Chapter Overview and GoalsEpistemology and Learning TheoryPlato Reminiscence Theory of KnowledgeAristotleThe Beginning of Modern PsychologyOther Historical Influences on Learning TheoryPsychology’s Early Schools Voluntarism Structuralism Functionalism BehaviorismSummary and Overview
Epistemology Branch of philosophy that is concerned with the nature of knowledge. An epistemologist would ask the following questions: a. What is knowledge? b. What can we know? c. What are the limits of our knowledge? d. What does it mean to know? e. What are the origins of knowledge?The study of what is meant by "knowledge". What does it mean to "know" something as opposed to merely having anopinion. This issue has been at the core of Western philosophy since before Socrates, since, until it has been answered,all other questions become unsolvable.The study of what is meant by "knowledge". What does it mean to "know" something asopposed to merely having an opinion. This issue has been at the core of Western philosophysince before Socrates, since, until it has been answered, all other questions become unsolvable.
Wanna know what Plato believed?Plato believed that knowledge was inherited and was, therefore, anatural component of the human mind. According to Plato, onegained knowledge by reflecting on the contents of one’s mind. Aristotle, in contrast, believed that knowledge derived from sensoryexperience and was not inherited.
RationalismThe belief that the mind is actively involved in the attainment of knowledge.Rationalism, also known as the rationalist movement, is a philosophical doctrine that asserts that the truth should bedetermined by reason and factual analysis, rather than faith, dogma or religious teaching. Rationalism has somesimilarities in ideology and intent to secular humanism and atheism, in that it aims to provide a framework for socialand philosophical discourse outside of religious or supernatural beliefsBranch of philosophy which emphasizes reason or intellect, rather than observation or sensoryperception, as the basis for knowledge and truth.A branch of philosophy where truth is determined by reason.In essence, rationalism was a philosophical theory of knowledge that thrived especially as a movement in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, its greatestproponents being Renes Descartes (1596-1650), Benedict Spinoza (1632-77), and Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716). As a movement, rationalism was characterized by itsconfidence in reason , and intuition in particular, to know reality independently from sense experience. Thus, rationalism was the polar opposite of empiricismwhich asserted that knowledge could only be derived through sense experience. see Empiricism. In the nineteenth and twentieth century, the term rationalism hassomewhat become synonymous with reason (ie scientific reason), over and against all systems of faith.
Nativism / EmpiricismNativism – The belief that knowledge is innateEmpiricism- The importance of sensory experience as the basis of all knowledge. Other DefinitionsNativism – (philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innateIn psychology, "nativist" is comparable to "innate," the "hard-wired" components of human psychology.The view that some important aspects of perception and of other cognitive processes are innate.Empiricism – the doctrine that says sense experience is the only source of knowledge. A belief thatexperience alone is the source of all knowledge. Empiricism is essentially atheory of knowledge which asserts that all knowledge is derived from sense experience. It rejects the notion that the mind is furnished with arange of concepts or ideas prior to experience. In the thought of John Locke (1632-1704), the human mind is a tabula rasa (ie, a blank tablet)at birth; thus, knowledge is acquired as the mind experiences external reality through the senses. Three principal British philosophers whoare associated with empiricism are John Locke (1632-1704), George Berkeley (1685-1753), and David Hume (1711-76). in philosophy, a doctrine that affirms that all knowledge is based on experience, and denies the possibilityof spontaneous ideas or a priori thought.Empiricism (greek εμπειρισμός, from empirical, latin experientia - the experience) is generally regarded as being at the heart of the modernscientific method, that our theories should be based on our observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith; that is, empiricalresearch and a posteriori inductive reasoning rather than purely deductive logic.
PlatoPlato was Socrates’ most famous student. In fact, Socrates never wrote a word about his philosophy – it waswritten by Plato. This is a most significant fact because the early Platonic dialogues were designed primarilyto show the Socratic approach to knowledge and were memories of the great teacher at work. The laterdialogues, however, represent Platos own philosophy and have little to do with Socrates. Plato was so upsetby the execution of Socrates for impiety that he went on a self-imposed exile to southern Italy, where hecame under the influence of the Pythagoreans. This fact has important implications for Western people andis directly related to all approaches to epistemology, including learning theory, that have occurred since.Pythagoreans - The Pythagoreans were an Hellenic organization of astronomers, musicians,mathematicians, and philosophers; who believed that all things are, essentially, numeric. Thegroup strove to keep the discovery of irrational numbers a secret; and legends tell of a memberbeing drowned, for breaching this secrecy (see Hippasus).
