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Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building
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Creating a High-Performance and Environmentally Sustainable Building

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Michael Kuk, Director of Technical Services for Sieben Energy Associates in Chicago, IL presents tips for optimizing existing building performance. Presented at the February 9, 2010 Chapter Meeting & …

Michael Kuk, Director of Technical Services for Sieben Energy Associates in Chicago, IL presents tips for optimizing existing building performance. Presented at the February 9, 2010 Chapter Meeting & Seminar.

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  • 1. Creating a High PerformanceCreating a High Performance And Environmentally Sustainable Building Michael Kuk Director of Technical Services Sieben Energy Associates 333 North Michigan Avenue Chicago, IL 60601 (312) 899-1000 x 20 mkuk@siebenenergy.com
  • 2. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings AgendaAgenda • The building optimization processThe building optimization process • Mike’s top 10’s and tips • Resources Available • Packaging it all together into anPackaging it all together into an environmentally sustainable and high performance buildingperformance building © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 1
  • 3. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Sieben Energy Associates ServicesSieben Energy Associates Services • Energy Efficiency for New and Existing Buildingsgy y g g • HVAC System Commissioning for New and Existing BuildingsExisting Buildings • Sustainability Consulting (LEED) • Energy Commodity Management Services Energy • Information Managementg • Strategic Services © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 2
  • 4. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Existing Building OverviewExisting Building Overview Click here gaia.lbl.gov/btech/CSI_BPMAlliance/Commercial-BldgMarket.pdf 5 Milli C i l/I i i l B ildi i U S• 5 Million Commercial/Institutional Buildings in U.S. • 70 Billion Square Feet • Summary:• Summary: – Lots of buildings – Lots of SF – Lots of Opportunity for Energy Efficiency and Environmental Sustainability © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 3
  • 5. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process ( C )(aka Retro-Commissioning) 1 Planning and Documentation1. Planning and Documentation 2. Investigation Phase (Opportunity A )Assessment) 3. Implementation Phasep 4. Measurement and Verification Phase © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 4
  • 6. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process Planning and Documentation © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 5
  • 7. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process Planning and Documentation (Per LEED) 1. Document the current sequence of operations for the building. 2. Develop a building operating plan that provides details on how the building is to be operated and maintainedhow the building is to be operated and maintained. 3. Develop a systems narrative that briefly describes the mechanical and electrical systems and equipment in the building. 4. Create a narrative of the preventive maintenance plan for equipment described in the systems narrative and document theequipment described in the systems narrative and document the preventive maintenance schedule during the performance period. © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 6
  • 8. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Planning and Documentation Document the Current Sequence of Operation – Very valuable resource – “Challenging” to Obtain • Might be found in controls system submittal or in original project specifications documents (controls specification or in individual equipmentspecifications documents (controls specification, or in individual equipment specification) • Likely not optimized for energy efficiency • Likely never to be found (in writing)• Likely never to be found (in writing) • “As designed” SOO probably didn’t become “as-built” SOO • Likely had been modified by operators or subsequent controls t h i itechnicians • Might have to dig deeply into programming logic of BMS © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 7
  • 9. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Planning and Documentation Develop the Building Operating Plan – Provides details on how the building is to be operated and maintained. – The operating plan must include, at a minimum: • an occupancy schedule• an occupancy schedule • equipment run-time schedule • design set points for all HVAC equipment • design lighting levels throughout the building. • Identify any changes in schedules or set points for different seasons, days of the week and times of day. • Validate that the operating plan has been met during the performance period. © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 8
  • 10. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Planning and Documentation Develop the Building Operating Plan © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 9
