SAD  Chapter1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

SAD Chapter1

on

  • 6,093 views

chapter 1 lecture for SAD

chapter 1 lecture for SAD

Statistics

Views

Total Views
6,093
Views on SlideShare
6,093
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
216
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

SAD  Chapter1 SAD Chapter1 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 Assuming the Role of the Systems Analyst Systems Analysis and Design Kendall & Kendall Sixth Edition
  • 2 MAJOR COMPONENTS OF A SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
    • 1. System Design
      • Is the process of planning a new business to replace or
      • complement the old.
    • 2. System Analysis
      • Is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems, and using the facts to improve the system.
    Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Page 1-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • What is System Analysis and Design?
      • Is the process of examining a business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods.
      • Is a series of processes which are systematically undertaken to improve a business through the use of computerized information system.
    Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Page 2-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • What is a Systems Analyst?
    • Studies the problems and needs of a business to determine how people, process, data, communications, and technology can best accomplish improvements for the business.
    • Is a business problems solver.
    • Develops both an organization’s business systems and its information system.
    Introduction to Systems Analysis and Design Page 3-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
    • Business System – involves day-to-day business operations.
    • IS generates information to help managers solve problems and make intelligent decisions
  • Information as Organization Resource
    • Information
      • Is an organizational resource which must be managed as carefully as other resources.
      • Costs are associated with information processing
      • Information processing must be managed to take full advantage of its potential
    Information as Organization Resource Page 4-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Type of Systems
    • Information systems fall into one of the following eight categories:
      • Transaction Processing System (TPS)
      • Office Automation Systems (OAS)
      • Knowledge Work Systems (KWS)
      • Management Information Systems
      • Decision Support Systems (DSS)
      • Expert Systems (ES)
      • Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS)
      • Executive Support Systems (ESS)
    Type of Systems Page 5-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Transaction Processing Systems
    • Developed to process large amounts of data for routine business transactions such as payroll and inventory.
    • Eliminate the tedium of necessary operational transactions
    • Reduce the time once required to perform these transactions manually although people still must input the data.
    • Generate data used by managers as up-to-the minute information about what is happening in their companies.
    • Computer-based versions of manual organization systems dedicated to handle the organization’s transactions.
    Type of Systems Page 6-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
    • Transactions
    • Individual simple events in the life of an organization that contain data about organizational activity.
  • Office Automation Systems
    • Support data workers who do not usually create new knowledge but rather analyze information as to transform data or manipulate it in some way before sharing it with.
    • It includes word processing, spreadsheets, desktop publishing, electronic scheduling, and communication through voice mail, e-mail and video conferencing.
    • The keyword that characterizes OA is communication
    • is intended to facilitate both oral and written communication.
    • Capability to link people electronically for office work called virtual office, a term that suggests that office work can be done at virtually any geographically location as long as the work site is linked to one or more of the firm’s fixed locations.
    Type of Systems Page 7-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Knowledge- Work System
    • Support professional workers such as scientists, engineers and doctors by aiding them in their efforts to create new knowledge and by allowing them to contribute it to their organization or to society bat large.
    Type of Systems Page 8-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Management Information System
    • Supports a broader spectrum of organizational task.
    • Helps unite some of the computerized information functions of a business.
    • Requires people, software, hardware, shared database.
    • Output is used for decision analysis and decision-making.
    Type of Systems Page 9-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Decision-Support System
    • Emphasize the support in decision-making in all phases, the actual decision is still exclusive to the decision-maker.
    • Experimental in nature, where the user tries different inputs to see their effects. The responses is used to try new inputs, and the process continues until a satisfactory result is obtained.
    Type of Systems Page 10-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Expert System
    • Known as knowledge-based system, which captures and uses the knowledge of an expert for solving a problem experienced in a business.
    • Uses the approaches of AI
    • Selects the best solution to a problem.
    • Uses languages such as PROLOG, or LISP.
