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Ali Mahran - the importance of railways for development of reigional communities
 

Ali Mahran - the importance of railways for development of reigional communities

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    Ali Mahran - the importance of railways for development of reigional communities Ali Mahran - the importance of railways for development of reigional communities Presentation Transcript

    • Kuwait Metro and Rail Conference & Exhibition 19 - 20 April 2011
      • Towards the Importance of Railways for Development of Regional Communities.
      • ( Japan, JR Model )
      Dr.Eng. Ali Mahran Hesham Prof. of Environment and Urban Planning http://kenanaonline.com/drmahran2020
    • 1. Introduction
      • Passengers traveling across town and country get their safely and quickly with the use of trains and railway systems. Trains and railways are cheaper way to travel when compared with airlines, train travel has become a popular way for development and tourists to see the sights of the country.
      • The main Challenges in Japan Railways is the declining birthrate and aging population, a large-scale increase in railway transport demand cannot be expected in the future. In addition, due to the sophistication and diversification of the riding public’s sense of value and lifestyle, railway transport must improve the quality of time and space during the ride.
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    • 2. Objectives of The Study
      • To describe and focus on the situation of Japan, especially transportation means (e.g. JR, ) and its development.
      • To focus on the huge role of railways systems for development ( e.g. time, cost, safety, recreation, economy, … ) . Additionally, it shows how the Japanese railways helps the decision maker of Japan to stand on the top level of developed and rich countries.
      • It promotes regional development as well as improve the function of large Cities and other communities by providing a comprehensive system of railways construction.
    • 3. Profile of Japan in Relation to the Transportation Systems
      • Japan consists of 6,852 islands. The four largest islands are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu and Shikoku, Japan has the world's tenth-largest population, with over 127 million people and area about 378000 km2.
      • Japan emerged as the most developed nation in Asia. The period of overall real economic growth from the 1960s to the 1980s has been called a "Japanese miracle": it averaged 7.5 percent in the 1960s and 1970s, and 3.2 percent in the 1980s and early 1990s.
      3.1. Japan At a Glance:
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    • 3. Profile of Japan in Relation to the Transportation Systems
      • Japan ranks 12th of 178 countries in the 2008 Ease of Doing Business Index and has one of the smallest tax revenues of the developed world.
      • According to both UN and WHO estimates, Japan is the longest life expectancy in the world.
      • Japan is a major economic power with the world's third-largest economy by nominal GDP .
      3.1. Japan At a Glance:
    • 3. Profile of Japan in Relation to the Transportation Systems
      • A 2007 UN estimate puts the population at 35,676,000 making it the world's most populous metropolitan area by far. It covers an area of approximately 13,500 km² (5,200 mi²), giving it a population density of 2,642 person/km².
      • Railways in the Tokyo Metropolitan area provide 56% of travel needs.
      • Tokyo's public transportation system is the most comprehensive in the world. It is also cleaner and safer.
      3.2. The Greater Tokyo
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    •  
    • 3. Profile of Japan in Relation to the Transportation Systems
      • Hokkaido ( Hokkaidō ), literally "North Sea Circuit", formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan's second largest island and the largest, northernmost of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu, although the two islands are connected by the underwater railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is its capital, Sapporo, which is also its only ordinance-designated city.
      • The population of Hokkaido exceeds 5.5 million person in 2010 , with area about 83454 km2 and 68 Districts ( 180 Municipalities ) .
      3.3. Hokkaido Island
    • 3. Profile of Japan in Relation to the Transportation Systems
      • The railways that serve the public daily are a safe and environmentally friendly means of transport.
      • There have been ZERO accidents invloving passenger fatalities.
      • The demand on the transportation sector to reduce CO2 emissions is growing stronger and the expectation that railway transport become a more energy-efficient means of transportation than motor vehicles and other modes of transport is increasing.
      3.4. Environmental Protection
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      • Rail transport in Japan is a major means of passenger transport, especially for mass and high-speed travel between regions , major cities , rural and urban communities and as well for commuter transport in metropolitan areas.
