What are Services?
∗ Services are a means of delivering value to customers
without requiring the customer to own specific of the
costs and ri...
What the types of Services?
∗ Core Service – meet customer needs
∗ Support Service – support core services
What the types of Services?
What is Service Management?
Service Management is a set of specialized capabilities
for delivering value to customers in the form of
services. ITIL® i...
Explain Processes
∗ Processes are structured sets of activities designed to
achieve a specific objective. Processes have four basic
characte...
Explain Functions
∗ Functions are self-contained subsets of an organization
intended to accomplish specific tasks. They usually take
the for...
Explain Roles
∗ Roles are defined collections of specific
responsibilities and privileges. Roles may be held by
individuals or teams. In...
Know about Important Roles
∗ Service Owner -- Accountable for the overall design, performance, integration, improvement,
and management of a single s...
∗ Capacity Manager:
Ensure adequate performance and capacity for all IT services *Capacity Plan *Oversee
Performance and C...
What is RACI?
∗ Those in the R = RESPONSIBLE role for a given activity are
charged with actually executing or performing the activity
or...
What is Service Strategy
∗ Service Strategy offers value to Service Providers and
customers by:
∗ Ensuring that the services they offer align with ...
∗ Service Level Package (SLP)
(also Service Portfolio)
What is the Service Strategy Output?
What are the Service Strategy Processes
∗ Service Portfolio Management
∗ Demand Management Analysis of (PBA) * reduce
excess capacity the satisfy customer require...
What are Service Strategy Activities?
∗ Define Market
∗ Develop Offerings
∗ Develop Strategic Assets
∗ Preparing for Execution
What are Service Strategy Activit...
What are the work methods of SPM?
∗ Define
∗ Analyze
∗ Approve
∗ Charter
What are the work methods of SPM?
What is a Service Package
∗ A Service Package provides a detailed
∗ description of package of bundled services
∗ available to be delivered to Custom...
What is Service Level Package
Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service
Package
What is Service Level Package
What is a Business Case?
A Business Case is a structured and documented justification
for investment in something expected to deliver value in
retu...
What is Utility?
∗ Fit for Purpose
∗ The positive effect on business processes, activities,
objects and tasks. This could be the removal of...
What is Warranty?
∗ Fit for use
What is Warranty?
What are Service Assets?
∗ Service Assets or (more generally) assets refer to the
resources and capabilities which a Service Provider
must allocate...
What are the Strategic Assets?
∗ Service management as a profession
∗ Processes
∗ Capabilities
What are the Strategic Assets?
What are Resources?
∗ Resources are the raw materials which contribute to a
service, such as money, equipment, time, staff, etc.
Includes: fin...
What are Capabilities?
∗ Capabilities are the specialized skills or
abilities an organization applies to resources
in order to create value. Capa...
What is the Service Catalog?
∗ The Service Catalog is the subset of the
Service Portfolio which contains services
currently available to customers and ...
What is the Service Pipeline?
∗ Services planned or under development
What is the Service Pipeline?
What is the Service Portfolio?
∗ The Service Portfolio
∗ The Service Portfolio is the entire set of services under management by
a Service Provider. It c...
What Questions does the Service
Portfolio answer?
∗ • Why should a customer buy these services?
∗ • Why should they buy these services from
us?
∗ • What are the pricing or ...
What is the Service Belt?
∗ In the course of delivering services, Service
Provider assets are engaged with customer
assets as a means of increasing ...
What is Service Design?
∗ The Service Design lifecycle phase is about the design
of services and all supporting elements for
introduction into the...
What are the Inputs and Outputs of
Service Design?
∗ Input: Service Level Package (SLP)
∗ Output Service Design Package
What are the Inputs and Outputs of
Service Design?
How does Service Design offer Value?
∗ Ensuring that services are aligned with business objectives
∗ Ensuring that services are able to provide the utility and...
What are the 4 Ps of Service
Design?
∗ 1. People – Human resources and organizational
structures required to support the service
∗ 2. Processes – Service Manag...
What are the 5 Aspects of Service
Design
∗ 1. The new or changed service itself – with special attention to
service requirements
∗ 2. Service Management processes ...
What are the Service Design
Processes?
∗ Service Level Management
∗ Service Catalog Management
Business service catalog (business view)– technical service catalo...
What is Service Catalog
Management?
∗ Service Catalog Management involves management and control of the
Service Catalog which contains information about servi...
What is ITSG?
∗ IT Steering Group
What is ITSG?
What is Availability Management?
∗ The Availability Management process is concerned
with management and achievement of agreed
availability requirements as ...
What are the elements of
Availability Management
∗ Availability
∗ Reliability: Freedom from operational failure.
∗ Resilience: The ability to withstand failure.
∗ Maintain...
What is Capacity Management?
∗ Capacity Management is concerned with ensuring
that cost-effective capacity exists at all times which
meets or exceeds t...
What are the Activities of Capacity
Management?
∗ Business Capacity Management (BCM) addresses capacity
factors which exist primarily at the business level such as
merger...
What are the Capacity Management
Activities?
∗ 1. Performance Monitoring - Measuring, monitoring, and tuning the
performance of IT
∗ Infrastructure components.
∗ 2. De...
∗ Counter Measures:
∗ Manual Workaround:
∗ Gradual recovery:
∗ Intermediate Recovery:
∗ Immediate Recovery:
∗ Reciprocal A...
∗ Counter Measures: Measures to prevent or recover from disaster
∗ Manual Workaround: Using non-IT based solution to overc...
