Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System.  Sectoral innovation systems : Lessons from catching-up economies
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Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System. Sectoral innovation systems : Lessons from catching-up economies

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  • Suite au diagnostic des financements actuels : le constat est le suivant : Les financements actuels sont modestes et n’apporte pas un appui nécessaire , ciblé et adapté aux cycles des projets de l’innovation. Se rajoute à cela , un problème relatif à la gouvernance des fonds , ce qui entrave leur utilisation optimale et leur impact .
  • D’où la nécessité de mettre place de nouveaux instruments de financement à même de combler les gaps existants et offrir des financements qui répondent aux besoins de l’ensemble de la chaine de valeur de l’innovation. Présentation des instruments : Un financement de projets RD technologiques associant les laboratoires et les entreprises, 50% du cout du projet plafonné à2Mdhs. Le Programme INTILAK , plafonné à 1mdhs destiné à soutenir les start up en phase de démarrage. La Prestation Technologique Réseau (PTR) qui a été rehaussée à 100 000 dhs au lieu de 60 000 dhs actuellement pour financer les diagnostics et prestations technologiques des PME ( sera lancé dés 2012) Le Programme TATWIR destiné à soutenir des projets de R&D portés par des entreprises ou des clusters en phase de développement. à hauteur de 50% du projet avec un plafond de 4 Mdhs. IMTIAZ (Existe déjà dans le cadre du PACTE) pour financer la croissance et l’investissement des entreprises. ( 20% du programme d’investissement avec un plafond de 5 Mdhs) - Un Fonds d’amorçage public privé de l’innovation (projet en cours)
  • Dans un souci d’efficacité et pour une meilleure gouvernance , la gestion des nouveaux instruments de financement de l’innovation sera assurée par le CMI : guichet unique pour les porteurs de projets innovants (start up et entreprises) Les entreprises auront un seul interlocuteur pour le dépôt de leur projets , dans le cadre d’appels à projets. Ils seront également accompagnés dans la préparation de leurs dossiers de financement . Le CMI aura un role aussi de suivi et d4évaluation des projets soutenus . - le comité d’évaluation et d’attibution aura pour mission d’approuver les projets à financer - l’ANPME et le CNRST auront un role de trésorier payeur vis-à-vis des projets soutenus.
  • Le CMI s’appuiera, pour mener à bien son rôle, sur une équipe dédiée organisée en trois pôles métier : Présentation des pôles Présentation des missions
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.
  • Le plan de développement des cités de l’innovation prévoit, dans sa première phase, de lancer en 2011 la réalisation de 4 cités de l’innovation en partenariat avec les Universités . Citer les villes concernées par la première phase.

Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System.  Sectoral innovation systems : Lessons from catching-up economies Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System. Sectoral innovation systems : Lessons from catching-up economies Presentation Transcript

  • European Tunisian Conference Introduction to the Moroccan Research and Innovation System. Sectoral Innovation Systems: Lessons from catching-up economiesIlyas AZZIOUI Date : 19 february 2013CNRST. Morocco European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Research Policy ty er s i of Univ e ica l r ol co nom 2009  Emergency Pgm c io-e & Morocco a so innovation rds T owa initiative 2005  Vision 2025 + 2003 2006-2010 PLAN 2000 1999 Evaluation of the  Research System + FSP launching COSEF Charter Law 01-00 Linking University- Role of the university in entreprise : priority the dvlpt of the country European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Knowledge Circulation Research to BusinessTechnology Dissemination Network (RDT) – Réseau de Diffusion de Technologie –. It focuses at matching needs in the enterprise sphere with competencies based at universities and public research centres. The objective is to accompany client compqnies in all stages of implementation of a technology strategy.The Moroccan Institute for Scientific and Technological Information (IMIST) – Institut Marocain de l’information Scientifique et Technique– leads efforts to improve links between industry and academia by providing online access to catalogues of research results and databases of competencies available in the universities and research organisations and carrying out technology watch activities mainly in the field of Agro-food.Morocco Spin-off/Spin-out and Incubation Network (RMIE) – Réseau Maroc Incubation et Essaimage –The RMIE supports a network of mainly “university based incubators”. It focuses on providing technical as well as financial support (Pre-seed capital to enable the development of the business idea into a credible business plan) to new technology based start-ups through a pre-incubation and incubation process.European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Research SystemEuropean Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Resources for R&D GDP (2010): € 67 billion Inter Coop GERD/GDP (2010): 0,73 %(2006): 3 %  GERD/GDP (2006): 0,64 %  GERD (2010): € 560 M  Inter Coop (2010):  1.5 % Public GERD Private GERD  (2010) (2006): 12 % 68 %   Private GERD Public GERD (2006) (2010): 30 % 82 % European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Societal Challemges for R&DAccording to the vision 2025, the main societal challenges that should drive Moroccan research in the future are:1. Education and training2. Access to basic services (infrastructure, potable water, electricity, health, etc.)3. Fight against poverty and social exclusion4. Other challenges: fight against drought’s effects, environment degradation, slums and diseases (AIDS, Malaria, etc.) European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Priorities for R&DThematic S&T Priorities are as follows:1. Agriculture in difficult conditions2. Improved quality of life3. Knowledge, preservation and valorisation of natural resources4. Environment and sustainable development5. Biotechnology6. Risk management7. Innovation and competitiveness of enterprises8. Cultural and socio-economic development European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • HR for R&D  There are 37246 researchers in the country (headcount, not full-time equivalent) out of which 12166 are faculty members who work in universities and 17686 are PhD student (2010)  According to the advisory report published by the Hassan II Academy of science and technology in 2009: Morocco has to train about 15000 (professors-researchers or full time researchers ) for the next decade to face the research quality requirements, the increasing number of students and retirement departures Researchers represented a share of 1,89/1000 of the economically active population in the age group 25-64 in 2005 Across disciplines, 37% of the R&D personnel belong to the field of Social and Human Sciences, 32% are in Natural and exact sciences, 22% operate in Engineering Sciences and 9% in Medical Sciences  In 2006, 12643 were registered as PhD students (56% in Social and Human Sciences) but only 785 theses were defended the same year (69% in Social and Human Sciences).European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Knowledge Production In a study using Scopus database and published by the Moroccan Scientific and Technical Information Institute (IMIST) in 2010, it was found that:  the Moroccan scientific production numbered 16120 publications between 1999 (1200 publications) and 2009 (2117 publications)  Distribution across scientific disciplines is as follows: 52% in Physical Sciences, Health Sciences 24%, Life Sciences 20%, and 4% only for Social Sciences. ESTIME project (Laville et al., 2007) investigating Thomson database found that :  The two disciplines for which the world share was the highest were mathematics (2,78‰) and chemistry (1,21‰).  The specialisation index for Morocco were, in 2004, mathematics (3.21), chemistry (1.39) and astro and geo-sciences (1.13).  The best world share of citations were in mathematics (0,91 ‰) and engineering (0,66‰).  The average impact index for Morocco was 0.28. The highest impact rates were registered in engineering (0.78) followed by chemistry (0.51), while medical research had the lowest one (0,12);European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Knowledge Production (Patents) Patents: The Moroccan Industrial and Commercial Property Office (OMPIC) received 1007 applications in 2010 against 929 applications in 2009. 151 were nationals and 856 were foreigners. 11 Moroccan universities applied for 40 patents in the same year. There is no evidence with regard to the socio- economic impacts of university patents. EPO and US PTO patenting is marginal.European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Other Policies Digital Morocco (Maroc numéric): A budget of € 520 million (5.2 billion DH) wasallocated to support the plan during the period 2009-2013. Launched by the Ministryof Industry, Trade and new technologies to promote the IT sector in Morocco, ( supportRDI activities, a seed capital fund (Maroc numeric fund), promotion and creation of newtechnoparks and incubators in different regions and last but not least the creation of aSoft Centre for software development (brings together public and private actors andoffers R&D services to Moroccan IT companies). GREEN MOROCCO PLAN (2010-2020) (Plan Maroc Vert) is a national strategybased on a new, ambitious and pragmatic vision for the promotion of the agriculturalsector in Morocco. Green Morocco Plan devised several measures to raise theagricultural GDP from € 7 to 10 billion (70 to 100 billion DH). Some of these measurescould have a direct or indirect impact on sectoral research in this field such as thecreation of new research centres, agro-poles. The Moroccan Solar Power Plan was launched November 2, 2009 in Ouarzazate byHRH the King Mohammed VI, with an investment cost estimated at 9 billion US dollars. Itis part of the Moroccan energy strategy aiming to increase electricity production andimplement five Concentrated Solar Power plant of a total power output of 2000 MW by2020. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Other Policies The National Pact for Industrial Emergence: Launched by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and new technologies, it focuses on export oriented economic sectors where Morocco could obtain a sustainable advantage and a high potential for growth. 1. off-shoring 2. textiles and clothing, 3. automobile 4. aeronautics, 5. electronics, 6. agro-food, 7. exploitation of marine resources and industrial crafts. 8. More recently high-tech sectors such as nanotechnology, biotechnology and microelectronics were added. Publicauthorities provided direct support of € 50 million (500 million DH) over five years to the MASCIR foundation to develop applied research in those fields.European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Knowledge Demand To support the National Pact for Industrial Emergence (2009-2015) a profiling of the human resources needs of each sector for the whole period of the programme (2009-2015) has been carried out. The main results are summarised in the following table: Sectors Managers Engineers Technicians Operators Total Off shoring 1 000 3000 10500 55000 70000 Automotive 1500 7000 9000 32500 70000 Aeronautics 300 1900 3000 9800 15000 Electronics 200 1400 2700 4700 9000 textiles and 300 2000 7500 24000 32000 leather Agro-food 500 500 8500 14500 24000 Total 3800 15800 39400 141000 220000 European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Knowledge Circulation Cross Border International cooperation played an important role in the emergence of researchactivities within universities . About 75 % of references recorded by SCI (1998-2002),were co-authored by Moroccans and authors from a variety of countries. 88.2% ofMoroccan research labs declared to have international collaboration(s) in 2003 (622were recorded), (66.4 % or 413) were with French, Spain (10.0 %), Belgium (4.7 %),Germany, Canada, and Italy (4 %) & USA was in 7th place (3.5 %). According to the advisory report of Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology(2009) co-publications of Moroccan researchers in 2008 were: 63,9% withresearchers from France, 13% Spain, 7,2% USA, 6,4% Italy, 5,5% Germany, 5,2%Canada. Out of 749 cooperation conventions by Moroccan universities, 578 are withEuropean universities, making 70% of the total. French universities have 63% ofcooperation conventions with Europe and 49% of all the conventions signed. Spainand Italy respectively registered a rate of 13% and 7% at the European level. Belgiumis rated fourth, with 30 conventions registering 5%. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Knowledge Circulation Cross Border ASBIMED identified about 31 bilateral programmes between Morocco and EUmember (France 14, Spain 6, Belgium 6, Germany 2, Portugal 2and Italy 1). Inaddition to agreements with EU member states Morocco has signed otheragreements with non EU countries, the most active ones are with the followingcountries: Tunisia; Egypt;USA. In 2011, the CNRST allocated € 290,000 to support collaboration with Frenchinstitutions (CNRS, INSERM, INRIA) and € 114,000 to support collaboration withinstitutions from other countries CSIC & CIEMAT (Spain), CNRi (Italy), DFG(Germany), FCT (Portugal), KOSEF (South Korea), ONRT (Hungary). CSIC stoppedcooperation with the CNRST for 2012 most probably because of budget constraints inSpain. European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Une initiative arrimée aux stratégies sectorielles INITIATIVE MAROC INNOVATIONMorocco Innovation www.mcinet.gov.ma 16Initiative