Reminiscence Theory of Knowledgea mental impression retained and recalled from the pastrecall: the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mentaleffort); "he has total recall of the episode"Life review activity aimed at surfacing and reviewing positive memories and experiences.The recollection of the experience our soul had in the “heaven which is beyond the heavens”The “minds eye” Plato was a nativist because he felt knowledge was inborn. and a rationalist because he believed knowledge could only be made available through reasoning
AristotleOne of Platos students. First followed Platos teaching quite closely and laterbroke away from them almost completely. A basic difference between he twothinkers was in their attitude toward sensory information. To plato it was ahindrance and something to be distrusted, but to Aristotle sensory informationwas the basis of all knowledge. With his favorable attitude toward empiricalobservation, Aristotle complied an extraordinarily large number of facts aboutphysical and biological phenomena.Differed with Plato in that…the laws, forms, or universals that Aristotle waslooking for did not have an existence independent of their empiricalmanifestation, as they did for Plato. They were simply observed relationships innature. Second, for Aristotle all knowledge is based on sensory experience.This, or course, was not the case with Plato. It is because Aristotle contendedthat the source of all knowledge is sensory experience that he is labeled anempiricist.
Laws of AssociationThe traditional laws of association, based on Aristotle, are: Similarity Contrast Contiguity in time or space. In the philosophy of mind, associationism began as a theory about how ideas combine in the mind. John Locke suggested that each of us was born without any innate capabilities - a Tabula Rasa - which learned to form representations as a result of experiences, rather than of reason. "Experimental Psychology", as David Hume (1711-1776) called it, was concerned with studying the mind as a mirror of representations of nature, constantly trying to make sense of the world.
AristotleWrote De Anima – First history of psychologyWith his death, came the end to empiricism in science.Plato – incorporated writings into dogma of the churchReligion is defined as philosophy in the absence of dialogue.
Rene DescartesBelieved in a separation between the mind and the body. Viewed the body aspredictable, like a machine, but said the mind was a unique human attribute.Belief in Plato’s earlier notion of nativism(1596-1650) Wrote Meditations on First Philosophy and Discourse on Method. Rejected Aristotelian and Scholastictraditions; Boosted rationalism .Descartes: French philosopher and mathematician; developed dualistic theory of mind and matter; introduced theuse of coordinates to locate a point in two or three dimensions (1596-1650)Ren Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher andmathematician. He is equally notable for both his groundbreaking work in philosophy and mathematics. As theinventor of the Cartesian coordinate system, he formulated the basis of modern geometry (analyticgeometry), which in turn influenced the development of modern calculus.
Thomas HobbesOpposed the notion that innate ideas are a source of knowledge. He maintained that sense impressions areof all knowledge. With this belief, Hobbes reopened the philosophical school of empiricism and itsrelated associationism. He believed that stimuli either help or hinder the vital functions of the body. Astimulus that aids in the vital functioning of the body causes a feeling of pleasure; therefore the personseeks to experience this pleasure again. Hobbes: English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679) Thomas Hobbes (April 5, 1588 - December 4, 1679) was a noted English political philosopher, most famous for his book Leviathan (1651).
John LockeOpposed the notion of innate ideas. For him, the mind is made up of ideas, and ideas come from experience. He indicated that if ideas were innate, peopleeverywhere would possess them, but they do not. Rather, different cultural groups differ markedly in what they think and believe. Thus, the infant mind atbirth is a tabula rosa, a blank tablet, and experience writes on it. The mind becomes what it experiences; there is nothing in the mind that is not first in thesenses. Simple ideas come directly from sense experience; complex ideas come from combining simple ideas. He was an empiricist with a rationalistcomponent. Locke: English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704) John Locke (August 29 1632–October 28 1704) was a 17th century philosopher concerned primarily with society and epistemology. An Englishman, Lockes notions of a "government with the consent of the governed" and mans natural rights—life, liberty, and estate (property)—had an enormous influence on the development of political philosophy. His ideas formed the basis for the concepts used in American law and government, allowing the colonists to justify revolution.
George BerkeleyClaimed that Locke did not go far enough. There was still a kind of dualism in Locke’s view thatphysical objects cause ideas about them. Nothing exists unless it is perceived; thus to be is to beperceived. What we call primary qualities, such as shape and size, are really only secondary qualitiesor ideas. Ideas are the only thing we can be sure of. HE was an empiricist : what we experiencethrough our senses are God’s ideas.Berkeley: Irish philosopher and Anglican bishop who opposed the materialism of Thomas Hobbes (1685-1753)George Berkeley (bark-lee) (March 12, 1685–January 14, 1753), also known as Bishop Berkeley, was aninfluential Irish philosopher whose primary philosophical achievement is the advancement of what hascome to be called subjective idealism, summed up in his dictum, "Esse est percipi" ("To be is to beperceived"). He wrote a number of works, the most widely-read of which are his Treatise Concerning thePrinciples of Human Knowledge (1710) and Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous (1713
David HumeAgreed with Berkley that we could know nothing for sure about thephysical environment, he added that we could know nothing for sureabout ideas. We can be sure of nothing. Mind, for Hume, was no morethan a stream of ideas, memories, imaginings, associations, andfeelings. HE was saying that we only experience the empirical worldindirectly through our ideas. Even the laws of nature are constructsof the imaginations... the “lawlessness” of nature is in our minds, notnecessarily in nature.Hume: Scottish philosopher whose skeptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that whichcan be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
Immanuel KantDespised Hume. Kant attempted to correct the impractical featuresof both rationalism and empiricism. Rationalism can involve on themanipulation of concepts, and empiricism confines knowledge tosensory experience and its derivatives. Kant attempted to reconcileboth points of view. Kant reasoned that that there must be innatecategories of thought – These categories of thought, or “faculties,”are neither part of our sensory experience not derived from it. Ifthese thoughts are not the result of sensory experience, then they areinnate categories of thought .German philosopher and founder of critical philosophy. Explored role of knowledge and mind.Contributed to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics.A large part of Kants work addresses the question "What can we know?" The answer, if it can be statedsimply, is that our knowledge is constrained to mathematics and the science of the natural, empiricalworld. It is impossible, Kant argues, to extend knowledge to the supersensible realm of speculativemetaphysics. The reason that knowledge has these constraints, Kant argues, is that the mind plays an activerole in constituting the features of experience and limiting the minds access to the empirical realm ofspace and time.
John Stuart MillAccepting the notion that complex ideas are made up of simpler ideas, mill added thenotion that some simple ideas combine into a new totality that may bear little resemblanceto its parts. For example, if we combine blue, red, and green lights, we get white. In otherwords, Mill believed that the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Thus Mill modifiedthe empiricist contention that all ideas reflect sensory stimulation. For him, when some ideascombine they produce an idea that is unlike any of the elemental ideas that make up theemergent idea.
Thomas Reid Reid believed that the mind has powers of its own, which strongly influence how we perceive the world. He hypothesized twenty-seven faculties of the mind, most of which were thought to be innate. The belief in the existence of such faculties in the mind was latter called faculty psychology. Naive Realism The philosophical view that perception accurately portrays all objects and events in the world. In philosophy naive realism is used to describe the belief that physical objects continue to exist when they are no longer perceived. It can be contrasted with solipsism.Faculty psychology is a view of the mind as having separate modules orfaculties assigned to various mental tasks. The view is implicit in FranzJoseph Galls formulation of phrenology, the disreputed practice ofmeasuring personality traits by measuring bumps on ones head.Reid: Scottish philosopher of common sense who opposed the ideas of David Hume(1710-1796)
Franz Joseph Gall First, he assumed that the faculties were housed in specific locations in the brain. Second, he believed that the faculties of the mind did not exist to the same extent in every individual. Third, he believed that if a faculty was well developed, there would be a bump or protrusion on the part of the skull corresponding to the place in the brain that houses that faculty. Likewise is a faculty was poorly developed, a hollow or depression would be found on the skull. Phrenology - is the long practiced study of head formations. An early nineteenth-century fad that involved palpating bumps and indentations on the head in order to judge the examinee’s intellectual and personality traits. A forerunner of modern theories of cerebral localization, phrenology nonetheless had no validity. Belief that there is a relationship between mental attributes and the shape of the head. Started in 1800 by Franz Gall and Johann Spurzheim that the brain was divided into areas of self- esteem, destructiveness, etc. For a while it was fashionable for people to go and have their bumps read. Phrenology is a theory which claims to be able to determine character and personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (reading "bumps"). Developed by GermanFranz Joseph Gall (March 9, 1758 - August 22, 1828) was a German neuroanatomist and physiologist who was a physician Franz Joseph Gall around 1800, and very popular in the 19th century, it is now discredited as a pseudoscience.pioneer in the study of the localization of mental functions in the brain.
Charles DarwinCharles Darwin, a British naturalist, revolutionized biology with his theory of evolutionthrough the process of NATURAL SELECTION. He also made significant contributions tothe fields of natural history and geology. The theory of evolution, which held that all livingspecies have evolved from preexisting forms, aroused great controversy and brought about areevaluation of the position of humans in relation to all other living forms.
Hermann EbbinghausA German psychologist who pioneered experimental studyof memory, and discovered the forgetting curve.Invented his own “nonsense material” which consists of syllables containng a vowel betweentown consonants (e.g., QAW, JIG, XUW, CEW, or TEB). The syllables were not the nonsense, Itwas the relationships among the syllables that were meaningless. Thus we use the term nonsensematerial instead of nonsense syllables.How many exposures to learn something.. And how many to go back to and remember it(savings)
VoluntarismTheory that God or the ultimate nature of reality is conceived as some form of will.the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct.The concept that belief is a matter of the will.
Apperceptionintrospective self-consciousnessPerception as modified and enhanced by ones own emotions, memories, and biases.The appreciation of objects or ideas in their entire significance, as they are related to all other objects orideas, including the mind, which is thus considering them. Physiologically, apperception is theconsciousness associated with the activities of the intermediate areas, both anterior and posterior, as theseare affected by the activities of the sensory overflow areas. It is evident that a very nice balancing of theimpulses to and from the different areas is required in order that these different activities may becoordinated; therefore apperception is a function only of neurons well developed and well related indevelopmentApperception is realized when mans ability to think judges one thing by another and draws conclusions.Thus, the other thing is established in the mind. The objects of apperception are of different kinds. Someof them concern things that are certain by nature. Others concern things that are hypothetical in variousdegrees. Apperception ultimately reverts to perception because the only purpose of having apperception isto achieve knowledge of the realities of things. The process of going from perception over toapperception and back again is therefore continuous.
Creative SynthesisThe elements of thought could be willfully arranged in any number of combinations. It isthis emphasis on will that his school or psychology is called voluntarism.
Structuralismis a psychological approach that emphasized studying the elemental structures ofconsciousnessthe view that behind the social and cultural realities we perceive, such as clothesor food fashions, kinship organization and even language itself, deep structuresexist which, through combinations of their elements, produce the surfacecomplexity of the relevant phenomena. Poststructuralism retains elements ofstructuralism (its interest in surface signs for example) but abandons the quest fordeep structures.Introspection was a major tool used in structuralism. Trained to report immediateexperience. To name the object (called a stimulus error).
Functionalismthe theory that all elements of a culture are functional in that theyserve to satisfy culturally defined needs of the people in that society orrequirements of the society as a whole.
William JamesFounder of the functionalist movement.
John Watson / BehaviorismA branch of psychology that bases its observations and conclusions on definable andmeasurable behavior and on experimental methods, rather than on concept of "mind.“Behaviorism is a psychological theory first put forth by John Watson (1925), and thenexpounded upon by BF Skinner. Attempting to answer the question of humanbehavior, proponents of this theory essentially hold that all human behavior is learnedfrom ones surrounding context and environment.