Arches

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Arches

  1. 1. Daniel Oliveira & Paulo Lourenço U N I V E R S I T Y O F M I N H O Barcelona, November 17-19 2004 REPAIR OF STONE MASONRY ARCH BRIDGES 4TH. CONFERENCE ON ARCH BRIDGES
  2. 2. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Masonry Arch Bridges in Portugal:  - Roman Period , Medieval Age and Modern Period (P riceless architectural and cultural legacy, but often showing signs of damage) Major Causes of Damage:  - Deep change of loads for which bridges were built - Lack of adequate maintenance - Ageing processes (decay of the materials)
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 (Preventive maintenance) Generalized Damage:  - Absence of mortar in the stone joints - Existence of vegetation and biological colonization - Presence of humidity and efflorescences - Accelerated decay of the materials Localized Damage:  - Longitudinal cracking of the arches - Movement of abutments - Lack of plumbness of the spandrel walls But damage can be “minimized”… - By performing periodical inspections - By reducing the traffic load - By carrying out repair and strengthening measures…
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4   When dealing with architectural valuable constructions … Principles of Intervention in the Architectural Heritage (ICOMOS):  - Minimum repair to assure safety and durability - Respect of the original conception - Compatibility between existing and new materials - … Survey and Repair of 2 Portuguese Masonry Arch Bridges  - Boutaca Bridge - Donim Bridge
  5. 5. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE BOUTACA BRIDGE (stone masonry)  - Local: Batalha, center of Portugal - Dimensions: 60m length, 7m width (5m span ) - Purpose: roadway (belonging to the former road Lisbon-Porto) - Date of construction: 1860 Pointed Arches Flat roadway Tie rods + anchorages Buttressing System Uncertain safety conditions  Survey requested
  6. 6. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 - Existing anchorages much deteriorated and rather deformed (outward movement of masonry) (Buttresses overloaded) INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE Results of the Survey carried out:  - Vegetation & lost of plaster (lack of maintenance) - Humidity & biological colonization (deficient drainage system) - Cracking in the buttress walls
  7. 7. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE A) Structural Strengthening Additional “buttressing system” Patress plate Tie rod Recommended Remedial Measures:  - Lightening the buttresses  Tie rods + patress plates
  8. 8. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE B) Other measures: - Waterproofing of the pavement and reconstruction of the drainage system - Cleaning and removal of vegetation - Replacement of plaster - Need for periodical visual inspections
  9. 9. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 - Dimensions: 62m length, 4m width (larger span ≈ 12m ) INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE (stone masonry)  - Local: Guimarães, North of Portugal - Purpose: roadway (major importance untill 2 centuries ago) - Date of construction: 15 th – 16 th century Semicircular Arches Flat roadway Pier + Cutwaters Flood arch Precarious safety conditions  Survey requested
  10. 10. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE Results of the Survey carried out:  - Extensive longitudinal cracking in the left arch - Infesting vegetation all over the bridge - Longitudinal cracking in the flood (right) arch - Cutwater of the right pier highly damaged
  11. 11. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE (Incremental principal strains) - 1 block foundation missing (underwater inspection) - A numerical analysis (3D, non-linear) carried out allow to confirm the damage observed and helped understanding its causes - Spandrel walls out of plumb Major problems :  - Outward movements of spandrel walls - Longitudinal cracking in the left and right arches - Pre-collapse of a cutwater (right pier)
  12. 12. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE A) Left Arch (return joint’s thickness to its original width) ] profiles U shape tie rod Anchor rods Recommended Remedial Measures:  - Remove of the infill - Voussoirs placed in their original positions by means of rope-strechers - Fastening of stainless steel U profiles placed in a U shape above the arch and close to the spandrel walls - Tie rod to bind the spandrel walls - Infill put back into its place
  13. 13. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE B) Flood (right) Arch (prevent further spreading of the arch) - Full width anchors across the arch - Stitching anchors linking the arch to the spandrel walls Stitching anchors Full width anchors
  14. 14. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE C) Other measures: - Dismantling and rebuilding of the right cutwater (same stones + steel cramps + steel latches) - Replacement of the missing foundation stone block - Waterproofing of the pavement and reconstruction of the drainage system - Cleaning and removal of vegetation - Repointing of the deteriorated masonry joints
  15. 15. 4 T H. C O N F E R E N C E O N A R C H B R I D G E S - B A R C E L O N A , 2 0 0 4 INTRODUCTION BOUTACA BRIDGE DONIM BRIDGE FINAL REMARKS Common features to both examples Final Remarks  - Cleaning and removal of vegetation - Adoption of repair measures compatible with modern principles of structural intervention in the architectural heritage - Waterproofing and drainage of the pavement Thank you for your attention www.civil.uminho.pt/masonry
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