What is IT Security Management?
∗ IT Security Management is the process
concerned with the protection of IT assets
(including services) from security thre...
What does IT Security Management
Focus on?
∗ Confidentiality – Assurance that the asset is only available to
appropriate parties
∗ Integrity -- Assurance that the as...
What is Supplier Management?
∗ Supplier Management is the process charged
with obtaining value for money from third-
party suppliers. Supplier Manageme...
What is Service Transition?
∗ Service Transition is concerned with management of
change and, more specifically, with the introduction
of new and chang...
∗ Major Input: Service Design Package
∗ Major Output: Service Transition Package
What are the Service transition
Inputs an...
What are the Benefits of Service
Transition?
∗ Enabling business change
∗ Minimizing impact to the business which might otherwise result
from unmanaged change
∗ Enabli...
What are the Service Transition
Processes?
∗ Change Management
∗ Service Asset and Configuration Management
∗ Release and Deployment Management
∗ Transition Planning...
What is the Service V model?
∗ The Service V-Model defines progressive levels
activity and corresponding levels of testing/validition
toward a define o...
Service V Model part II
What are the Change Types?
∗ Normal Changes are changes which meet predefined criteria that
qualify them for handling via the Normal Change Managemen...
Name the Change Activities
Name the Change Activities
What is the CAB?
∗ Change Advisory Board
∗ The Change Advisory Board or CAB is a group of
experts convened by the Change Manager to advise
...
What are the 7 Rs?
∗ Who RAISED the change?
∗ What is the REASON for the change?
∗ What is the RETURN required from the change?
∗ What are th...
What is a Change Model?
∗ Change Model is a template or pre-defined set of
steps, procedures, and guidelines for execution a
specific type of chan...
What is a Release/Unit/Baseline
∗ A release is a collection of changes which must be implemented together in
order accomplish a specific objective or set ...
∗ Major - A major release usually introduces new capabilities or functions. Major releases may
accumulate all the changes ...
What is CMS?
∗ The Configuration Management System is the controlled
repository and interfaces for management of information
concerning...
What is a CI
∗ Configuration Item or CI is anything which has
significance for the delivery of an IT Service.
Configuration Items can i...
What is Service Operation
∗ The Service Operation phase of the Service
Lifecycle is concerned with ensuring that services
operate within agreed para...
∗ Input: Service Transition Package
∗ Output: Value to the Customers
What are the Service Operation Inputs
and Outputs
What are the Service Operation
Processes?
∗ Incident Management
∗ Problem Management
∗ Event Management
∗ Service Request Fulfillment
∗ Access Management
What are t...
What are the Service Operation
Functions?
∗ Service desk
∗ Technical Management
∗ IT Operations Management
∗ IT Applications Management
What are the Service Operati...
What is a Service Desk?
∗ The Service Desk provides a single point of contact
between users and the IT organization. The Service
Desk processes in...
What are the Types of Service Desks?
∗ Local – Users and support staff are located on the same premises
or campus.
∗ Centralized -- Multiple user locations are...
What is Operations Management?
∗ IT Operations Management is concerned with the
day-to-day maintenance of the IT infrastructure and
the facilities which ...
What are the components of Operations
Management?
∗ The Operations Control sub-function is concerned with regular
maintenance cycles associated with infrastructure manageme...
What is Technical Management?
∗ The Technical Management function is charged with
procurement, development, and management of the
technical skill sets a...
What is Application Management?
∗ Application Management is concerned with the
end-to-end management of applications in the
environment. Like Technical Ma...
Service Operations Balance
∗ External v.s. Internal
∗ Stability v.s. Responsiveness
∗ Quality v.s. Cost
∗ Reactive vs Proactive
Service Operations Ba...
Service Operations adds Value by:
∗ Ensuring that services are operated within expected
performance parameters
∗ Restoring services quickly in the event of ...
What is an Incident?
∗ An incident is any occurrence which causes or may
cause interruption or degradation to an IT Service.
What is an Inciden...
Incident management steps
∗ Identified
∗ Logged
∗ Categorized
∗ Prioritized
∗ Diagnosed
∗ Escalated: Functional or Hierarchical
∗ Resolution Recover...
What is a Problem?
Definition:
A cause of one or more Incidents. The cause is not
usually known at the time a Problem Record is
created, and ...
What is an Error?
∗ An error is the known underlying cause of one or
more incidents.
What is an Error?
What is a Known Error?
∗ A known error is the known cause of an incident (a
problem) for which a workaround also exists.
What is a Known Error?
What is an Event?
∗ An event is any change of state of an infrastructure or
other item which has significance for the delivery of a
service....
What are the Event types:
∗ Regular operation e.g. logins etc
∗ Exception e.g. exception
∗ Unusual e.g. slow response, thresholds
What are the Event...
What is CSI
∗ Continual Service Improvement is about the
alignment and re-alignment of services, processes,
functions, etc. with chang...
Approach to Improvement
(CSI Model)?
∗ What is the Vision
∗ Where are we now? (baselines)
∗ Where do we want to be (targets)
∗ How do we get there?
∗ Did we ge...
SIP II
The 7 Step Improvement Process
∗ Decide what should be measured
∗ Decide what can be measured
∗ Gather the data
∗ Process the data
∗ Analyze the data
∗ P...
What are the CSI Inputs and Outputs
∗ Inputs:
Metrics and measurements from other stages of service
lifecycle
Outputs: Improvements
What are the CSI Inputs an...
How Does CSI Offer Value?