    Type of Systems Page 11-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Group Decision Support System
    • Used in special rooms equipped in a number of different configurations, permit group members to interact with electronic support.
    • Intended to bring a group together to solve a problem with the help of various supports such as polling, questionnaires, brainstorming, and scenario creation.
    • Under general term computer supported collaborative work (CSCW) which include “groupware” for team collaboration.
    Type of Systems Page 12-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Executive Support Systems
    • Help executives organize their interaction with the external environment by providing graphics and communications support in accessible places such as boardrooms or personal corporate offices.
    • Extend and support the capabilities of executives, permitting them to make sense of their environments.
    Type of Systems Page 13-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • New Technologies
    • New technologies are being integrated into traditional systems:
        • Ecommerce uses the Web to perform business activities.
        • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has the goal of integrating many different information systems within the corporation.
        • Wireless and handheld devices, including mobile commerce (mcommerce).
        • Open source software.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 14-43
  • Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 15-43
  • Integrating Technologies for Systems
    • E-Commerce Applications and Web Systems
      • Migrated to the WWW as to conceived and implemented as Web-based technologies.
      • Internet was the most favored strategy to pursue business growth.
      • Increasing awareness of the availability of the service, product, industry, person, or group
      • 24-hour access for users
      • Standard interface design
      • Creating a global system
    Integrating Technologies for Systems Page 16-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Integrating Technologies for Systems
    • Enterprise Resource Planning Systems
      • Designed to perform integration of many information systems existing on different management levels and within different functions.
    Integrating Technologies for Systems Page 17-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Integrating Technologies for Systems
    • Systems for Wireless and Handheld Devices
      • The analyst designed standard or wireless communications networks that integrate voice, video, an e-mail into organizational intranets or industry extranets.
    Integrating Technologies for Systems Page 18-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Integrating Technologies for Systems
    • Open Source Software
      • Open-Source software – is an alternative to traditional software development where proprietary code is hidden from the users.
      • Stands for development model and philosophy of distributing software free and publishing its source code.
      • The source code can be studied, shared and modified by many users and programmers.
    Integrating Technologies for Systems Page 19-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Nature of Analysis and Design
    • Systems analysis and design is a systematic approach to:
      • Identifying problems, opportunities, and objectives.
      • Analyzing the information flows in organizations.
      • Designing computerized information systems to solve a problem.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 20-43
  • Role of Systems Analyst
    • Systems analysts act as:
      • Outside consultants to businesses.
      • Supporting experts within a business.
      • As change agents.
    • Analysts are problem solvers, and require communication skills.
    • Analysts must be ethical with users and customers.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 21-43
  • The Systems Development Life Cycle
      • is a systematic and orderly approach to solving business problems, and developing and supporting resulting information systems.
      • Traditional methodology used to develop, maintain, and replace information systems.
      • Evolution of process that is followed in implementing a computer-based information system.
      • It sometimes called an Applications Development Life Cycle
    The SDLC Page 22-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 23-43
  • Phase1: Identifying Problems, Opportunities and Objectives
      • This stage is critical to the success of the rest of the object, because no one wants to waste subsequent time addressing the wrong problem.
      • The Analyst pinpoints problems.
      • Opportunities are situations that the that the analyst believes can be improve upon through the use of computerized information systems
      • The Analyst must discover what the business is trying to do to reach its objectives by addressing specific problems or opportunities.
    The SDLC Page 24-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase1: Identifying Problems, Opportunities and Objectives
      • Recognize the Problem
        • What is a problem?
        • When is a problem advantageous?
      • Define the problem
        • Is it the correct problem?
      • Set System Objectives
        • How will you solve the problem?
      • Identify system constraints
        • What are the boundaries/limitations of the system?
    The SDLC Page 25-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design Steps:
  • Phase 2: Determining Information Requirements
      • Formal process of using research, interview, questionnaires, sampling and other techniques to collect information about system, requirements and preferences.
