09:07:52 32.704 mPoint: Pt-1- Vertical spectrumMeasurement: 2 - as Date: 12/08/2009 Time: 09:08:09 Fig. (3-16 b): Vibration measurement results for Location (1)Point: Pt-1-Horizontal Measurement: 1 - bp Date: 12/08/2009 Time: 09:09:11 Date Time Amplitude (mm/s) 12/08/2009 09:09:11 36.543 mPoint: Pt-1-Horizontal spectrum Measurement: 2 - as Date: 12/08/2009 Time: 09:09:28Conclusion for location 1It is clear from the reading that the vibration propagation are low at this location due tothe fact of being next to a busy road and vibration signature & amplitude are still minimum.
Spot Noise measurements Table 3-7: shows spot noise measurements LAeq LASMax LASMin LAF1 LAF5 LAF10 LAF50 LAF90 LAF95 Loc. LAF99 [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] [dB] 1 62.7 67.72 57.16 68.17 66.28 65.17 61.75 59.06 58.48 57.54 2 56.81 67.19 52.58 64.81 60.62 58.60 55.14 53.44 53.10 52.54 Example of Third octave spectrum for all noise measurements 0001.S3A 0002.S3A dB 08/12/2009 10:01:53 AM - 10:06:53 AM dB 08/12/2009 10:33:15 AM - 10:38:15 AM 120 120 110 110 100 100 90 90 80 80 70 70 60 60 50 50 40 40 30 30 16 31.50 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 A L Hz 16 31.50 63 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 8000 A L Hz LLeq LLFMax LLFMin LLeq LLFMax LLFMin Cursor: 200 Hz LLeq=51.9 dB LLFMax=67.4 dB LLFMin=43.9 dBCursor: 250 Hz LLeq=57.6 dB LLFMax=70.8 dB LLFMin=49.0 dB Location 1 Location 2 Prediction Validation of computer modeling The computer model used for prediction was run for validation with the base line measurements the results indicate acceptable level of consistence. 1- Maps Without Train Appendix 3 of Noise Prediction Maps without Train Samples of Noise Prediction in Makkah
Fig 3 Google earth map shows some locations along the alignment in Makkah Fig 4 LDN prediction gradient map with key for location 1part 1in Makkah
Fig 5 Google earth map shows some locations along the alignment In MakkahFig 6 LDN prediction gradient map with key for location 1part 1in Makkah
Fig 7 Google earth map shows some locations along the alignment In Jeddah – AirportFig 8 LDN prediction gradient map with key for location15 in Jeddah – Airport
Fig 9 Google earth map shows some locations along the alignment In Jeddah – AirportFig 10 LDN prediction gradient map with key for location 21 in Jeddah – Airport
There is no significant difference between prediction and measurements at current situationindicating that the model capable to predict noise levels.Operation ImpactsIn the operation phase of the project, some items appeared to pose potentialenvironmental impacts if not managed properly. These are noise.NoiseThe aim of the Noise Impact Assessment is to assess what effect HHR will have onnoise levels generated. HHR will contribute significantly to noise effects on thesurrounding residential areas, while the increase of railway traffic will potentiallyhave a significant impact on the current noise levels generated from the Roads.While the new HHR has been modeled to assess the impacts of noise on theresidential communities, this work can be undertaken as part of the operational noisemonitoring program.Conclusion for HHRThe assessment of the likely impact of HHR will have on the local noise levelsconcluded that HHR will increase noise levels along the alignment. Noise generatedfrom the operation of HHR itself will be a significant environmental and social impactfor the surrounding residential areas, compared to other noise generating activities atRoads near to HHR. This is largely due to the fact that the HHR facility itself willemit high noise and Noise Sensitive Receivers (NSRs) may be close to alignment.184.108.40.206. Noise Prediction Modeling ResultsA noise prediction models to expect the amount of noise during operation of theproject and reduce it to guarantee the safety for people.Here some predicted photos for Noise in different places
Noise Prediction in Makkah Fig.11google earth map for some location in makkahFig. 12 filled contour shows noise level distribution along and around the alignment
Noise Prediction inside Jeddah (Fig. 4-23) Fig. 13 Google earth map for some locations in JeddahFig. 14 filled contour shows noise level distribution along and around the alignment
Noise Prediction in Madinah (Fig. 4-24) Fig. 15 Google earth map for some locations in Madinah Fig. 16 filled contour shows noise level distribution along and around the alignmentVibration specially low frequency component will be generated and cause disturbancefor some residence at certain locations, it is important to minimize this vibration andlimit it to the alignment only without any propagation and use maximum damping aspossibleConclusions:- 1. It is very important to address the noise generated by railway to avoid complain by residential surround areas. 2. Noise predicted by train can be done using a computer modeling 3. Noise level generated by railway can be mitigated to minimize effects on presidential area 4. The mitigation cost during the design stage is minimum compare with cost after operation