Ilmari climate change related school visits 2007


Published on

This material was used for school visits by three Finnish environmental organisations in 2007-2008.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ilmari climate change related school visits 2007

  1. 1. The greenhouse effect makes life on Earth possible• The gases in the atmosphere behave like glass panels in a greenhouse: they trap some of the heat energy of the Sun.• The greenhouse effect is natural –- without it, the Earths surface would be 33°C cooler.• Water vapour is the most significant natural greenhouse gas. 1
  2. 2. In the case of climate change, emissions reinforce thegreenhouse effect• The most important human-produced greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrogen dioxide (N2O).• Gases are produced by the use fossil fuels – coal, oil, natural gas and peat– and by forest fires, industrial processes, landfills, and agriculture.• The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is now greater than in the past 20 million years. 2
  3. 3. The temperature has already risen – and its getting evenhotter• During the 20th century, the average temperature of the Earth rose by 0.6°C.• The warming is mostly caused by human action.• During the next 100 years, the temperature is estimated to rise by 1.4–5.8°C.• The sea level is estimated to rise by 10–90 cm during the next 100 years. 3
  4. 4. Variation in Lämpötila suhteessa temperature in the vuoden 1990 arvoon Northern Hemisphere over the last 1,000 yearsLähde: IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 4
  5. 5. The climate change causes hurricanes, diseases, and famine• It is estimated that the climate change will: • Melt glaciers and cause water shortage • Rise the sea level > island states and low-lying coastal regions will be covered with water • Increase the number and potency of extreme weather events like floods,draughts and storms • promote the spread of tropical diseases, like malaria, into new regions • Lead to crop failures and famine • Wipe out species • Increase the number of environmental refugees A temperature rise of 1,5 degrees may put 50 million people in risk of famine, 200 million in risk of malaria, and 2 billion in risk of water shortage. 5
  6. 6. Temperature will also rise in Finland – especially in winter • It is estimated that in 2100, the temperature in Finland will be circa 1.1–6.6°C higher than today. The rainfall will increase by 3–16 %. • It is estimated thatArctic areas will warm twice as fast as the rest of the planet. • Temperature will rise especially in winter and in spring. In 2100, winter sports and white Christmas may be just a dream in Southern Finland. • Because of the impact of the Golf Stream the average temperature in Finland is 20-30°C higher than in Siberia and Greenland, for example. The climate change may also have an impact on sea currents, and in that case, the climate might even get colder in Finland.Lähde: SWECLIM. Swedish Regional Climate Modelling Program 6
  7. 7. Species will die out – even in Finland• The climate change will cause the vegetation zones to shift northwards, and some of the Finnish biotopes may disappear.• The Saimaa ringed seal, for example, may die out because the ice season shortens and makes its nesting difficult.• Butterflies will spread northwards. In 2001, more butterfly species than ever before were found in Finland. The snow nest has collapsed and a wet seal pup is lying on the ice, waiting for its mother. 7
  8. 8. The climate change may get out of hands• Feedback effects: warming may launch reactions that speeds it up • Warming melts the permafrost, and the methane trapped under it is released into the atmosphere. • The warming seas release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere • The climate change increases the number of forest fires which release even more carbon dioxide.• In the worst scenario, the climate change feeds on itself uncontrollably. In that case, the temperature might rise by 10ºC, and the consequences would be catastrophic. 8
  9. 9. A rise of 2 degrees in the A rise of 10 degrees in the Earths average Earths average temperature temperature Permafrost Methane is melts released
  10. 10. Do people have equal rights to produce emissions? Tons of carbon dioxide / person World average Lähde: Tilastokeskus 2006 10
  11. 11. Climate is also a matter of justness• Who causes the climate change? So far, industrial countries have caused over 80 % of the global warming.• Who suffers? In the hot regions of the developing countries, even a mild warming has damaging effects.• Who decides? Not everyone can join the political decision-making process concerning the climate. 11
  12. 12. Emissions must be cut drastically• Worldwide, emissions must be cut by 2/3 to prevent the climate change.• Finland produces a lot of emissions. Thus, we must cut our emissions even more: 75–95 %.• It would be fair to distribute the rights to produce emissions equally among all people. In Finland, emissions must be cut drastically to slow down the climate change. Lähde: Lammi & Tynkkynen 2001 12
  13. 13. International co-operation is needed• International climate treaties: • 1992 UN Climate Treaty was signed in Rio de Janeiro; all countries, including the USA, have signed it. • 1997 Kioto Protocol, by which industrial countries agreed to cut down their emissions by 5 % by 2008-2012.• The Kioto Protocol should be strengthened so that it would require industrial countries to reduce their emissions more drastically, and developing countries to act actively in the issue. • The rights to produce emissions must be distributed equally among all people. • Emissions in the industrialising third world countries can be limited by renewable energy and by a mutually agreed coal tax, for example• International treaties can be successful The Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 to prevent ozone depletion has stopped the use of ozone depleting substances in almost all the industrialised countries. 13