∗ Ensuring that services, processes, and other aspects
of the Service Management effort are aligned with
business objectiv...
Questions to ask about measuring
∗ Why are we measuring
∗ When do we stop measuring
∗ Is anyone using this
∗ Do we still need this
Questions to ask about m...
Explain the Role of Measurement
∗ To JUSTIFY a proposed course of action
∗ To DIRECT activity
∗ To INTERVENE when corrective action is required
∗ To VALID...
3 types of metrics
∗ Service metrics
∗ Process metrics
∗ Technology metrics
3 types of metrics
Name the CSI Hierarchy of Activities?
∗ Objectives establish the reason for measurement. Measurement in itself has
no value. Rather, it only has value inasmuch ...
Explain the Deming Cycle
∗ The Deming Cycle is an improvement model originally
created by W. Edwards Deming and used to great
success in the Japane...
Explain the SIP
∗ Service Improvement Plan (SIP)
∗ A Service Improvement Plan or Service
Improvement Program is the primary output of
peri...
What are the CSI Processes?• Service Level Management*
• Service Measurement & Reporting
• Continual Service Improvement (...
What is Bounded Rationality?
∗ ‘Bounded rationality’ refers to the limits which
constrain humans’ ability to entertain more than a
few factors at a tim...
What are the Information Systems
Discussed Within ITIL
∗ Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS)
∗ Service Portfolio/Catalog
∗ Availability Management Information System (AMI...
Name some ITIL Automation Tips
∗ Use of automation to identify patterns and trends in large data sets such as event
logs, incident logs, etc.
∗ Use of au...
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  1. 1. What are Services?
  2. 2. ∗ Services are a means of delivering value to customers without requiring the customer to own specific of the costs and risks. What are Services?
  3. 3. What the types of Services?
  4. 4. ∗ Core Service – meet customer needs ∗ Support Service – support core services What the types of Services?
  5. 5. What is Service Management?
  6. 6. Service Management is a set of specialized capabilities for delivering value to customers in the form of services. ITIL® is a framework for IT Service Management. (Processes and Functions) What is Service Management
  7. 7. Explain Processes
  8. 8. ∗ Processes are structured sets of activities designed to achieve a specific objective. Processes have four basic characteristics: ∗ 1. They transform inputs into outputs ∗ 2. They deliver results [value] to a specific customer or stakeholder ∗ 3. They are measurable ∗ 4. They are triggered by specific events Explain Processes
  9. 9. Explain Functions
  10. 10. ∗ Functions are self-contained subsets of an organization intended to accomplish specific tasks. They usually take the form of a team or group of people and the tools they use. ∗ Whereas processes help organizations accomplish specific objectives--often across multiple functional groups-- functions add structure and stability to organizations. Functions generally map fairly directly to the organizational chart of an organization and are usually supported by budgets and reporting structures. Processes, by contract, typically do not have budgets and reporting structures. Both functions and processes involve roles Explain Functions
  11. 11. Explain Roles
  12. 12. ∗ Roles are defined collections of specific responsibilities and privileges. Roles may be held by individuals or teams. Individuals and teams may hold more than one role. Explain Roles
  13. 13. Know about Important Roles
  14. 14. ∗ Service Owner -- Accountable for the overall design, performance, integration, improvement, and management of a single service. ∗ Process Owner -- Accountable for the overall design, performance, integration, improvement, and management of a single process. Responsible for ensuring that the process is fit for purpose and is accountable for the outputs of that process. ∗ Service Manager -- Accountable for the development, performance, and improvement of all services in the environment. ∗ Product Manager – Accountable for development, performance, and improvement of a group of related services. ∗ Process Manager responsible for the operational management of a process ∗ Availability Manager Ensure adequate availability of all IT services, Develop and maintain Availability Plan, oversee availability monitoring and improvement of the process, report provision and advice ∗ Change Manager administration of all RFC * Prepare RFCs for CAB meetings, FSC for Service Desk *Authorize (or reject) changes Know About Important Roles
  15. 15. ∗ Capacity Manager: Ensure adequate performance and capacity for all IT services *Capacity Plan *Oversee Performance and Capacity monitoring & alerting *Report provision and advice ∗ Release & Deployment Manager: Drive effectiveness & efficiency of process * Manage release management team * Liaise with Change & Configuration Management, IT platform managers, Application Developers etc ∗ Incident Manager: Drive effectiveness & efficiency of process * Manage incident management team * Ensure SLA targets for Incident resolution are met ∗ Problem Manager Drive effectiveness & efficiency of process * Manage the Problem Management team * Liaise with customers, IT executive, IT platform managers ∗ Service Level Manager: ∗ • Must be senior enough to represent organization; with authority to do what is necessary * Manages Service Catalogue, SLAs and OLAs and ensures alignment of Underpinning Contracts* Identifies and manages improvements to services and processes * Analyses and reports on Service Level Achievements Important Roles Continued
  16. 16. What is RACI?
  17. 17. ∗ Those in the R = RESPONSIBLE role for a given activity are charged with actually executing or performing the activity or task. ∗ The single entity in the A = ACCOUNTABLE role owns the task or activity and must answer for its outcomes. Only one party can be accountable for a given task/activity. ∗ Those in the C = CONSULTED role review and provide advice and authorization around the task or activity. ∗ Those in the I = INFORMED role receive updates as the task or activity progresses What is RACI
  18. 18. What is Service Strategy
  19. 19. ∗ Service Strategy offers value to Service Providers and customers by: ∗ Ensuring that the services they offer align with business objectives. ∗ Ensuring that the services they offer are likely to offer value. ∗ Ensuring that customers can be charged for the services or that some mechanism exists by which the services allow the value offered by the Service Provider to be recognized. ∗ Ensuring that the Service Provider is in a position to handle the costs and risks associated with the services it offers. What is Service Strategy
  20. 20. ∗ Service Level Package (SLP) (also Service Portfolio) What is the Service Strategy Output?