      • SA team collects information on what the system should do from as many sources as possible: from users of the current system, from observing users and from existing reports, forms and procedures information gathering, data collection, data gathering
    The SDLC Page 26-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase 3: Analyzing System Needs
      • Analysis
        • The study o the existing system for the purpose of designing a new or improved system
        • Announce the systems study
        • What is the reason of the study ?
          • What benefits will the employees and the organization get from the study?
    The SDLC Page 27-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design Steps:
  • Phase 3: Analyzing System Needs
      • Cont….
        • Organize the project team
          • Who does that ?
          • Define the information needs
          • - what kind of information will be needed?
          • - what tools should be used to get the information effectively?
          • Define the system performance criteria
          • Prepare the design proposal
    The SDLC Page 28-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase 3: Analyzing System Needs
      • Activities
        • Identify and describe complete problem specification
        • Studies and documents the current system – in terms of its problems, requirements for the new system
        • Prepares a list of requirements for the new system
        • Diagram the functions of the existing system necessary for the development of the new system
    The SDLC Page 29-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase 4: Designing the Recommended System
      • Design
        • The determination of the process and data that are required by a new system
        • Prepare the detailed systems design
        • Identify alternative system configurations
        • Evaluate alternative system configurations
        • Select the best configuration
        • Prepare the implementation proposal
        • Approve or reject the proposal
    The SDLC Page 30-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design Steps:
  • Phase 4: Designing the Recommended System
        • Design the user interface
          • Design Output
          • Design input
        • Design system controls
        • Design files and/or database
        • Produce program specifications
        • Produce decision trees or tables
    The SDLC Page 31-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase 5: Developing and Documenting Software
        • Design compute programs using structure charts, Nassi-Schneiderman Charts, Data Flow Diagram and Pseudo code
        • Walkthrough program design
        • Write computer programs
        • Document software with help files, procedures manuals, and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions
    The SDLC Page 32-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase 6: Testing and Maintaining the System
        • Test and debug computer programs
        • Test the computer system
        • Enhance system
        • Maintenance
        • Use the system
        • Audit the system
          • Conduct a post implementation review
        • Maintain the system
          • correct the errors
          • Keep the system current
          • Improve the system
    The SDLC Page 33-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design
  • Phase 7: Implementing and Evaluating the System
        • Implementation
        • The acquisition and integration of the physical and conceptual resources that produce a working system
        • Plan the implementation
        • Announce the implementation
        • Obtain the hardware resources
        • Obtain the software resources
        • Prepare the database
    The SDLC Page 34-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design Steps:
  • Phase 7: Implementing and Evaluating the System
        • Prepare the physical facilities
        • Educate the participants and users
        • Cut over to the new system
        • Conversion Methods:
        • Immediate / Direct
          • Outright conversion from old system to new system
          • Applicable to small firms/systems
        • Phased
        • Parallel
    The SDLC Page 35-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design Cont…
  • Phase 7: Implementing and Evaluating the System
        • Phased
          • The new system put into use one part at a time
          • Popular to large-scale systems
        • Parallel
          • Old system is implemented simultaneously with the new one
          • Greatest assurance against failure but most expensive
    The SDLC Page 36-43 DLSU-Dasmariñas-Cavite Systems Analysis and Design Cont…
  • Phase 7 (Continued)
    • Personnel involved:
      • Analyst.
      • System designer.
      • Programmers.
      • User management.
      • User operations workers.
      • Systems management.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 37-43
  • Rapid Application Development
    • Rapid Application development (RAD) is an object-oriented approach to systems development.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 38-43
  • System Maintenance
    • System maintenance is:
      • Removing undetected errors, and
      • Enhancing existing software.
    • Time spent on maintenance typically ranges from 48-60 percent of total time.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 39-43
  • Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 40-43
  • System Enhancements
    • Systems are enhanced for the following reasons:
      • Adding additional features to the system.
      • Business and governmental requirements change over time.
      • Technology, hardware, and software are rapidly changing.
    Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall -43
  • Kendall & Kendall 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall 43-