      • There are 27,268 km of rail criss crossing the country. Japan's railways carried 22.24 billion passengers in fiscal 2006. In comparison, Germany has over 40,000 km of railways, but travels only 2.2 billion passengers per year.
      • Japan's railways carried 51.9 million tons of goods in fiscal 2006 . The share of railways in the national logistics is as small as 0.84% (2005).
      4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
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    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • The Japan Railways or commonly known as JR is predominant in the railway network in Japan and it accounts for approximately 70 percent of the entire network. Approximately 30 percent is ran by private sectors that mostly operate local lines in urban areas.
      • Line names are shown on a ticket to indicate the route of the ticket. Passengers refer the railway by the name of line (e.g. "Tōyoko Line") or the name of operator (e.g. "Hanshin").
      4. 1. Japan Railways, JR
    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • The JR development are viewed, as a part of Railway Landscape – a railway infrastructure considered in terms of visual amenity and functional efficiency. Railway stations are becoming as uniform and rationalized, with too many commercial advertisements, and their comparison with World's Developed ones.
      • JR, subsidizes the projects to implement improvements required for the reorganization of the stations and train tracks, changes in operation schedules, in addition to services, etc.
      4. 1. Japan Railways, JR
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    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • The JR has its own rechargeable card system called SUIKA. Its advantage is that it makes it faster. It does not need to be passed through the ticket gates. The SUIKA card can be recharged for the desired amount of money at the ticket machine.
      • To protect railway facilities from deterioration and prevent or limit the spread of damage caused by natural disasters such as earthquake, and fire, subsidies are provided for the enhancement facility soundness based on a comprehensive safety plan, and the promotion of safer train operation and passenger safety.
      4. 1. Japan Railways, JR
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    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • Financial assistance is provided for facility reinforcement/ improvement projects planned for aging bridges and tunnels used by local railways.
      • To promote railways that are more comfortable and easy-to-use with local authorities. JR publishes its “Guide Book on Railway Assistance” annually to help you understand the railway assistance provided by the national government .
      • Railway Day (October 14) was established in commemoration of the day in 1872 when the first railway in Japan opened, and in celebration of railway development.
      4. 1. Japan Railways, JR
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    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • Since the inauguration of the first Shinkansen in 1964 connecting Tokyo and Shin Osaka, the Shinkansen network, comprising the Tokaido, Sanyo, Tohoku, Joetsu, Hokuriku, and Kyushu Shinkansen lines, has played a key role in intercity passenger transport, thereby contributing to the well-balanced development of land and the growth of the national economy.
      • Financial assistance is provided for the improvement of non-Shinkansen trunk railway lines to increase train speed and enhance accessibility to Shinkansen lines.
      4.2. New Shinkansen ( Bullet Train ) Lines
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    •  
    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • The world's longest railroad tunnel, for example, currently under way in Japan, is the 34-mile (54-kilometre) Seikan undersea rock tunnel between the islands of Honshu and Hokkaido; the 14.4 mile (23-kilometre) pilot tunnel, completed in 1983 after 19 years of work, was utilized as a proving ground for several new types of moles.
      • Compared with air transport, the Shinkansen has several advantages, including scheduling frequency and flexibility, punctual operation, comfortable seats, and convenient city-center terminals.
      4.2. New Shinkansen ( Bullet Train ) Lines
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    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • To ensure trouble-free living environments, financial assistance is provided for such projects as the construction of facilities that ensure safe and stable railway services and the installation of crossing safety devices (crossing bars, crossing signals) for smooth flow of traffic and the prevention of accidents at crossings. Subsidy for Improvement of Railway Modernization Facilities, Subsidy for Development, and Subsidy for Post-disaster Restoration have been granted directly from the National Government as of FY2010.
      4.3. Safety and Disaster Prevention Measures
    • 4. The Role of Railways for Development of Japan
      • Financial assistance is provided for earthquake-proofing projects planned for existing stations which presently lack earthquake-proofing, whose daily rider ship exceeds 10,000 persons, and which can function as emergency passenger transport bases.
      • The safety of railway line sections against strong winds can be improved by setting up anemometers in locations where wind speeds frequently exceed the critical wind speed of overturning. In order to ensure optimum location of the anemometers, wind speed values need to be estimated over an N-year return period along railway lines.
      4.3. Safety and Disaster Prevention Measures
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    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • While railways are popular mode of land transportation in Japan and their role is greater than in Europe (in 2001 the Japanese traveled 3034 km per person per year, while Europeans only 810 km/p), the majority of existing “convenient stations” satisfy basic needs but not aesthetic. In most European countries, train operation and management of stations has been separated from track business (management and development of rail infrastructure).
      5.1. The Japan Railways, JR to compared with the European one
    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • . In Japan, the Japan National Railways was divided in 1987 into six regional operators. JNR did not divide the train operators and infrastructure like some European countries did. Unlike in Europe, new private railways – JRs – have been in charge of all components of railway operation – all infrastructure including rolling stock, railroad tracks, maintenance facilities, train operation, station maintenance, as well as for other businesses (kiosks, shops, restaurants) at the stations.
      5.1. The Japan Railways, JR to compared with the European one
    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • Some trains of Japan now have some women-only cars. It is the center of rail transportation in Tokyo and most of the other JR and private company lines begin at one of the Yamanote stations and travel to different places within the loop. The company runs an English information. All of the JR lines, as well are color coded. The JR Yamanote Line is green and does a circle around the central Tokyo.
      5.1. The Japan Railways, JR to compared with the European one
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    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • In Germany and England they are subsidized by public authorities, in France railways are national and they are controlled and subsidized by the government through regional organizations.
      • In Japan government controls infrastructure development and issues guidelines but station design depends on railway companies, which prepare their own guidelines. It is difficult to expect that railway companies will prepare strict guidelines on sensitive design because their policies are mainly profit-oriented.
      5.1. The Japan Railways, JR to compared with the European one
    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • Railways and trams are respectively regulated by the Railway Business Act ( Tetsudō Jigyō Hō, Act No. 92 of 1986) and the Tram Act ( Kidō Hō, Act No. 76 of 1921).
      • Under the Railway Business Act, operations of "railways" (in the legal meaning) are divided into three categories: Category 1, Category 2 and Category 3 .
      5.2. Categories of Railways
    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • Railways electrification are usually taking one of two forms - via wires suspended over the tracks or by way of one (or two) extra 'electrified' rail(s) located alongside the tracks. The overhead (catenary) wire system is more usual for long distance lines whilst the electric rail(s) system (which is usually referred to as 3rd [or 4th] rail) is more often used on city-specific urban rail systems (sometimes called metro / subway / rapid transit).
      5.2. Categories of Railways
    • 5. Rules and Criteria for Improving the JR
      • “ Master Plan for Technology Development”were approved by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation in January 2007, and are pursuing technological development in an effort to establish the relevant technology required for implementing an ultra-high-speed mass-transport system that has a clear competitive edge compared with other means of transportation by 2016.
      5.2. Categories of Railways
    • 6.Conclusions
      • Rail transport in Japan is a major means of passenger transport, especially for mass and high-speed travel between major cities and for commuter transport in metropolitan areas.
      • Railroads were long the most important means of passenger and freight transportation in Japan, ever since they were established in the late nineteenth century. Government policy promoted railways due to lack of fossil fuels and nearly complete dependence on import.
    • 6.Conclusions
      • The major private railways companies are operating 2,870.1 kilometers of railways. In one year period from April 2009, a total of 9.46 billion passengers (118 billion passenger kilometers) traveled on these major railways.
      • Japan's railway, JR network is advanced and provides an easy way to get around with its safeness, comfortableness, speed, and punctuality. ticket price is based on the type of seat , the type of train, and the traveling distance.
    • 6. Conclusions
      • Environmental protection is mainly, taken into consideration in all the phases of JR, implementation ( Design, construction, operation, services, etc. ), which makes the Japanese transportation systems more beautiful, safety, comfortable and attractiveness model.
      • All of the JR lines, as well as are color coded.
      • Some trains of Japan now have some women-only cars.
      • The JR Model are successfully assisting the development of regional communities in addition to rural and urban areas.
    • شـــــكر ا لكــم والله المستعــان،،، Dr. Ali Mahran Hesham