  21. 21. What are the Service Strategy Processes
  22. 22. ∗ Service Portfolio Management ∗ Demand Management Analysis of (PBA) * reduce excess capacity the satisfy customer requirements ∗ Financial Management Funding - IT Accounting - Chargeback What are the Service Strategy Processes
  23. 23. What are Service Strategy Activities?
  24. 24. ∗ Define Market ∗ Develop Offerings ∗ Develop Strategic Assets ∗ Preparing for Execution What are Service Strategy Activities?
  25. 25. What are the work methods of SPM?
  26. 26. ∗ Define ∗ Analyze ∗ Approve ∗ Charter What are the work methods of SPM?
  27. 27. What is a Service Package
  28. 28. ∗ A Service Package provides a detailed ∗ description of package of bundled services ∗ available to be delivered to Customers. The ∗ contents of a Service Package includes: ∗ • The core services provided ∗ • Any supporting services provided ∗ (often the excitement factors) ∗ • The Service Level Package What is Service Package
  29. 29. What is Service Level Package
  30. 30. Defines level of utility and warranty provided by Service Package What is Service Level Package
  31. 31. What is a Business Case?
  32. 32. A Business Case is a structured and documented justification for investment in something expected to deliver value in return, e.g. an IT Service. Business Cases are used during Service Strategy to evaluate the feasibility and desirability of creating and providing various IT Services. ∗ Return on Investment (ROI)/Value on Investment (VOI) ∗ Return on Investment and Value on Investment ∗ Value: Utility and Warranty ∗ The value of service consists of two components: utility and warranty. Services must offer both utility and warranty in order to have value. What is a Business Case?
  33. 33. What is Utility?
  34. 34. ∗ Fit for Purpose ∗ The positive effect on business processes, activities, objects and tasks. This could be the removal of constraints that improves performance or some other positive effect that improves the outcomes managed and focused on by the customer and business. What is Utility?
  35. 35. What is Warranty?
  36. 36. ∗ Fit for use What is Warranty?
  37. 37. What are Service Assets?
  38. 38. ∗ Service Assets or (more generally) assets refer to the resources and capabilities which a Service Provider must allocate in order to offer a service. What are Service Assets
  39. 39. What are the Strategic Assets?
  40. 40. ∗ Service management as a profession ∗ Processes ∗ Capabilities What are the Strategic Assets?
  41. 41. What are Resources?
  42. 42. ∗ Resources are the raw materials which contribute to a service, such as money, equipment, time, staff, etc. Includes: financial capital, infrastructure, applications, information, people Hard assets, tangible What are Resources?
  43. 43. What are Capabilities?
  44. 44. ∗ Capabilities are the specialized skills or abilities an organization applies to resources in order to create value. Capabilities include such things as skills, organization, processes, management, etc. Resources and capabilities are both types of assets ∗ Include: Management, organization, processes, knowledge, people Soft assets, intangible What are Capabilities?
  45. 45. What is the Service Catalog?
  46. 46. ∗ The Service Catalog is the subset of the Service Portfolio which contains services currently available to customers and users. The Service Catalog is often the only portion of the Service Portfolio visible to customers. Typically the Service Catalog is implemented as a database and is often web-accessible. The Service Catalog commonly acts as the entry portal for all information regarding services in What is the Service Catalog?
  47. 47. What is the Service Pipeline?
  48. 48. ∗ Services planned or under development What is the Service Pipeline?
  49. 49. What is the Service Portfolio?
  50. 50. ∗ The Service Portfolio ∗ The Service Portfolio is the entire set of services under management by a Service Provider. It consists of three major parts: Service Pipeline, Service Catalog, and Retired Services. Services in the Service Portfolio may be: ∗ Under consideration ∗ In design ∗ In development ∗ In testing ∗ In operation ∗ Retired Pipeline + Catalog + Retired Service Portfolio
  51. 51. What Questions does the Service Portfolio answer?
  52. 52. ∗ • Why should a customer buy these services? ∗ • Why should they buy these services from us? ∗ • What are the pricing or chargeback models? ∗ • What are our strengths and weaknesses, priorities and risk? ∗ • How are resources and capabilities to be allocated? What Questions does the Service Portfolio answer?
  53. 53. What is the Service Belt?
  54. 54. ∗ In the course of delivering services, Service Provider assets are engaged with customer assets as a means of increasing the performance of customer assets. This causes customer demand for services. Customers express that demand by purchasing services which in turn transfers resources to the Service Provider. The Service Provider uses payment to replace or augment assets it uses to provide the services. This cycle is known as Service Belt
  55. 55. What is Service Design?
  56. 56. ∗ The Service Design lifecycle phase is about the design of services and all supporting elements for introduction into the live environment. What is Service Design
  57. 57. What are the Inputs and Outputs of Service Design?
  58. 58. ∗ Input: Service Level Package (SLP) ∗ Output Service Design Package What are the Inputs and Outputs of Service Design?
  59. 59. How does Service Design offer Value?