  • 11. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Planning and Documentation Develop a Systems Narrative – Briefly describes the mechanical and electrical systems and equipment in the building. – Often referred to as the basis of design (BOD) I l d ll th t d t t th ti diti– Include all the systems used to meet the operating conditions stated in the operating plan, including at a minimum, heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting and any building controls systems. – Requirement of LEED New Construction projects Lik l d l d d i h d i / i– Likely was never developed during the design / construction phase. – May have been developed by the owner…but not likely © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 10 May have been developed by the owner…but not likely
  • 12. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Planning and Documentation Develop a P&M Narrative • Create a narrative of the preventive maintenance plan for equipment d ib d i h i d d h i idescribed in the systems narrative and document the preventive maintenance schedule during the performance period. • Good resource is ASHRAE Standard 180-2008 -- Standard Practice for I ti d M i t f C i l B ildi HVAC S tInspection and Maintenance of Commercial Building HVAC Systems © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 11
  • 13. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process S G O SINVESTIGATION PHASE – Perform Rx process: Investigation Phasep g 1. Perform an ASHRAE Level 1, 2 Energy Audit (note: LEED EB just requires an ASHRAE level 1) 1 Benchmarking and Utility Analysis1. Benchmarking and Utility Analysis 2. Identify where opportunities exist 3. Perform savings analysis and calculations 2 P f IEQ l i ?2. Perform an IEQ analysis? 3. Present initial opportunities and recommendations 4. Get “buy in” and commitment from owner 5. Further evaluate recommendations through testing and analysis 6. Fine tune savings and recommendations 7 Re-present and get “buy in” and commitment from owner © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 12 7. Re present and get buy in and commitment from owner
  • 14. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL AUDITASHRAE LEVEL AUDIT – Good Resources: P d f C i l B ildi A dit• Procedures for Commercial Building Audits • Energy Efficiency Guide for Existing Commercial Buildings: The Business Case for Building Owners andBuildings: The Business Case for Building Owners and Managers © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 13
  • 15. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL AUDITASHRAE LEVEL AUDIT In a “Nut Shell” 1. How much energy are they using? 2 Where are they using it?2. Where are they using it? --------------------------------------------------- 3. Are they using it effectively? 4 How can they use it more effectively?4. How can they use it more effectively? © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 14
  • 16. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 1 AUDITASHRAE LEVEL 1 AUDIT • Perform a brief walk-through survey of the facility to become familiar with its construction, equipment, operation, and maintenance. • Meet with owner/operator and occupants to learn of special problems or needs of the facility. Determine if any maintenance problems and/or practices may affect efficiency. • Perform a space function analysis. Determine if efficiency may be affected by functions that differ from the original functional intent of the building. • Perform a rough estimate to determine the approximate breakdown of energyg pp gy use for significant end-use categories, including weather and non-weather related uses. • Identify low-cost/no-cost changes to the facility or to operating andy g y p g maintenance procedures, and determine the savings that will result from these changes. • Identify potential capital improvements for further study, and provide an © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 15 y p p p y, p initial estimate of potential costs and savings.
  • 17. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 1 AUDIT (d li bl )ASHRAE LEVEL 1 AUDIT (deliverable) Deliverables: The report for a Level I analysis should contain the building characteristics and energy use summary as well as the following. 1. Quantification of savings potential from changing to a different utility price structure. 2 Discussion of irregularities found in the monthly energy use2. Discussion of irregularities found in the monthly energy use patterns, with suggestions about their possible causes. 3. The energy index of similar buildings. Report the source, size, and date of the sample used in this comparison. The names of comparable buildings should be given if known. 4 The method used to develop the target indices4. The method used to develop the target indices. 5. Total energy and demand cost by fuel type for the latest year and preceding two years if available. Show potential savings in © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 16 p g y p g dollars using the energy index format of ASHRAE Standard 105.
  • 18. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 1 AUDIT (d li bl )ASHRAE LEVEL 1 AUDIT (deliverable) Deliverables continued: 5. The fraction of current costs that would be saved if the5. The fraction of current costs that would be saved if the energy index were brought to the target level. 6. A summary of any special problems or needs identified during the walkthrough survey, including possible revisions to operating and maintenance procedures. 7 A preliminary energy use breakdown by major end uses7. A preliminary energy use breakdown by major end uses. 8. The listing of low-cost/no-cost changes with the savings for these improvements. 9. The potential capital improvements, with an initial estimate of potential costs and savings © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 17
  • 19. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDITASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT This analytical procedure is guided by Level I analysis and includes the following additional work: 1. Review mechanical and electrical system design, installed condition, maintenance practices, d ti th dand operating methods. 2. Review existing operating and maintenance problems. Determine planned building changes. 3. Measure key operating parameters and compare to design levels, for example, operating schedules, heating/cooling water temperature, supply air temperature, space temperature andg g p pp y p p p humidity, ventilation quantities, and light level at the task. Such measurements may be taken on a spot basis, or logged, manually or electronically. 4. Prepare a breakdown of the total annual energy use into end-use components, as illustrated in the 1999 ASHRAE Handbook—Applications, Chapter 34, Figure 4, or as shown in the sectionin the 1999 ASHRAE Handbook Applications, Chapter 34, Figure 4, or as shown in the section “Energy Analysis Summary and Recommendations.” A number of calculation methods are available, ranging from simplified manual calculations to fully detailed computer simulation of hour-by-hour building operations for a full year. 5 List all possible modifications to equipment and operations that would save energy Select5. List all possible modifications to equipment and operations that would save energy. Select those that might be considered practical by the owner. List preliminary cost and savings estimates. 6. Review the list of practical modifications with the owner/operator and select those that will b l d f th P i iti th difi ti i th ti i t d d f i l t ti © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 18 be analyzed further. Prioritize the modifications in the anticipated order of implementation.
  • 20. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT ( t )ASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT (cont.) 7. For each practical measure, estimate the potential savings in energy cost and its energy index. To account for interaction between modifications assume that modifications with the highestTo account for interaction between modifications, assume that modifications with the highest operational priority and/or best return on investment will be implemented first. A number of calculation methods are available, ranging from simplified manual calculations to rerunning computer simulations, if performed in Step 4, above. 8 E ti t th t f h ti l8. Estimate the cost of each practical measure. 9. Estimate the impact of each practical measure on building operations, maintenance costs, and non-energy operating costs. 10. Estimate the combined energy savings from implementing all of the practical measures and compare to the potential derived in the Level I analysis. It should be clearly stated that savings from each modification are based on the assumption that all previous modifications have already been implemented and that the total savings account for all of the interactions between modifications. 11. Prepare a financial evaluation of the estimated total potential investment using the owner’s chosen techniques and criteria. These evaluations may be performed for each practical measure. 12. Following submission of the report of the Level II analysis, meet with the owner to discuss priorities and to help select measures for implementation or further analysis © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 19 priorities and to help select measures for implementation or further analysis.
  • 21. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT D li blASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT Deliverable Deliverables: The report for a Level II analysis should contain at least the following. 1. A summary of energy use and cost associated with each end-use. Show calculations performed or quote the name and version of software used and include both input and output pages. Provide interpretation of differences between actual total energy use and calculated or simulated end-use totals.differences between actual total energy use and calculated or simulated end use totals. 2. A description of the building, including typical floor plans and inventories of major energy-using equipment. (This information may be included as an appendix.) 3. A list of measures considered but felt to be impractical, with brief reasons for rejecting each. 4. For each practical measure, provide4. For each practical measure, provide a) a discussion of the existing situation and why it is using excess energy; b) an outline of the measure, including its impact on occupant health, comfort, and safety; c) a description of any repairs that are required for a measure to be effective; d) the impact on occupant service capabilities, such as ventilation for late occupancy or year-round cooling; e) an outline of the impact on operating procedures, maintenance procedures, and costs; f) expected life of new equipment, and the impact on the life of existing equipment; g) an outline of any new skills required in operating staff and training or hiring recommendations; h) calculations performed or provide the name and version of software used and include both input and output data. © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 20
  • 22. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT D li bl ( t )ASHRAE LEVEL 2 AUDIT Deliverable (cont.) Deliverables: The report for a Level II analysis should contain at least the following. 5. A table listing the estimated costs for all practical measures, the savings, and financial performance indicator. For the cost of each measure, show thep , estimated accuracy of the value quoted. This table should spell out the assumed sequence of implementation and state that savings may be quite different if a different implementation sequence is followed. 6. A discussion of any differences between the savings projected in this analysis and the estimated potential derived in the Level I analysis. 7. Overall project economic evaluation.p j 8. Recommended measurement and verification method(s) that will be required to determine the actual effectiveness of the recommended measures. 9. Discussion of feasible capital-intensive measures that may require a © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 21 9. Discussion of feasible capital intensive measures that may require a Level III analysis.
