Systematic Literature Reviews: A 'How To' Guide  Isla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library
<ul><li>how to  clarify the question(s)   </li></ul><ul><li>selecting the databases  and other resources to search  </li><...
1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1...
From topic to search <ul><li>introducing   the research topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarifying the question </li></ul></ul...
From topic to search <ul><li>Topic -> question -> keywords/synonyms </li></ul>Diabetes, especially the impact of patient e...
<ul><li>” Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control  in teenage diabetics?” </li></ul><ul><li>1  – t...
<ul><li>”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control  in teenage diabetics?” </li></ul><ul><li>1  – te...
Boolean Logic <ul><li>AND  – to narrow the search by combining  different topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul></ul><...
Boolean Logic <ul><li>OR  – to broaden your search, by combining  similar terms </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>“ e...
Boolean Logic <ul><li>NOT  – to restrict your search so that it does not contain a particular term </li></ul><ul><li>eg </...
<ul><li>”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control  in teenage diabetics?” </li></ul><ul><li>1  – te...
Question: 1 st  theme   OR   OR   OR AND 2 nd  theme   OR   OR   OR AND 3 rd  theme   OR   OR   OR AND 4 th  theme?   OR  ...
Truncation  <ul><li>treat </li></ul><ul><li>treats </li></ul><ul><li>treating </li></ul><ul><li>treated </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Truncation / wildcards? </li></ul><ul><li>1  –  teenagers OR teens OR adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Truncation / wildcards? </li></ul><ul><li>1  – teen *  OR adolesce * </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>2  – ...
Task <ul><li>Go to  http:// wok.mimas.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Open Web of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Type a key word, and s...
From topic to search <ul><li>Where in the article record do you want the terms/keywords to appear? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T...
Task <ul><li>Go to  http:// wok.mimas.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Open Web of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Type a key word, and s...
<ul><li>MeSH </li></ul><ul><li>“ MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is the NLM controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for index...
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20440928   MeSH
MeSH
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68007003   MeSH & Subheadings
http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?term =epidemiology   MeSH & Subheadings
<ul><li>MeSH </li></ul><ul><li>1  – tee n*  OR adolesce *  OR &quot;Adolescent&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul...
<ul><li>Limits? </li></ul><ul><li>tee n* OR adolesce* OR &quot;Adolescent&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul>...
From topic to search:  same strategy, different words <ul><li>Moving from one database to another….. </li></ul>
From topic to search:  same strategy, different words <ul><li>http:// www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html  Observation...
From topic to search:  same strategy, different words <ul><li>http:// www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html  Observation...
1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1...
1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1...
Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica <ul><li>The objective of this revi...
Keywords <ul><li>introducing   the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>id...
Sensitivity vs Specificity
Sensitivity vs Specificity
Sensitivity vs Specificity
<ul><li>introducing   the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify releva...
<ul><li>introducing   the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify releva...
<ul><li>introducing   the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify releva...
<ul><li>introducing   the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify releva...
http://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1069.full.pdf http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7446/991.full.pdf
introducing   the research topic reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) Reference...
Searching – Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t try to do the whole search in one line </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t imagine that your f...
Searching – Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Do think of alternative ways of talking about your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Do consider t...
 
Help! <ul><li>Isla Kuhn </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Services Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Library </li></ul><ul><li>Bo...
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Systematic reviewing oct2011

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Systematic reviewing oct2011