  60. 60. ∗ Ensuring that services are aligned with business objectives ∗ Ensuring that services are able to provide the utility and warranty required for them to meet the objectives outlined during Service Strategy ∗ Ensuring that service management systems and tools are capable of supporting service offerings ∗ Ensuring that service-e management processes are capable of supporting service offerings ∗ Ensuring that services are constructed according to agreed architectural standards ∗ Ensuring that services are designed so as to be implemented efficiently ∗ Ensuring that services are designed so that their performance can be measured How does Service Design offer Value?
  61. 61. What are the 4 Ps of Service Design?
  62. 62. ∗ 1. People – Human resources and organizational structures required to support the service ∗ 2. Processes – Service Management Processes required to support the service ∗ 3. Products – Technology and other infrastructure required to support the service ∗ 4. Partners – Third parties which provide services What are the 4 Ps of Service Design?
  63. 63. What are the 5 Aspects of Service Design
  64. 64. ∗ 1. The new or changed service itself – with special attention to service requirements ∗ 2. Service Management processes required to support the service ∗ 3. Service Management systems and tools required to support the service (especially the Service Portfolio) ∗ 4. Technology Architectures used or referenced by the service ∗ 5. Measurement systems and metrics necessary to understand the performance of the service What are the 5 Aspects of Service Design?
  65. 65. What are the Service Design Processes?
  66. 66. ∗ Service Level Management ∗ Service Catalog Management Business service catalog (business view)– technical service catalog (technical view) ∗ Availability Management ∗ Capacity Management BUSINESS, SERVICE, COMPONENT (TECHNOLOGY) CMIS: CAPACITY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ∗ IT Service Continuity Management ∗ IT Security Management ITSCM – IT Service continuity management What are the Service Design Processes?
  67. 67. What is Service Catalog Management?
  68. 68. ∗ Service Catalog Management involves management and control of the Service Catalog which contains information about services currently available to customers for use. Typically such information includes: ∗  Features of the service ∗  Guidelines for appropriate use of the service ∗  Means of accessing the service ∗  Pricing information (where relevant) ∗  Key contact information What is Service Catalog Management?
  69. 69. What is ITSG?
  70. 70. ∗ IT Steering Group What is ITSG?
  71. 71. What is Availability Management?
  72. 72. ∗ The Availability Management process is concerned with management and achievement of agreed availability requirements as established in Service Level Agreements. In ITIL®, availability is defined as the ability of a system, service, or configuration item to perform its function when required. What is Availability Management?
  73. 73. What are the elements of Availability Management
  74. 74. ∗ Availability ∗ Reliability: Freedom from operational failure. ∗ Resilience: The ability to withstand failure. ∗ Maintainability: ∗ Serviceability ∗ Security: ∗ Vital Business Function (VBF): What are the elements of Availability Management
  75. 75. What is Capacity Management?
  76. 76. ∗ Capacity Management is concerned with ensuring that cost-effective capacity exists at all times which meets or exceeds the agreed needs of the business as established in Service Level Agreements. In ITIL®, capacity is defined as the maximum throughput a service, system, or device can handle. What is Capacity Management?
  77. 77. What are the Activities of Capacity Management?
  78. 78. ∗ Business Capacity Management (BCM) addresses capacity factors which exist primarily at the business level such as mergers, acquisitions, plans for new facilities, reductions in force, etc. Typically, BCM factors are addressed first in the overall Capacity Management effort. ∗ Service Capacity Management (SCM) addresses capacity factors at the service level. Business capacity factors in turn drive Service capacity requirements. The primary task of Service Capacity Management is to translate business capacity factors into capacity requirements for services. ∗ Component Capacity Management (CCM) addresses capacity factors at the level of components or Configuration Items. The primary task of CCM is to translate Service Capacity What are the Activities of Capacity Management?
  79. 79. What are the Capacity Management Activities?
  80. 80. ∗ 1. Performance Monitoring - Measuring, monitoring, and tuning the performance of IT ∗ Infrastructure components. ∗ 2. Demand Management - Short term reactive implementation of strategies considered ∗ in Service Strategy to manage current demand ∗ 3. Application Sizing - Determining the hardware or network capacity to support new or ∗ modified applications and the predicted workload. ∗ 4. Modeling - Used to forecast the behavior of the infrastructure under certain conditions. (e.g. if the number of users doubled, if a network link fails) ∗ 5. Tuning – Modifications made for better utilizations of current infrastructure ∗ 6. Storage of Capacity Management Data ∗ 7. Capacity Planning What are the Capacity Management Activities?
  81. 81. ∗ Counter Measures: ∗ Manual Workaround: ∗ Gradual recovery: ∗ Intermediate Recovery: ∗ Immediate Recovery: ∗ Reciprocal Arrangement: Continuity Management Definitions
  82. 82. ∗ Counter Measures: Measures to prevent or recover from disaster ∗ Manual Workaround: Using non-IT based solution to overcome IT service disruption ∗ Gradual recovery: Aka Cold standby (>72hrs to recover from a ‘Disaster’) ∗ Intermediate Recovery: Aka Warm standby (24-72hrs to recover from a ‘Disaster’) ∗ Immediate Recovery: Aka Hot standby (< 24hrs, usually implies 1- 2 hrs to recover from a ∗ ‘Disaster) ∗ Reciprocal Arrangement: Agreement with another similar sized company to share disaster ∗ recovery obligations Continuity Management Definitions
  83. 83. What is IT Security Management?
  84. 84. ∗ IT Security Management is the process concerned with the protection of IT assets (including services) from security threats. IT Security Management is driven the larger security management efforts and policies of the organization. IT Security Management is charged development and management of the IT Security Policy which is executed and implemented as a part of the Access What is IT Security Management?