  14. 14. Energy production causes the greatest carbon dioxide emissions inFinland Energy sector total 83 % Energy production 65 % • for industry • for the electricity consumption in households and heating in the service sector traffic 18 % • private cars • transport within industry and trade •public transportation Lähde: Ilmastotavoite 2050 14
  15. 15. Energy sources Renewable: - wood - field biomass Unrenewable: (e.g. reed canary-grass) - coal - biogas - oil -wind power - natural gas - terrestrial heat - peat - solar power - nuclear power - hydropower 15
  16. 16. Renewable: Unrenewable:16
  17. 17. Less than ¼ of Finlands total energy demand is produced byrenewable forms of energy Turve Ydinvoima 16 % Sähkön 7% nettotuonti 1 % Muut 1 % Maakaasu 11 % Vesivoima 2 % Uusiutuvat Puupolttoaineet 22 % 19 % Hiili 17 % Öljy 25 % Lähde: Tilastokeskus 2004 17
  18. 18. Wind power• The market for wind power is growing at the rate of 20 % a year.• In other countries, the development is rapid: - Denmark:produces over 1/5 of the electricity by wind power and is committed to raise the share to 50 % by the year 2030 - Compared to Finland, Germanys wind power capacity is 300-fold, Spains capacity is 120-fold and Denmarks capacity is 60-fold. The increase in the wind power capacity of Austria in 2004 was 5 times as big as Finlands total capacity.• In Finland, only 0.1% of the electricity is produced by wind power.• The wind conditions in Finland are better than those in Germany, a leading country in the wind power production.• Wind power provides 2–5 times more jobs per produced energy unit than fossil or nuclear energy. Lumituuli Oy:n voima- laitos Lumijoella tuottaa tuulisähköä verkkoon 18
  19. 19. We need more emission-free bioenergy• Today, 20 % of Finlands energy is produced by bioenergy.• There are good opportunities for making bioenergy use even more common.• Examples of bioenergy: - wood - wood chips - wood pellets - biogas - reed canary-grass In the Kalmari farm in Laukaa the farms own - energy willow biogas generator generates the heat and electricity - rape-seed oil needed on the farm In addition, the car runs by biogas produced on the farm. 19
  20. 20. Finland must do its share• If all the people in the world consumed as much natural resources as we do, we would need four globes.• We have plenty of room for improvement in Finland. For example: with low-energy technology, the energy consumption of new apartment buildings could be reduced by 70% 20
  21. 21. Domestic policies have impact on climate change• Means of economic steering • taxation (e.g. energy tax) • subsidies (e.g. investment subsidies for wind power) • Emission trade (e.g. EU carbon dioxide trade)• Legislation • laws,regulations, and recommendations (esim. building regulations)• Information and education 21
  22. 22. Choose energy efficient alternatives• Buy energy-efficient appliances. Energy saving light bulbs use 80% less energy than normal light bulbs.• Keeping home appliances, like TV and videos, in standby-state consumes as much energy as a coal-fueled power plant produces. So, turn off the devices completely!• About 1/5 of the energy consumed in Finland is used for heating. By reducing room temperature by one degree you reduce the energy consumption of heating by 5 %.• Turn lights and appliances off when you do not need them.• Dont waste warm water. Energy saving bulb 22
  23. 23. Buy green energy• You can choose which supplier you buy your electricity from.• At the cheapest, green energy costs the same as ordinary energy on average.• Changing your energy supplier is easy. You can choose the energy supplier you like and fill in a contract form on the “Vaihda virtaa” campaign site.• Energy produced by domestic renewable energy sources is environmental friendly. 23
  24. 24. Walking, biking, and public transportation: environmental friendlychoices• More • buses • biking • train trips • transportation on rails• Less • cars • fllying Nearly half of all car rides are shorter than 5 km, and one of four rides is shorter than three km. 24
  25. 25. Bike or motorcycle?Carbon dioxide emissions / 10 kmLähde: Liikennevälineiden yksikköpäästöt 25
  26. 26. Think before you buy – reduce, re-use, recycle• Fix broken clothes and items• Recycle• Dont buy unnecessary things• Reduce the amount of waste; avoid heavily packaged products, for example• Sort out and compost• Buy organic and locally grown food, eat less meat• Dont smoke 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. The cost of shoppingManufacturing five low-quality t-shirts takes fives times as much energy as manufacturing one high-quality t-shirt. 29
  30. 30. Summary• Climate change is the most serious environmental problem in the world.• If we cant slow down the climate change, the consequences may be dramatic to both humans and environment.• Fortunately, reducing emissions is possible. Steps to prevent the climate change have been taken all over the world.• We can slow down the climate change through our own choices! 30
  31. 31. What is the greatest challenge to the world economy?-Cliate change, because it can changeeverything. No terrorist can beat us, but wecannot know when we exceed the ecosystemscapacity for good. This is a great threat, but alsoa great opportunity to create a better world,including more jobs for people. Therefore, Iamserious about this.Bill Clinton, 9.5.2006, Tampere 31
  32. 32. Sources for climate information Polttopallo – Luonto-Liiton ilmasto-opas 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. Nuclear power is the wrong choice• Nuclear power cannot be a long-termsolution to climate problems.• Uranium is unrenewable• Only 3 % of the worlds energy isproduced by nuclear power• There are still no solutions to theproblems concerning uranium mines andradioactive waste• Nuclear power is expensive and takesresources from the development ofrenewable energy sources.• It is safe to build small-scale powerplants based on renewable energysources anywhere in the world. Spider-Man volunteered to bring some cement to the Olkiluoto nuclear plant construction site in May 2006.