  • Knowledge Circulation “Valley of Death” Lac s k i k of lls The Darwinian Sea Basic Research Lack of Money Invention •Research & •Innovation: new Innovation •Invention Viable •business & Business New BusinessEuropean Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Financement : Etat des lieux Soutien du Produit RDT Programme RMIE: Produit Soutien à InnovAct: Fonds Soutien RDT, l’innovation et Soutien de Innovation TIC Innov Act la mise à niveau projets Soutien TIC technologique innovant 50% du plafonné à plafonné à 230 KDhs / coût limité 36 KDhs 50 KDhs projet à 2 000 TTC KDhs Construction du Identification et Lancement du Idée Développement Validation Business Plan formulation produitMontants insuffisants Cibles limitées Lisibilité faible
  • Innovation PolicyEuropean Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Innovation PolicyGovernance and framework: 1. Setting up a National Innovation Committee; 2. The creation of a dedicated structure (Moroccan innovation Centre); 3. Fostering a flexible and effective legal framework for innovationInfrastructure: 1. Technological infrastructures; 2. Technology transfer infrastructures (implementation of Innovation cities ); 3. Clusters.Funding & Support: 1. Developing a portfolio of products/schemes to support innovation; 2. Stimulation of the venture capital system; 3. Development of the intellectual property market; 4. Mobilisation of international funds for innovation.Attracting Talents: 1. Creation of the Moroccan Innovation Club; 2. Promotion of the innovation culture; 3. Positioning Morocco R&D and innovation offer.European Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Innovation Policy Morocco Innovation Initiative Achievements  Attracting Talents: Governance & Framework: Creation of CMI + Innovation bill Innovation Trophy + (incentives to innovative Moroccan Club of Innovation   startups, Recruit of PhDs) portal Funding & Support: Technological Infrastructure: Intilak (up to € 100,000) for start-   ups & Tatwir(up to € 400,000) for Creation of 4 clusters + Launching private applied R&D project of 4 Innovation CitiesEuropean Tunisian Conference Tunis, 18-19th February 2013
  • Financement: Mise en place de Nouveaux instruments Construction du Identification et Lancement duIdée Développement Validation Business Plan formulation produit
  • Centre Marocain de l’Innovation Comité de Suivi Pilotage opérationnel et décisionnelEntrepreneur Comité d’Evaluation Examen et sélection et d’Attribution CMI: Guichet unique CMI ANPMEntreprise E
  • Centre Marocain de l’Innovation Guichet uniqueMissions Missions  Promouvoir les instruments de financement de la R&D et de l’innovation  Assurer l’interface avec les bénéficiaires  Assurer le montage et la gestion des dossiers  Assurer l’interface avec le Comité de Suivi et le Comité d’Evaluation et d’Attribution et l’ANPME/CNRST  Conduire une pré-évaluation des projets suite aux appels à projets  Assurer le suivi des projets soutenus
  • Les Cités de l’Innovations: Un plan de développement régionale avec les universités Phase 1 : lancement en 2011 • Marrakech • Rabat • Fès Phase 2 : • Casablanca • Oujda • Agadir • Settat • Tétouan • Beni Mellal • El Jadida • Meknès
  • Structures de valorisation adossée aux grands projets• Agropôles• P2I – Plateformes Industrielles Intégrées• Technopolis• Technopark
  • Système d’innovation cible Comité Permanent Comité Permanent Interministériel de la Interministériel de la Recherche scientifique et du Recherche scientifique et du Développement Technologique Développement Technologique Comité National de Comité National de l’Innovation l’Innovation Centre Marocain de l’InnovationUNIVERSITESUNIVERSITES Assistance Coaching Partenariats Financement Centres Techniques Centres Techniques Projets R&D Projets R&D Services Diffusion Technologiques Entreprises Entreprises 27 Centres R&D publics et privés CNRST, MASCIR, INRA, INRH, CNESTEN, CRTS, REMINEX, CERPHOS….
  • Relevant issues to innovationWhy we need to innovate? How can we promote it? What linkages are there between research and innovation?Is it the same story across sectors( software, Auto, Agro-food, etc.)?
  • Catching up indifferent sectoral systems
  • Catching up indifferent sectoral systems
  • Catching up in different sectoral systemsWhat can we learn from the story of catch-up in six different sectors in emergingCountries (Taiwan, Korea, brazil, India, China, and others)?1.Pharmaceuticals (Science based),2.Semiconductors and telecom (design and engineering is important),3. Autos (scale intensive),4. Software (specialized supplier and service sectors),5.Agro-food (traditional sectors).
