Planning & implementing v&a projects
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Planning & implementing v&a projects

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  • Validity and Reliability of Information-A ChecklistIs the information recent?Is the information representative of the population?Is the information desegregated? i.e. is the information broken down into categories such as provinces, districts, male-female, rural-urban etc. Does it come from a credible source?Is it unbiased?

Planning & implementing v&a projects Planning & implementing v&a projects Presentation Transcript

  • Planning&ImplementingV&AProjects ‘In their little worlds in which children have their existence there is nothing so finely perceived and nothing so finely felt as injustice.’ Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Federal Ministry (Policy, Institutions…) Provincial Government (Policies, Institutions laws, programmes and services District Line Departments/NGOs (EDOs, Dos, DDOs, ADOs) Community/SMC/ Family/Parents/CB Os School/Teachers CHILD Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • SocialMobilisationforAccountabilityinEducationSector Or Broad Inter-related Sets of Activities for V&A Projects Lobbying Community Mobilisation Advocacy Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • KeyTermsDefined • Advocacy: Strategic use of information and other non-violent persuasive means to influence decision-makers and those who wield political power to bring about desired changes in institutional practices, priorities, laws and policies. (Example: Persuading provincial EMIS to include data on students with physical disabilities; engaging district teachers’ association to reduce teacher-absenteeism) • Lobbying: A sub-set of advocacy, involving results-oriented interaction and negotiations with legislators and policy-makers to bring changes to policy and legal framework. (Working with MPAs and Minister of Education to amend Balochistan Free and Compulsory Education Act 2013) • Community Mobilization: Community Mobilization uses deliberate, participatory processes to involve local institutions, local leaders, community groups, and members of the community to organize for collective action toward a common purpose (Forming citizens’ vigilance committees to monitor and report teacher absenteeism; creating a broad consensus in favour of sending girls to middle schools) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • V&ABroadSetsofActivitieswithAdditional/Supportive Components Lobbying Community Mobilisation Advocacy Training BCC Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Community Mobilization-I Catalysts Mobilizers Larger Community Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Community Mobilization-II Catalysts CommunityMobilizers Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • BehaviourChangeCommunication Knowledge Approval Intention Practice Convincing Others Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Macro-level Initiatives -Lobbying - Technical Services/Capacity Building -Advocacy Micro-level Initiatives -Community Mobilization -Technical Services/Capacity Building -Behaviour Change Communication/Awareness Raising Governance Reforms Enabling Legal/Policy Environment Improved Planning Better Service Delivery Improvements in Physical Environment Improved Classroom Practices Local Institutions/Groups Strengthened Change in Behaviours Increased Awareness -Increased Enrolment & Retention - Improved Learning - Greater Satisfaction -Accountable/Responsive Governance Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • NormativeContentsoftheRighttoEducation Thematic Focus with the Child in Mind Right to Education Availability Accessibility Acceptability Adaptability Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues • Availability • There are no pre-primary schools in the public sector even though children are enrolled in what is referred to as kachi (pre- primary) classes in primary schools. • In Sindh, 9965 public sector primary schools in rural areas i.e. 24% of total rural government primary schools do not have a building. (Pakistan Education Statistics 2010-11, Tables 4.1.2) • Of around 125,000 middle school teachers in Pakistan, 23,008 have only studied up to matric. (Pakistan Education Statistics 2010-11, Tables 3.8) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues-II • Accessibility • In tehsil Daraban of Dera Ismail Khan district of Khyber Pakthunkhwa province, to cite just one example, overall mean distance to boys primary school is 3 km and for girls it is as high as 8 km. (Government of Pakistan, NWFP Mouza Statistics. (Agricultural Census Organisation, Islamabad 2008). Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues-III • Acceptability • The assessment system in public schools encourages rote learning at the expense of creativity and analytical thinking. • The school curricula in Pakistan have historically been used to construct an exclusively male Muslim identity and to present a highly distorted and simplistic version of the past. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues-IV Adaptability • Absence or low coverage of non-formal education facilities for working children. • Absence of facilities and learning materials for children with physical and mental disabilities. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues V • Education Financing Unit/Federation Allocation as a percentage of total education budget Current Development Federal 74 26 Balochistan 70 30 Khyber Pakhtunkwa 81 19 Punjab 82 18 Sindh 90 10 Total 82 18 Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues VI • Community Participation in School Management • A finding from Oxfam (GB) baseline study on girls’ education in 8 districts in Sindh and Punjab Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues-VI The Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2012 (Islamabad Capital Territory) • In a clause replicated with some changes in provincial laws, the ICT Act makes it mandatory for parents to ‘cause a child to attend school’ except in the case of a ‘reasonable excuse’. In defining the ‘reasonable excuse’, the Act effectively excludes children with disabilities from mainstream schooling by authorizing the School Management Committee (SMC) to determine if the child is ‘incapable of attending school by reason of any infirmity or mental incapacity’. The provision amounts to discrimination in that it clearly gives a clean chit to schools which fail to have trained teachers and other facilities to cater to the needs of children with disabilities. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Illustrative Issues-VII • The Sindh Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2013 • The most worrying provision-and the one which is most open to abuse- is clause 16(6), which penalizes parents who fail to enroll or send their children to school. If the SMC is satisfied that a parent has failed to comply in the absence of a ‘reasonable excuse’, the offending parent will stand convicted with fine up to Rupees five thousand and additional fine in case of failure to comply and/or imprisonment extending to three months. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • StepsInvolvedinaTypicalV&A/SocialMobilizationProject Self-reflection and Situation Assessment Setting Priorities Setting Goal and Objectives/ Developing a Baseline Devising Implementatio n Methodology Implementation Review Evaluation Monitoring Monitoring Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Situation Assessment • Literature Review • Review of Laws and Policy Documents • Analysis of Secondary Data • PSLM • School Census • NEMIS/SEMIS/PEMIS Data • Survey Reports and Rankings etc. • PRAs • Geographical and Issues Mapping • Problem Tree • Constructing a lifeline etc. • Intervention Mapping Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Hownottophrasegoalandobjectives! Goal: Improve the state of education in province X Help improve the availability and quality of public sector primary education in Sindh Arid Zone region. • Objectives: • To train X number of journalists in reporting on public sector primary education by Sep 2014. (Is training journalists an end in itself?) Alternative • To help increase and improve the content of major national and provincial dailies dealing with public sector primary education issues by December 2014. Activities: • Conduct a content analysis of a representative sample of major Urdu and Sindhi daily newspapers to assess the current state of reportage and editorial comments on public sector education. • Develop training material on education reporting. • Conduct a training of trainers in X number of districts. • Sign an MoU with press clubs in X number of training to hold training sessions at their premises • Conduct X number of training workshops for at least 20 journalists each in Y number of districts. • Monitor the content of selected newspapers to assess the quantity and quality of stories , features and editorials on education issues. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Setting Goal and Objectives • Goal (Example): To improve quality of public sector primary schooling in district X and Y through improved student-teacher ratio • Objectives (Examples) • To document the causes and consequences of high student-teacher ratio in district X and Y as evidence base for advocacy by December 2013. • To have current distribution of teachers across primary schools rationalized through advocacy with district education departments by January 2014. • To have Z number of additional posts for primary school teachers sanctioned in districts X and Y by March 2014. • To lobby for a provincial minimum standard of student-teacher ratio at primary, middle and secondary level being notified by September 2014. • To create awareness among parents in general and all SMC members in district X and Y on the adverse consequences of high student-teacher ratio on the quality of education by April 2014. • To train and recruit temporary (3 months) voluntary teachers in Z number of schools in District X and ZZ number of schools in District Y i.e. those with the highest student ratios by February 2014. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • ImplementationMethodology Objective Activities Tasks To document the causes and consequences of high student- teacher ratio in district X and Y as evidence base by December 2013. -Conduct literature review -Setting up a research design -Developing Data Collection Tools -Training Data Enumerators/Interviewers - Collecting relevant online literature; visiting libraries/NGO offices to get hold of relevant studies……… To have Z number of additional posts for primary school teachers sanctioned in districts X and Y by March 2014. -Develop evidence-based advocacy messages for a) provincial education department b) political leadership c) district administration -To prepare a short documentary highlighting the consequences of high student- teacher ratio in district X and YAdvocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Types of Monitoring • Input Monitoring • Process Monitoring • Output Monitoring • Outcome Monitoring Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • MonitoringExample Activity Input Monitoring Indicators Process Monitoring Output Monitoring Outcome Monitoring To have current distribution of teachers across primary schools rationalized through advocacy with district education departments by January 2014. Numbers and qualification of advocacy staff hired Relevance/Curren cy of background data used Numbers and types of training material produced for journalists Numbers and nature of community recommendations incorporated into project plan Number of meetings held with EDOs