  • 23. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE ASHRAE LEVEL 3 AUDITASHRAE LEVEL 3 AUDIT 1.More detailed economic analysis1.More detailed economic analysis 2.“investment grade” analysis 3 Lik l i l d t d li3. Likely include computer modeling © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 22
  • 24. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Building Data AnalysisBuilding Data Analysis Slide courtesy of BOC program – End-use ProfilesEnd-Use Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Totals Heat 20005 12911 11410 5383 1907 198 188 131 208 3524 18095 27273 101,233 Lights 4195 3490 3170 2559 2766 2558 2369 2985 3030 3421 3708 4430 38,681 Receptacles + Computers 3808 3291 3170 2764 3040 2742 2589 2744 2533 2941 2970 2871 35,463 2000 Annual Consumption Fans 4779 4441 4462 3845 4895 5393 4894 5184 4415 4607 5573 5998 58,486 DHW 575 484 459 460 499 462 340 379 402 372 400 404 5,236 Compressor 0 0 0 240 480 1680 1680 3000 1720 80 0 0 8,880 Kitchen + Exercise 8229 6916 6692 5042 5207 4104 4004 4203 3937 4635 7880 10129 70,978 Totals 41591 31533 29363 20293 18794 17137 16064 18626 16245 19580 38626 51105 318,957 2000 Energy End-Use Breakdown 32% 22% Heat 12% 18% 2% 3% Heat Lights Receptacles + Computers Fans DHW Compressor © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC % 11% Kitchen + Exercise
  • 25. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings BenchmarkingBenchmarking slide courtesy of BOC program • Baseline Profile 90 000 3 year Monthly Energy Usage vs Average 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000 age(KWH) 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 EnergyUsa JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 2000 61,287 48,672 45,146 36,834 26,569 27,507 27,040 26,343 29,271 39,324 40,586 80,039 2001 65 061 55 168 52 281 40 158 35 580 29 225 28 546 30 556 26 189 36 642 50 047 74 104 - JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 2000 2001 2002 Baseline © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 2001 65,061 55,168 52,281 40,158 35,580 29,225 28,546 30,556 26,189 36,642 50,047 74,104 2002 64,373 62,378 60,180 42,761 33,156 29,631 26,426 32,245 25,921 35,593 48,609 63,817 Baseline 63,574 55,406 52,536 39,918 31,768 28,788 27,337 29,715 27,127 37,186 46,414 72,653
  • 26. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings • Benchmarking Tools (courtesy BOC) – CBECS -- Commercial Buildings Energy Consumptiong gy p Survey, from the US DOE Energy Information Administration – ARCH -- Building benchmarking tool based on CBECS– ARCH -- Building benchmarking tool based on CBECS data – Cal-Arch -- California version of above utilizing CEUS datadata – Oak Ridge Benchmarking Tools -- by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Includes customizable spreadsheets special tools for Iowa Colorado &spreadsheets, special tools for Iowa, Colorado, & Florida schools. – ASHRAE (working on it) © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC
  • 27. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Benchmarking (slide courtesy of BOC) Portfolio ManagerPortfolio Manager © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC
  • 28. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE BENCHMARKING AND UTILITY ANALYSISBENCHMARKING AND UTILITY ANALYSIS – Link for sample SEA report click herep p © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 27
  • 29. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE PERFORM AN IEQ ANALYSIS?PERFORM AN IEQ ANALYSIS? • IEQ = Indoor Environmental Quality • Determine if Building Meets – Standard 55-2004 -- Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancyp y – Standard 62.1-2007 -- Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (and associated users manuals) – IESNA Lighting Levels • These standards all have direct (and indirect) impact on LEED IEQ points – PR1: Minimum IAQ PerformancePR1: Minimum IAQ Performance – Credits 1.1 through 1.5 – Credits 2.1 through 2.4 • These IEQ standards also a requirement to be Energy Star © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 28 • These IEQ standards also a requirement to be Energy Star Building Rated
  • 30. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE TESTING AND ANALYSISTESTING AND ANALYSIS Key Test Equipment Toolsy q p 1. Proper safety gear 2. Temperature gun (and attachments) 3. Strobe Tach 4. Camera / Tape recorder Sli h5. Sling Psychrometer 6. Temperature and humidity sensors and probes 7 Power meter (current voltage power quality power)7. Power meter (current, voltage, power quality, power) 8. Data Loggers 1. Temperature, Humidity © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 29 2. Light levels 3. Current
  • 31. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE TESTING AND ANALYSISTESTING AND ANALYSIS Analysis Toolsy 1. Self developed Spreadsheets 2. Computer modeling tools. Co pute ode g too s 3. Vendor analysis tools 4 DOE Software tools4. DOE Software tools Functional and Start Up Testing Forms 1 PECI1. PECI 2. Building Commissioning Association 3 FEMP / GSA / USACE © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 30 3. FEMP / GSA / USACE
  • 32. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings INVESTIGATION PHASE O C i tiOwner Communication 1. Present initial opportunities and recommendationspp 2. Get “buy in” and commitment from owner 3. Further evaluate recommendations through testing3. u t e eva uate eco e dat o s t oug test g and analysis 4. Fine tune savings and recommendationsg 5. Present again, and get “buy in” and commitment from owner Remember…always incorporate the OPR into your investigation © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 31
  • 33. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process O SIMPLEMENTATION PHASE – Develop GOOD specifications • SOO’s (as appropriate) • Commissioning requirements (require functional tests, not just start-up testing) • O&M manual documentation • Training • System (equipment) • Sensors and controls (as appropriate) • Match with LEED requirements (filter, refrigerant, efficiency) – Ensure bids actually meet specification requirementsy p q – Monitor/trend system performance prior to replacement (to assist in measurement and verification) – Make sure that when evaluating systems that the maintenance staff reviews to © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 32 g y ensure ease of maintenance
  • 34. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process Testing and Measurement and VerificationTesting and Measurement and Verification (M&V) Phase Note: This is just an overview. M&V is a service offering all in itself that can be either be very complex or simple, depending upon the needs of the owner. I’m going to focus on the simple.simple. – Simple M&V • Functionally test systems (where appropriate)y y ( pp p ) – Verify sequence of operations working properly – Damper / actuator modulation working properly T k b d f t t t d– Take beyond manufacturers start-up procedures • Data logging and trending – Using BMS or data loggers © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 33 g gg – Temperature, humidity, power • Utility Bill analysis and trending
  • 35. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings The Building Optimization Process ( C )(aka Retro-Commissioning) 1 Planning and Documentation1. Planning and Documentation 2. Investigation Phase (Opportunity A )Assessment) 3. Implementation Phasep 4. Measurement and Verification Phase © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 34
  • 36. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Mike’s Top 10 Control IssuesMike s Top 10 Control Issues 1. Operator not effectively trained on BMS 2. Systems have been locked out by operator 3. Scheduling is not optimized (sometime running 24/7) 4. Economizer control not optimal (too high of limit) 5 St ti tti ( i bl d) d AHU’ t5. Static pressure setting on (variable speed) pumps and AHU’s too high. No auto reset on (variable speed) pumps and AHU’s 6. VSD’s locked out on (too high) of a minimum speed due to perceived requirement, or due to heating/cooling coil minimum requirements 7. Reheat being used during summerg g 8. DAT not reset to limit use of reheat 9. Exhaust fans running continuously © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 35 10. Fans being run continuously instead of cycling (not recommended for all applications)
  • 37. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Mike’s Top 10 Control SolutionsMike s Top 10 Control Solutions 1. Train the operator on effective use of the BMS 2. Figure out why controls have been locked out, and find solution 3. Optimize the building and equipment schedule. (Equipment schedule does not have to match building occupancy schedule.) 4 F ll ASHRAE 90 1 i t f i t l4. Follow ASHRAE 90.1 requirements for economizer control 5. Determine why static pressure setting on (variable speed) pumps and AHU’s too high. Experiment with resetting. Utilize a new dynamic pressure reset sequence on (variable speed) pumps and AHU’son (variable speed) pumps and AHU s 6. Determine if VSD minimum lockout is actually required, or just “thought to be” required. Remove lockout in most HW/CHW coil applications unless freeze stat is tripping in heating mode. Do not lock out all year. 7. Disable reheat during the summer. Fix specific areas being over cooled. 8. Utilize dynamic DAT reset SOO to limit use of reheat 9. Schedule exhaust fans, or interlock with associated AHU © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 36 10. Change programming on BMS, or DIP switches on RTU’s / T-stats to allow automatic operation of fans instead of continuous operation.
  • 38. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Mike’s Top 10 (low cost) OpportunitiesMike s Top 10 (low cost) Opportunities 1. Systems have never been commissioned 2. Economizer controls inoperative 3. Dampers and actuators inoperative or in poor condition 4. Sensors not recalibrated on regular basis (especially enthalpy and CO2 sensors) 5 Coils not properly cleaned5. Coils not properly cleaned 6. High efficiency motors not utilized or oversized 7. Equipment in generally poor overall conditionq p g y p 8. Inlet vane dampers utilized instead of variable frequency drives © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 37 9. Pumps oversized, and throttled back instead of being trimmed 10. High efficiency lighting, or lighting controls not utilized.
  • 39. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Mike’s Top 10 (low cost) System and O& SO&M Solutions 1. Perform functional performance tests on uncommissioned systems 2. Replace economizer controls. Test and calibrate annually 3. Test dampers and actuators bi-annually. Repair or replace. 4 Recalibrate CO2 and enthalpy sensors annually or greater for more4. Recalibrate CO2 and enthalpy sensors annually or greater for more frequently on large, energy intensive AHU’s. 5. Keep coils clean 6. Do economic analysis and remove/replace with high efficiency motors where economically. Upon burnout upgrade for others. Do a motor load test and right-size the motor.g 7. Initiate recommended O&M procedures. Savings of 5%-10% 8. Replace inlet vanes with variable frequency drives 9 i i h i i © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 38 9. Trim pumps, right-size motors as appropriate. 10. Upgrade lighting systems and controls.
  • 40. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Mike’s Top 10 (multi-year payback) O t itiOpportunities 1. High efficiency motors not utilized (often a very quick payback) 2 RTU’ di l t2. RTU’s needing replacement 3. Chillers and cooling towers needing replacement 4. Boilers needing replacement4. Boilers needing replacement 5. Pneumatic control systems system being utilized 6. Need for building automation system 7. Constant volume pumping still being utilized (could often be a very quick payback) 8 Need to convert to variable air volume system or upgrade8. Need to convert to variable air volume system or upgrade existing VAV system 9. Building envelop upgrades required © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 39 10. Lighting system and controls upgrade required.
  • 41. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings TIPSTIPS • Fully understand the owners requirements, sequence of operations, system schedules, and equipment interaction. More often than not, they don’t know (exactly) what they need, and you need to guide them. Most think they have no (or not economical) options. • Determine level of detail required and desired (some are just happy with summary table, some want detail) • Understand the skill sets and capabilities of the operating staff• Understand the skill sets and capabilities of the operating staff. • Proper training, and systems manuals are vital • There is a lot of low hanging fruit. • If you don’t solve operational issues, they will not achieve the savings possible even with new equipment. • Normal equipment start up procedures do not guarantee proper and © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 40 Normal equipment start up procedures do not guarantee proper and efficient equipment operation. Must do functional performance test as well.
  • 42. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Auditing/Commissioning Tool Box S SKey ASHRAE Standards • Standard 100-2006 -- Energy Conservation in Existing Buildings • Standard 105-2007 -- Standard Methods of Measuring, Expressing, andStandard 105 2007 Standard Methods of Measuring, Expressing, and Comparing Building Energy Performance • Standard 111-2008 -- Measurement, Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Building HVAC Systems • Standard 170-2008 -- Ventilation of Health Care Facilities • Standard 180-2008 -- Standard Practice for Inspection and Maintenance of Commercial Building HVAC Systems • Standard 189.1-2009, Standard for the Design of High-Performance Green Buildings • Standard 41.1-1986 (RA 2006) -- Standard Method for Temperature MeasurementMeasurement • Standard 55-2004 -- Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy • Standard 62.1-2007 -- Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (and associated users manuals) © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 41 associated users manuals) • Standard 90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (And associated User Manuals, and previous editions of the standard)
  • 43. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Auditing/Commissioning Tool Box S GKey ASHRAE Guidelines • Guideline 0-2005 -- The Commissioning Process • Guideline 1.1-2007 -- HVAC&R Technical Requirements for The Commissioning Process • Guideline 11-2009 -- Field Testing of HVAC Controls ComponentsGuideline 11 2009 Field Testing of HVAC Controls Components • Guideline 13-2007 -- Specifying Direct Digital Control Systems • Guideline 14-2002 -- Measurement of Energy and Demand Savings • Guideline 16-2003 -- Selecting Outdoor, Return, and Relief Dampers for Air-Side Economizer Systems • Guideline 22-2008 -- Instrumentation for Monitoring CentralGuideline 22 2008 Instrumentation for Monitoring Central Chilled-Water Plant Efficiency • Guideline 4-2008 -- Preparation of Operating and Maintenance Documentation for Building Systems © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 42 Documentation for Building Systems
  • 44. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Auditing/Commissioning Tool Box O SOther ASHRAE Resources • ASHRAE Energy Design Guides (free download) 1. Small Hospitals and Healthcare 2. Highway Lodging 3. Small Warehouse and Self Storage Buildings 4. K-12 School Buildings 5 S ll R t il B ildi5. Small Retail Buildings 6. Small Office Buildings • Procedures for Commercial Building AuditsProcedures for Commercial Building Audits • ASHRAE Green Guide • Energy Efficiency Guide for Existing Commercial Buildings: © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 43 gy y g g The Business Case for Building Owners and Managers
  • 45. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Combined Reference Guides (slide courtesy of USGBC)LEEDV3 © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC © Sieben Energy Associates, LLCRESULTS, EXPERIENCE AND RELATIONSHIPS SINCE 1990.
  • 46. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings Packaging It All TogetherPackaging It All Together • Review LEED Checklist prior to analysisReview LEED Checklist prior to analysis and incorporate into your evaluation and opportunities to pursueopportunities to pursue. • Link to spreadsheet © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC 45
  • 47. Illinois Chapter ASHRAE- Energy Saving Designs for Existing Buildings I will be happy to answer your questions. © Sieben Energy Assoc., LLC

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