  85. 85. What does IT Security Management Focus on?
  86. 86. ∗ Confidentiality – Assurance that the asset is only available to appropriate parties ∗ Integrity -- Assurance that the asset has not been modified by unauthorized parties ∗ Availability -- Assurance that that asset may be utilized when required ∗ Authenticity -- Assurance that transactions and the identities of parties to transactions are genuine ∗ Non-Repudiation -- Assurance that transactions, once completed, What does IT Security Management Focus on?
  87. 87. What is Supplier Management?
  88. 88. ∗ Supplier Management is the process charged with obtaining value for money from third- party suppliers. Supplier Management plays a very similar role to that of Service Level Management, but with respect to external suppliers rather than internal suppliers and internal/external customers. Supplier Management is critical to effective design because for nearly all IT organizations, dependency on external suppliers is increasingly central to their ability to deliver services to their own customers. What is Supplier Management?
  89. 89. What is Service Transition?
  90. 90. ∗ Service Transition is concerned with management of change and, more specifically, with the introduction of new and changed services into the live environment What is Service Transition?
  91. 91. ∗ Major Input: Service Design Package ∗ Major Output: Service Transition Package What are the Service transition Inputs and Outputs
  92. 92. What are the Benefits of Service Transition?
  93. 93. ∗ Enabling business change ∗ Minimizing impact to the business which might otherwise result from unmanaged change ∗ Enabling the business to make use of new and changed services ∗ Ensuring that designs for services are implemented as intended ∗ Ensuring that the Service Management organization is prepared to support new and changed services What are the Benefits of Service Transition?
  94. 94. What are the Service Transition Processes?
  95. 95. ∗ Change Management ∗ Service Asset and Configuration Management ∗ Release and Deployment Management ∗ Transition Planning and Support ∗ Service Validation and Testing ∗ Service Evaluation ∗ Knowledge Management What are the Service Transition Processes?
  96. 96. What is the Service V model?
  97. 97. ∗ The Service V-Model defines progressive levels activity and corresponding levels of testing/validition toward a define objective such as a release or major change. Testing at each level prior to moving to the next level helps progressively reduce risk. What is the Service V model?
  98. 98. Service V Model part II
  99. 99. What are the Change Types?
  100. 100. ∗ Normal Changes are changes which meet predefined criteria that qualify them for handling via the Normal Change Management process. ∗ Standard Changes are changes which are pre-approved for implementation. Generally, Standard Changes are low risk and occur frequently in the environment. Examples might include such things as: ∗ Password resets ∗ New hire procedures ∗ Office moves ∗ Emergency Changes What are the Change Types?
  101. 101. Name the Change Activities
  102. 102. Name the Change Activities
  103. 103. What is the CAB?
  104. 104. ∗ Change Advisory Board ∗ The Change Advisory Board or CAB is a group of experts convened by the Change Manager to advise on the approval or rejection and planning for a specific change. The membership of the CAB usually varies with the change under consideration – consists of stakeholders What is the CAB? Sometimes there is a higher level of change authorization: Change Authority
  105. 105. What are the 7 Rs?
  106. 106. ∗ Who RAISED the change? ∗ What is the REASON for the change? ∗ What is the RETURN required from the change? ∗ What are the RISKS involved in the change? ∗ What RESOURCES are required to deliver the change? ∗ Who is RESPONSIBLE for the build, test and implementation of the change? ∗ What is the RELATIONSHIP between this change and other changes? What are the 7 Rs?
  107. 107. What is a Change Model?
  108. 108. ∗ Change Model is a template or pre-defined set of steps, procedures, and guidelines for execution a specific type of change. Change Models are used to help minimize risk, save costs, and improve the consistency of execution around changes What is a Change Model?
  109. 109. What is a Release/Unit/Baseline
  110. 110. ∗ A release is a collection of changes which must be implemented together in order accomplish a specific objective or set of objectives. ∗ A Release Unit is the particular set of configuration items released together for a specific deployment effort. The Release Unit for a release is selected as part of the Release and Deployment Management process based upon both technical and business criteria. For example, for the deployment of an accounting package the release unit might be determined to be the accounts payable and payroll modules, but not the tax computation module. ∗ In the context of Service Transition generally and, more specifically, in the context of the Service Asset and Configuration Management process, the term Baseline refers to the documented and validated configuration of a component, system, service, etc. Baselines are used within Service Asset and Configuration Management to provide a roll-back point useful in managing risk around changes in the environment. What is a Release/Unit/Baseline
  111. 111. ∗ Major - A major release usually introduces new capabilities or functions. Major releases may accumulate all the changes from previous minor releases. Major releases advance the version number by a full increment, for example, from version 5.70 to version 6. ∗ Significant ∗ Minor - Minor releases incorporate a number of fixes for known problems into the baseline, or trusted state, of a item. Minor releases usually increment the version number at the first decimal place. For example, version 6.10 would change to version 6.20. ∗ Emergency - Emergency releases are quick fixes to repair unexpected problems or temporary measures to prevent the interruption of critical services. Emergency releases increment the version number at the second decimal place, for example, from 3.1 to 3.1.1. Delta release - A delta release only includes the elements of a hardware or software CI that have changed. The changes are added to the existing version of the CI. In delta releases, it's not always possible to test how changes will affect the rest of the live environment. ∗ Full release - A full release includes all the elements of a hardware or software CI, even those that have not changed. In full releases, the effect of the changes is more carefully tested and less likely to cause incidents during implementation. ∗ Package release - A package release rolls the changes to different CIs into a single release. This release may include changes to hardware and software CIs and can contain delta and full releases. Package releases minimize disruptions in the IT environment. Release Management
  112. 112. What is CMS?
  113. 113. ∗ The Configuration Management System is the controlled repository and interfaces for management of information concerning items under configuration control (Configuration Items) in the environment. The purpose of the CMS is to provide accurate and up-to-date information regarding how the environment is configured. The CMS stores records of Configuration Items in the Configuration Management Database (CMDB). Importantly, the CMS/CMDB differs from a traditional asset database in that it also provides information regarding how Configuration Items are related to each other. What is CMS?
  114. 114. What is a CI
  115. 115. ∗ Configuration Item or CI is anything which has significance for the delivery of an IT Service. Configuration Items can include hardware and software, but also documentation, process definitions, facilities, etc. Configuration Items are tracked using the Configuration Management System which stores records of them in the Configuration Management Database (CMDB). At a bare minimum, the record of a Configuration Item should include a unique identifier and the location of the CI. What is a CI?
  116. 116. What is Service Operation
  117. 117. ∗ The Service Operation phase of the Service Lifecycle is concerned with ensuring that services operate within agreed parameters. When service interruptions do occur, Service Operation is charged with restoring service as quickly as possible and with minimizing the impact to the business. ∗ Service Operation is the only lifecycle phase in which value is actually realized by customers. Whereas all other phases of the Service Lifecycle contribute to and enable value, it is only experienced during Service Operation. What is Service Operation
  118. 118. ∗ Input: Service Transition Package ∗ Output: Value to the Customers What are the Service Operation Inputs and Outputs
  119. 119. What are the Service Operation Processes?
  120. 120. ∗ Incident Management ∗ Problem Management ∗ Event Management ∗ Service Request Fulfillment ∗ Access Management What are the Service Operation Processes?
  121. 121. What are the Service Operation Functions?
  122. 122. ∗ Service desk ∗ Technical Management ∗ IT Operations Management ∗ IT Applications Management What are the Service Operation Functions?
  123. 123. What is a Service Desk?
  124. 124. ∗ The Service Desk provides a single point of contact between users and the IT organization. The Service Desk processes inbound incidents, service requests, change requests, etc. It usually (but not always) owns and executes the Incident Management process. The Service Desk also acts as a hub for all communications internal to the IT Service Provider. What is a Service Desk
  125. 125. What are the Types of Service Desks?
  126. 126. ∗ Local – Users and support staff are located on the same premises or campus. ∗ Centralized -- Multiple user locations are serviced by a single support location. ∗ Virtual -- Multiple user location are serviced by multiple support locations which by virtue of call routing and other technology are able to appear and respond to user requests as a single entity. ∗ Follow-the-Sun -- Identical to a virtual Service Desk, but organized in such a way as to utilize support staff shifts working during normal daylight hours for all user requests coming from any time zone. What are the Types of Service Desks?
  127. 127. What is Operations Management?
  128. 128. ∗ IT Operations Management is concerned with the day-to-day maintenance of the IT infrastructure and the facilities which house it. It is divided into two sub- functions: Operations Control and Facilities Management. What is Operations Management?
  129. 129. What are the components of Operations Management?
  130. 130. ∗ The Operations Control sub-function is concerned with regular maintenance cycles associated with infrastructure management. These include such activities as: Console Management, Backup and restore operations Media management, Batch job execution ∗ Facilities Management is concerned with maintenance of the facilities which house IT operations, e.g. data centers, call centers, development facilities, etc. Its areas of responsibility include things like: HVAC, Fire suppression Facilities access, Power What are the components of Operations Management?
  131. 131. What is Technical Management?
  132. 132. ∗ The Technical Management function is charged with procurement, development, and management of the technical skill sets and resources required to support the infrastructure and the IT Service Management effort. Technical Management is typically divided into specialty areas representing different specialized teams or functions within an IT organization, e.g. Networking, Security, Database, Storage, Servers, etc. The primary objective of Technical Management is to ensure that the Service Provider has the right skill sets available to deliver the services it offers. What is Technical Management?
  133. 133. What is Application Management?
  134. 134. ∗ Application Management is concerned with the end-to-end management of applications in the environment. Like Technical Management, a big part of what it does involves cultivation of the specialized skill sets required to support the organization’s applications. Applications Management does not replace, but rather executes and is supported by core processes such as Incident Management, Problem Management, Change Management, Availability Management, etc. What is Application Management?
  135. 135. Service Operations Balance
  136. 136. ∗ External v.s. Internal ∗ Stability v.s. Responsiveness ∗ Quality v.s. Cost ∗ Reactive vs Proactive Service Operations Balance
  137. 137. Service Operations adds Value by:
  138. 138. ∗ Ensuring that services are operated within expected performance parameters ∗ Restoring services quickly in the event of service interruption ∗ Minimizing impact to the business in the event of service interruption ∗ Providing a focal point for communication between users and the Service Provider organization Service Operations adds Value by:
  139. 139. What is an Incident?
  140. 140. ∗ An incident is any occurrence which causes or may cause interruption or degradation to an IT Service. What is an Incident?
  141. 141. Incident management steps
  142. 142. ∗ Identified ∗ Logged ∗ Categorized ∗ Prioritized ∗ Diagnosed ∗ Escalated: Functional or Hierarchical ∗ Resolution Recovery ∗ Closure Incident management steps
  143. 143. What is a Problem?