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectorsa) Firms learning: firms are the key actors in catch-up ,b) Pharmaceuticals (Science based),c) Semiconductors and telecom (design and engineering is important),d) Autos (scale intensive),e) Software (specialized supplier and service sectors),f) (Agro-food) traditional sectors.
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  firms are the key actors in catch-up , Learning Firms Learning and Capabilities development of domestic firms is a necessary condition for catch up because they provide the catching up country Access to foreign with the ability of absorbing foreign knowledge Knowledge & technology and adapting and modifying them to generate new knowledge andSkilled Human Capital products. Active Government Policy
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  the channels to which this access took place Firms Learning have differed (sector & country). from vertical networks with suppliers and users, to local networks, collaborative R&D or production Access to foreign agreements, to participation to the global value Knowledge chain or just outsourcing;  When access to foreign knowledge did notSkilled Human Capital take place, as in telecommunications in India and Brazil, the catch-up process has been Active Government seriously unpaired Policy
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  Important inward mobility form advanced Firms Learning countries of highly skilled human capital (scientists, engineers, technopreneurs) Diasporap and foreigners (consultants) were Access to foreign critical to the catch-up) KnowledgeSkilled Human Capital Active Government Policy
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Common features affecting catch-up in 6 sectors  In our 6 sectors government policy has indeed Firms Learning stimulated and fostered the learning processes and the capability formation of domestic firms with different intensity and tools. Access to foreign KnowledgeSkilled Human CapitalActive Government Policy
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  In automobile and telecom large firms have been major actors in the catch-up processIndustry Structure  in software and agro-food small firms have driven sectoral growth  New entrepreneurial firms, SMEs or large size,Demand and vertical characterize the pharmaceutical and the links semiconductor firms  local networks important for the catch-up Gov Policies process in semiconductors (Taiwan) , formal and informal interaction, knowledge sharing  Advent of technological and market Other elements discontinuities may favour either totally newcomers or established domestic companies. (Software in India Vs Telecom & Pharmaceuticals where knowledge is cumulative and strongly science based)
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Multinational companies played different roles :Industry Structure 1. software, pharmaceuticals and semiconductors: catching up countries had to specialize in some product range in the global value chain and ndDemand and vertical eventually move uo the learning ladder to more links advanced stages of production or research. Gov Policies 2. Telecom and Autos: the use of license from multinationals or from foreign firms, or joint ventures and alliances have been extensively used by domestic Other elements firms to learn and accumulate capabilities.
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Demand has entered catch-up in two ways: Industry Structure 1. Exports: have been the drivers of catch-up, for both small firms and large firms. This is theDemand and vertical case of semiconductors, telecom, links pharmaceuticals, software and auto. 2. Domestic Market: has been a major driver of the learning process and the accumulation of Gov Policies capability by domestic firms in Large countries such as China, India and Brazil; Other elements
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Government policy has differed in the useIndustry Structure of tools and measures 1. Telecom ( Korea and China) - public policy used R&D support, R&D consortia and publicDemand and vertical research organizations to help firms to move links into new generations of telecom technologies and products Gov Policies 2. In software governments have used different policies and tools, ranging from public procurement, to R&D support for SMEs, favourable companies tax rates and incentives Other elements to attract foreign direct investments
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  Standards, regulations and norms : forIndustry Structure relax IP laws were important for the catch-up of Pharmaceutical industry in India and BrazilDemand and vertical  Finance: VC (Private equity) critical for the links development of Software industry Gov Policies Other elements
  • Catching up in different sectoral systems Diffrences across sectoral systems  In some sectors such as Agriculture, health Universities & Public and Telecom Public research proved quiteResearch Laboratories relevant to domestic firms  In the other sectors the main role of universities was to provide advanced training for advanced human capital in the scientific, engineering and managerial fields. So they increase the absorptive capacity of the human capital for foreign cutting edge knowledge.
  • Conclusion
  • Thanks for your attention ! ‫! شكرا لصغائكم‬Feb 11th, 2013 CAAST Net Plus Kick-off meeting 44