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# limit state method

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### limit state method

1. 1. LIMIT STATES AND DESIGN Limit State: Condition what a structure or structural element is no longer acceptable for its intended use. Major groups for RC structural limit states  Ultimate  Serviceability  Special
2. 2. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE Ultimate limit state  structural collapse of all or part of the structure ( very low probability of occurrence) and loss of life can occur.
3. 3. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Loss of equilibrium of a part or all of a structure as  a rigid body (tipping, sliding of structure). Rupture of critical components causing partial or  complete collapse. (flexural, shear failure). Progressive collapse  Minor local failure overloads causing adjacent members  to failure entire structure collapses. Structural integrity is provided by tying the structure  together with correct detailing of reinforcement provides alternative load paths in case of localized failure
4. 4. ULTIMATE LIMIT STATES Formation of a plastic mechanism - yielding of  reinforced forms plastic hinges at enough sections to make structure unstable. Instability cased by deformations of structure  causing buckling of members. Fatigue - members can fracture under repeated  stress cycles of service loads (may cause collapse).
5. 5. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES Functional use of structure is disrupted, but  collapse is not expected More often tolerated than an an ultimate limit state  since less danger of loss of life. Excessive deflections for normal service caused by  possible effects  malfunction of machinery  visually unacceptable  damage of nonstructural elements  changes in force distributions  ponding on roofs collapse of roof
6. 6. SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATES Excessive crack width leakage corrosion of  reinforcement gradual deterioration of structure. Undesirable vibrations   vertical floors/ bridges  lateral/torsional tall buildings  Change in the loading
7. 7. SPECIAL LIMIT STATES Damage/failure caused by abnormal conditions or loading.  Extreme earthquakes damage/collapse  Floods damage/collapse  Effects of fire,explosions, or vehicular collisions.  Effects of corrosion, deterioration  Long-term physical or chemical instability
8. 8. LIMIT STATES DESIGN Identify all potential modes of failure.  Determine acceptable safety levels for normal  structures building codes load combination/factors. Consider the significant limits states.  Members are designed for ultimate limit states   Serviceability is checked. Exceptions may include water tanks (crack width)   monorails (deflection)