  144. 144. Definition: A cause of one or more Incidents. The cause is not usually known at the time a Problem Record is created, and the Problem Management Process is responsible for further investigation. What is a Problem?
  145. 145. What is an Error?
  146. 146. ∗ An error is the known underlying cause of one or more incidents. What is an Error?
  147. 147. What is a Known Error?
  148. 148. ∗ A known error is the known cause of an incident (a problem) for which a workaround also exists. What is a Known Error?
  149. 149. What is an Event?
  150. 150. ∗ An event is any change of state of an infrastructure or other item which has significance for the delivery of a service. What is an Event?
  151. 151. What are the Event types:
  152. 152. ∗ Regular operation e.g. logins etc ∗ Exception e.g. exception ∗ Unusual e.g. slow response, thresholds What are the Event types:
  153. 153. What is CSI
  154. 154. ∗ Continual Service Improvement is about the alignment and re-alignment of services, processes, functions, etc. with changing business needs. It is also concerned with the consistent application of quality management methods to the overall Service Management effort. What is CSI
  155. 155. Approach to Improvement (CSI Model)?
  156. 156. ∗ What is the Vision ∗ Where are we now? (baselines) ∗ Where do we want to be (targets) ∗ How do we get there? ∗ Did we get there? ∗ How do we keep the momentum going? Approach to Improvement
  157. 157. SIP II
  158. 158. The 7 Step Improvement Process
  159. 159. ∗ Decide what should be measured ∗ Decide what can be measured ∗ Gather the data ∗ Process the data ∗ Analyze the data ∗ Present and use the data The 7 Step Improvement Process
  160. 160. What are the CSI Inputs and Outputs
  161. 161. ∗ Inputs: Metrics and measurements from other stages of service lifecycle Outputs: Improvements What are the CSI Inputs and Outputs
  162. 162. How Does CSI Offer Value?
  163. 163. ∗ Ensuring that services, processes, and other aspects of the Service Management effort are aligned with business objectives ∗ Ensuring that services meet agreed levels of performance ∗ Ensuring that the efficiency (cost) of service delivery improves steadily How Does CSI Offer Value?
  164. 164. Questions to ask about measuring
  165. 165. ∗ Why are we measuring ∗ When do we stop measuring ∗ Is anyone using this ∗ Do we still need this Questions to ask about measuring
  166. 166. Explain the Role of Measurement
  167. 167. ∗ To JUSTIFY a proposed course of action ∗ To DIRECT activity ∗ To INTERVENE when corrective action is required ∗ To VALIDATE actions which have already been taken Explain the Role of Measurement
  168. 168. 3 types of metrics
  169. 169. ∗ Service metrics ∗ Process metrics ∗ Technology metrics 3 types of metrics
  170. 170. Name the CSI Hierarchy of Activities?
  171. 171. ∗ Objectives establish the reason for measurement. Measurement in itself has no value. Rather, it only has value inasmuch as it supports achievement of specific objectives. ∗ Critical Success Factors define specific things that must happen if objectives are to be achieved. ∗ Key Performance Indicators are metrics which specifically indicate progress or performance around or toward Critical Success Factors. ∗ Metrics are the definitions of what will be measured and how it will be measured. ∗ Measurements are the actual readings taken based upon a specific metric. Name the CSI Hierarchy of Activities?
  172. 172. Explain the Deming Cycle
  173. 173. ∗ The Deming Cycle is an improvement model originally created by W. Edwards Deming and used to great success in the Japanese auto industry. ∗ It consists of four simple steps (Plan, Do, Check, Act). Explain the Deming Cycle
  174. 174. Explain the SIP
  175. 175. ∗ Service Improvement Plan (SIP) ∗ A Service Improvement Plan or Service Improvement Program is the primary output of periodic service reviews carried out as part of Continual Service Improvement or as part of the Service Level Management process. The SIP maps specific improvement objectives for an identified time period between one service review and the next. Explain the SIP
  176. 176. What are the CSI Processes?• Service Level Management* • Service Measurement & Reporting • Continual Service Improvement (7 Step) Process Service Level Management is “officially” part of Service Design but plays a major role in CSI
  177. 177. What is Bounded Rationality?
  178. 178. ∗ ‘Bounded rationality’ refers to the limits which constrain humans’ ability to entertain more than a few factors at a time when seeking to make decisions in complex situations. What is Bounded Rationality?
  179. 179. What are the Information Systems Discussed Within ITIL
  180. 180. ∗ Service Knowledge Management System (SKMS) ∗ Service Portfolio/Catalog ∗ Availability Management Information System (AMIS) ∗ Configuration Management System/Configuration Management Database (CMS/CMDB) Capacity Database (CDB) or Capacity Management Information System (CMIS) ∗ Known Error Database (KEDB) ∗ Security Management Information System (SMIS) What are the Information Systems Discussed Within ITIL
  181. 181. Name some ITIL Automation Tips
  182. 182. ∗ Use of automation to identify patterns and trends in large data sets such as event logs, incident logs, etc. ∗ Use of automation to help guarantee consistency during design efforts ∗ Use of automation to accurately record high volumes of detailed data, e.g. incident logs ∗ Use of automation to avoid arbitrary assignment of priority to incidents, problems, changes, etc. ∗ Use of automation to respond to events in real time ∗ ITIL® offers some discussion of how automation can best be used to support processes. It’s most essential recommendations include: ∗  Process definition should precede attempts to purchase or apply technology to processes Name some ITIL Automation Tips
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