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HRM LECTURE

HRM LECTURE

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Ch13 chicken Ch13 chicken Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 13Cooking Poultry and Game Birds Copyright © 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved
  • Roasting and Baking Seasoning and Basting• Remember that poultry items are almost always cooked well done (except for squab and game birds).• Seasonings and, if desired, a little mirepoix or a bouquet garni should be placed inside the cavity. 2
  • Roasting and Baking Seasoning and BastingWhen roasting whole chicken:• Season the skin only if it is to be served and eaten.• Seasonings will not penetrate the skin. 3
  • Roasting and Baking Seasoning and Basting• Oil the skin before roasting to help in browning and to protect against drying.• Skin may be basted with fat during roasting. • This is unnecessary if the chicken is roasted breast down (and turned breast up just at the end of the roasting period to brown). 4
  • Roasting and Baking Seasoning and BastingBasting is beneficial for large turkeys.• Baste every 20 to 30 minutes.• Too frequent basting results in the loss of a great deal of heat from the oven due to frequent door opening. 5
  • Roasting and Baking Temperature• Low-temperature roasting is best for large items, such as turkeys and capons. • Large turkeys may be roasted at 250° to 325°F (120° to 165°C).• It is not advisable to roast at very low temperatures. • The interior temperature will take too long to rise, providing a good breeding ground for bacteria. 6
  • Roasting and Baking Temperature• Smaller items, such as roasting chickens, are usually roasted at 325° to 375°F (165° to 190°C).• The searing method may be used for chickens under 4 to 5 pounds (2 kg) and for baked chicken parts. • Begin roasting in the oven at 450°F (230°C) for 15 minutes. • Then reduce the oven temperature to 250° to 325°F (120° to 160°C). 7
  • Roasting and Baking Baked Poultry• Roasting and baking are the same process.• Baked chicken or turkey parts are treated like roasted poultry. 8
  • Roasting and Baking Poêlé Poêlé is a classical preparation for white meats and poultry in which the item is: • In a covered container. • Basted with butter before and during cooking. • Because the container is covered, the procedure is not a dry-heat method. Therefore, it is not a genuine roasting procedure. 9
  • Roasting and Baking Carving Roast ChickenPlace the chicken on a clean, Pull the leg away from the bodysanitary cutting board. Cut of the chicken with the fork.through the skin between the leg Using the knife, cut between theand the breast sections. thigh bone and the hip to separate the leg completely. 10
  • Roasting and Baking Carving Roast ChickenHold the chicken steady by Pull the breast section away from thebracing the backbone with the bone. With the knife, cut through thefork. Cut through the breast joint where the wing bone is attached to the body. Separate the breast andbetween the two halves, just to wing section completely from theone side of the keel bone. carcass. Repeat steps on the other side of the chicken. 11
  • Roasting and Baking Carving Roast ChickenCut the wings from the breast portions and cutthe drumsticks apart from the thighs. 12
  • Roasting and Baking Carving a TurkeyPlace the turkey on a clean, sanitary cutting board. Cut throughthe skin between the leg and the body. Pull the leg outwardwith a fork. The leg should pull off easily, but use the knife asnecessary to separate the thigh from the hip. 13
  • Roasting and Baking Carving a TurkeyCut the drumstick and thigh Cut the meat from the drumstickapart at the joint. Repeat with and thigh in thin slices.the other leg. 14
  • Roasting and Baking Carving a TurkeyWith long, smooth strokes, cut When the slices become toothe breast into thin slices. large, change the angle of the knife slightly as shown. 15
  • Roasting and Baking Carving a TurkeyAn alternative method is to cut off an entire half-breast in onepiece. This piece can then be sliced as shown. Cut across thegrain, holding the knife at an angle to get broader slices. 16
  • Broiling and Grilling• Use lower temperatures than for meats. • Poultry skin, in particular, browns and then burns very easily.• For quantity production, broiled chicken is sometimes finished in the oven on sheet pans.• Start poultry pieces skin side down. • Brush generously with melted butter or other fat before and during broiling. • Large or thick poultry items are not well-suited to broiling and grilling. 17
  • Broiling and GrillingGive variety to grilled poultry• Marinate the poultry or rub it with seasonings before cooking.• Baste with seasoned butter, marinade, or other flavorings during broiling.• Serve with an appropriate sauce or seasoned butter.• Select vegetable garnishes for variety and interest. 18
  • Sautéing, Pan-Frying & Deep-Frying Pan-FryingPan-fried chicken is usually breaded or floured before cooking for even browning and crispness.• About ¼ inch (½ cm) or more of fat is needed in the pan to pan-fry chicken.• The presentation side is usually the skin side. • Should be browned first for best appearance. 19
  • Simmering and Poaching SimmeringUsed to cook fowl and other tough items that require long cooking in moist heat to be made tender.• Cooking liquid is usually water seasoned with salt, mirepoix, and herbs.• Simmered fowl yields a rich, flavorful broth. • For more flavorful soup, start the fowl in cold water. • For more flavorful meat, start with hot water. 20
  • Simmering and Poaching Braising May be used to: • Tenderize tough poultry products. • Provide moistness and flavor to tender poultry items. 21
  • Dressings and StuffingsStuffing chickens and turkeys is usually not practical in production kitchens.• Baking the stuffing separately gives better results for these reasons: 1. Safety • Stuffing inside a bird is an ideal breeding ground for bacteria that cause food poisoning. 2. Quality 3. Efficiency 22
  • Dressings and Stuffings DressingsBasic Ingredients2. Starch base • Such as bread or rice.3. Aromatic vegetables • Generally onions and celery.4. Fat • Butter or chicken fat. • Used for sautéing the vegetables and for providing richness. 23
  • Dressings and Stuffings DressingsBasic Ingredients (cont’d)4. Liquid • Usually stock, to provide moisture.5. Seasonings, herbs, and spices6. Eggs • Sometimes added as a binder. • Not always necessary. 24
  • Dressings and Stuffings DressingsBasic Ingredients (cont’d)7. Other ingredients for flavor, character, and bulk: • Sausage • Chestnuts • Oysters • Fruits • Giblets • Nuts 25
  • Recipe Pronunciations• Chicken Poêlé (p.398)• Poulet à la Diable (p.400)• Chicken Paillard with Grilled Vegetables (p.401)• Grilled Ostrich or Emu with Adobo Spices (p.404)• Chicken Blanquette (p.422)• Oyako Donburi (p.423)• Mole Poblano de Pollo or de Guajolote (p.426) 26
  • Recipe Pronunciations• Fricassée Argenteuil (p.428)• Chicken Bercy (p.429)• Chicken Portugaise (p.429)• Chicken Hongroise (p.429)• Chicken alla Cacciatora (p.431)• Coq au Vin (p.434)• Arroz con Pollo (p.435)• Duck Confit (p.437) 27