Number of orientation sessions held with journalists and editors highlighting the problem Follow-up action plans coming out of training workshops Number of meetings with other NGOs to raise the issue Commitments provided by EDO to rationalize teaching positions Number of articles written in local newspapers on the issue Number of other NGOs’ seminars focusing on the issue of student- teacher ratio Number of teachers redistributed to rationalize student-teacher ratio Student-teacher ratio after redistribution Qualification of teachers assigned to schools with high student- teacher ratio Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Steps involved in an advocacy campaign • STEP 1 Self-assessment and critical reflection • STEP II Identifying the issue/problem • STEP III Collecting information • STEP IV Analyzing information • STEP V Identifying and analyzing advocacy audience • STEP VI Framing the advocacy objective • STEP VII Developing advocacy messages • STEP VIII Identifying advocacy tools and channels • STEP IX Preparing an action plan Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • IdentifyingAdvocacyIssues Be Specific • For result-oriented advocacy, it is important that the issue or issues you pick up are specific and not too broad or vague. For example, it is all too well to raise awareness on the importance of education but when doing advocacy you need something more specific to focus on, such as medium of instruction, low numbers of girls’ school in your district etc. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • AnalyzingInformation Be systematic Main Issue/Problem Inadequate and ineffective school monitoring in South Punjab Consequences Causes Sub-issue 1 Sub-issue 2 Sub issue 3 And so on Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Analysis of State Actors 1. Legislature MNAs, Senators, MPAs, Nazims, Naib Nazims etc. What role have they played? What are their legal obligations? Who among them are supporters, fence sitters and opponents? What do we want them to do? National Assembly Members Standing Committee on Education Provincial Assembly Provincial Assembly Standing Committee on Education District Council 2. Executive Federal Ministry Provincial Ministry Line Department EDOs, DDOs etc. 3. Judiciary Supreme Court High Court District/Session Courts Regulatory Authorities Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • FramingAdvocacyObjectives • These have to be realistic and achievable in a specified time span. Vague and unspecific objectives are impossible to achieve and result in wastage of time and resources. In most cases, advocacy objectives link up with a higher goal, vision or an ideal. For example, a group may decide to do advocacy for an increased provincial budget for teachers’ training with the overall goal or vision of improving the quality of education. In this case, the advocacy objective would be to generate support within a specified time period among a certain number of government officials, MPAs, politicians and the relevant minister to allocate and endorse a specific percentage or amount of the provincial education budget to teachers’ training. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • FramingAdvocacyMessages • Every advocacy message has a proposition at its heart. Put simply, the proposition is what a source wants a receiver to do as a result of attending to the message: • Introduce mother tongue as medium of instruction in province X • Increase the proportion of provincial budgetary allocation on education under ‘development’ head from the current 10% to 20% by financial year 2014 and 30% by financial year 2015. • Reform provincial EMIS to include data on children with disabilities. • Establish an independent Education Monitoring Commission in KP province as committed under electoral manifesto 2013. Backed up by rational (evidence-based) and motivational/emotive appeals, tailor the message to selected medium and audience. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • IdentifyingV&A/AdvocacyToolsandChannels • Based on objective(s) • Audience Segmentation • Most cost-effective channel/tool Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Executive Accountability Wheel Executive/Education Departments/Service Providers Legislature/ Standing Committees Organisied Publics (SMCs, watchdogs, professional assoications) and Media Electorate Judiciary Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Evaluation Dimensions/Criteria • Relevance • Impact • Effectiveness • Efficiency (Value for Money) • Equity/Inclusiveness • Sustainability Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Tips for Conceptualizing and Writing up Proposals •Be Creative/Think out of the Box • Do not shy away from experimenting with new ideas in the name of being culturally sensitive. Cultures are not static, bounded entities. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Tips (Continued) • Project proposals (objectives, goals and work- plans) are more than formal project documents. Their quality spills over into the quality of subsequent M&E and project implementation. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Tips (Continued) •Establish strong and in-synch micro and macro linkages to maximize impact and sustain results. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Tips (Continued) • Community is not a monolith. Every community is characterized by power relations. Think through community participation and representation carefully. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Tips (Continued) •Do not propose an activity unless you’re absolutely sure how it will help achieve your objectives. Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Tips (Continued) •No one knows about children more than children themselves! Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  • Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan