Education Issues and Voice and
Accountability
Faisal Bari
Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives
(IDEAS)
Lahor...
Context
• Article 25A added more than 3 years ago
• Millions of children are out of schools
• Not even universal enrolment...
Context
• Quality of education quite poor (ASER)
• Rapid growth of private sector: 35-40%
enrolled children go to private ...
Context
• Test results (LEAPS, ASER) show children from
private sector schools perform better in tests
• Despite public se...
Supply: Public
• No schools in many places
• Schools not adequately provided for
(infrastructure, facilities, furniture)
•...
Supply: Private
• Private schools…mostly low fee for-profit
schools
• Do not exist where there is not enough
demand or sup...
Demand
• Education is a right and ‘compulsory’
• State interests in education (Right, functional
reasons…growth, citizensh...
Demand
• Demand for education seems to be
present…but demand for quality education?
(will return to this)
• But returns to...
Extreme Positions
• Is there something more tragic than a child sitting
in classes for 10 years and parents sending
childr...
Article 25A
• The State shall provide free and compulsory
education to all children of the age of five to
sixteen years in...
Who is responsible
• The state has to bear the bulk of responsibility for
the poor state of education in the country
• The...
18th Amendment
• Education made a provincial subject….no
longer a concurrent subject
• Provinces responsible for everythin...
Devolution
• Things still unclear…but district educational
authorities being promised…KP and Punjab
• Curriculum, examinat...
Devolution
• Will district authorities be under Nazim or under
the provincial government? Punjab is going for
provincial c...
Demand Articulation and Aggregation
• Exit and Voice (Hisrchman)
• What is voice
• Whose voice
• Exit reinforces poor qual...
Markets and More
• Can markets work on their own (early LEAPS)
• Information asymmetry…
• But are information markets enou...
Demand Articulation and Aggregation
• Why do people choose to exit rather than use
voice?
• Voice options in public school...
Voice Articulation
• Students, parents, teachers, administrators, bure
aucrats, politicians, community members, and
citize...
Voice Articulation
• Sargodha example….
• We need innovations….plenty of them around
us and around the world…we will learn...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Education issues and voice and accountability

889

Published on

Published in: Education, Career
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
889
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
10
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Education issues and voice and accountability

  1. 1. Education Issues and Voice and Accountability Faisal Bari Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives (IDEAS) Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  2. 2. Context • Article 25A added more than 3 years ago • Millions of children are out of schools • Not even universal enrolment at primary level • Drop out rates remain high…but is that surprising? • No plans for out of school children...What happens to 10 year olds? Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  3. 3. Context • Quality of education quite poor (ASER) • Rapid growth of private sector: 35-40% enrolled children go to private schools • Percentage higher in the Punjab, urban areas and big cities…no clarity on role of private sector • People voting with their feet? Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  4. 4. Context • Test results (LEAPS, ASER) show children from private sector schools perform better in tests • Despite public sector having better salaries for teachers and better working conditions • Public sector quality, despite claims, continues to be very poor • Low fee private sector also poor, though marginally better than public sector • Clearly, this is not an equilibrium condition! But then what is the vision for equilibrium Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  5. 5. Supply: Public • No schools in many places • Schools not adequately provided for (infrastructure, facilities, furniture) • Governance structure quite broken • Teachers not allocated/rationalized (our study on Punjab…STR 40:1) • Teachers not motivated? (nepotism and corruption are big factors) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  6. 6. Supply: Private • Private schools…mostly low fee for-profit schools • Do not exist where there is not enough demand or supply of students/supply of teachers • Reservation wage for teachers is low…main advantage for private schools • Low quality is a big issue: no incentives for improving quality at the lower end Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  7. 7. Demand • Education is a right and ‘compulsory’ • State interests in education (Right, functional reasons…growth, citizenship) • Why do parents want education (literacy, skills, jobs, obedience, culture) • People voting with their feet? Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  8. 8. Demand • Demand for education seems to be present…but demand for quality education? (will return to this) • But returns to poor quality education not clear…so case for demand unclear • Fees • Transport and other costs • Opportunity costs Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  9. 9. Extreme Positions • Is there something more tragic than a child sitting in classes for 10 years and parents sending children to schools for 10 years and at the end of 10 years, children are illiterate or barely literate • Should we keep education departments open for teachers and their stipends (salary) • Whatever government touches, it turns to dust • (See Shahid Kardar’s recent article in the Dawn) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  10. 10. Article 25A • The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law. • Shall…basic rights section • Free • Compulsory • Five to sixteen years • No law, draft or otherwise, is looking at the issue holistically Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  11. 11. Who is responsible • The state has to bear the bulk of responsibility for the poor state of education in the country • The politicians and bureaucracy have to answer for a lot • As do teachers • But parents, civil society and citizens cannot be exempted…they have failed to articulate discontent and have failed to hold their representatives, elected or not, accountable Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  12. 12. 18th Amendment • Education made a provincial subject….no longer a concurrent subject • Provinces responsible for everything from curriculum to provision to ensuring implementation of 25A • Since 18th Amendment came post NFC award…some clarity needed regarding mechanisms/responsibilities for 25A but bulk of responsibility with provinces Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  13. 13. Devolution • Things still unclear…but district educational authorities being promised…KP and Punjab • Curriculum, examinations to stay at province • Provision decisions should become local (school location, • What level will teacher recruitment be at? And teacher management? Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  14. 14. Devolution • Will district authorities be under Nazim or under the provincial government? Punjab is going for provincial control. How is this devolution? • Who will be placed on District Authority Boards? Will they strengthen voice or be more open to corruption/nepotism • Will education related development expenditure be devolved • Local taxation options? Will districts explore? Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  15. 15. Demand Articulation and Aggregation • Exit and Voice (Hisrchman) • What is voice • Whose voice • Exit reinforces poor quality issues and makes voice articulation even harder • Historically…the role of elites is important….but is that a necessary connection? History does not imply necessicity. But the problem is not an easy one. (Irfan Muzaffar) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  16. 16. Markets and More • Can markets work on their own (early LEAPS) • Information asymmetry… • But are information markets enough? • Public schools do not have autonomy to respond • Competition in price rather than quality (decreasing price) • Investments in visible areas rather than longer term quality improvements (Faisalabad) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  17. 17. Demand Articulation and Aggregation • Why do people choose to exit rather than use voice? • Voice options in public schools limited • Voice options in private schools non-existent • Costs of public action…Free rider and tragedy of commons • Costs of lack of public action (the road/drain) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  18. 18. Voice Articulation • Students, parents, teachers, administrators, bure aucrats, politicians, community members, and citizens….all are important • Information is not enough • Awareness raising is not enough • Voice does not automatically lead to accountability • Accountability? For everyone? (Parent liability, EDO? Citizen?) Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  19. 19. Voice Articulation • Sargodha example…. • We need innovations….plenty of them around us and around the world…we will learn about them in the next session Advocacy and Innovation Funds for Education in Pakistan
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×