  1. 1. Systematic Literature Reviews: A 'How To' Guide Isla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library
  2. 2. <ul><li>how to clarify the question(s) </li></ul><ul><li>selecting the databases and other resources to search </li></ul><ul><li>devising the most comprehensive literature search strategy so you know you’ve not missed any relevant studies </li></ul><ul><li>keeping up to date with new information appearing between the initial search and write-up </li></ul><ul><li>issues around documentation of process and results </li></ul><ul><li>management of references , and getting hold of the full text article </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1-7 9 Animals/ 10 Humans/ 11 9 not (9 and 10) 12 8 not 11 13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 14 exp Back Pain/ 15 exp Low Back Pain/ 16 backache.ab,ti. 17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 18 coccyx.ab,ti. 19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 20 exp Sciatica/ 21 sciatica.ab,ti. 22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 23 lumbago.ab,ti. 24 or/13-23 25 exp Spine/ 26 discitis.ab,ti. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti. 31 spinal fusion.sh. 32 spinal neoplasms.sh. 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti. 34 intervertebral disk.sh. 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti. 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti. 38 or/25-37 39 exp activities of daily living/ 40 activities of daily living.tw. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab. 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab. 46 exp Bed Rest/ 47 bed rest.mp. 48 or/39-47 49 24 or 38 50 12 and 49 51 48 and 50
  4. 4. From topic to search <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>clarifying the question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>setting parameters (inclusion/exclusion criteria not built into search?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>lose marks through sloppy references </li></ul>Question Keywords Synonyms MeSH / sub headings Boolean Logic Truncation / wildcards Limits
  5. 5. From topic to search <ul><li>Topic -> question -> keywords/synonyms </li></ul>Diabetes, especially the impact of patient education ….. ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” …………………keywords???.... synonyms???........................ Themes?
  6. 6. <ul><li>” Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” </li></ul><ul><li>1 – teenagers </li></ul><ul><li>2 – patient education </li></ul><ul><li>3 – blood sugar </li></ul>From topic to search Synonyms?
  7. 7. <ul><li>”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” </li></ul><ul><li>1 – teenagers teens adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>2 – patient education patient information </li></ul><ul><li>3 – blood sugar blood glucose hypoglycaemia hyperglycaemia </li></ul>From topic to search
  8. 8. Boolean Logic <ul><li>AND – to narrow the search by combining different topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ physiotherapy” and “stroke” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both terms must be present in the results. </li></ul>Stroke Physiotherapy
  9. 9. Boolean Logic <ul><li>OR – to broaden your search, by combining similar terms </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>“ exercise” or “physical activity” </li></ul><ul><li>Either term can be present in the resulting set of articles. </li></ul>Cerebral-vascular Accident Stroke
  10. 10. Boolean Logic <ul><li>NOT – to restrict your search so that it does not contain a particular term </li></ul><ul><li>eg </li></ul><ul><li>“ physical therapy” not “manual therapy” </li></ul><ul><li>The first, but not the second, term must be present. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>Manual Therapy Physical Therapy
  11. 11. <ul><li>”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” </li></ul><ul><li>1 – teenagers OR teens OR adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>2 – patient education OR patient information </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia </li></ul>From topic to search
  12. 12. Question: 1 st theme   OR   OR   OR AND 2 nd theme   OR   OR   OR AND 3 rd theme   OR   OR   OR AND 4 th theme?   OR   OR   OR
  13. 13. Truncation <ul><li>treat </li></ul><ul><li>treats </li></ul><ul><li>treating </li></ul><ul><li>treated </li></ul><ul><li>treater </li></ul><ul><li>treatment </li></ul><ul><li>treatments </li></ul><ul><li>Treat* </li></ul><ul><li>Treat? </li></ul><ul><li>Treat$ </li></ul>Treatment
  14. 14. <ul><li>Truncation / wildcards? </li></ul><ul><li>1 – teenagers OR teens OR adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>2 – patient education OR patient information </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia </li></ul>From topic to search
  15. 15. <ul><li>Truncation / wildcards? </li></ul><ul><li>1 – teen * OR adolesce * </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>2 – patient education OR patient information </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglyc * OR hyperglyc * </li></ul>From topic to search
  16. 16. Task <ul><li>Go to http:// wok.mimas.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Open Web of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Type a key word, and search by “topic” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many hits? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type the keyword with some truncation (use *) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many hits? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. From topic to search <ul><li>Where in the article record do you want the terms/keywords to appear? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All/any field? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact on sensitivity/specificity? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Task <ul><li>Go to http:// wok.mimas.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Open Web of Science </li></ul><ul><li>Type a key word, and search by “topic” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many hits? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type a keyword and search by “title” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How many hits? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>MeSH </li></ul><ul><li>“ MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is the NLM controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles for PubMed.” </li></ul>From topic to search
  20. 20. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20440928 MeSH
  21. 21. MeSH
  22. 22. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68007003 MeSH & Subheadings
  23. 23. http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh?term =epidemiology MeSH & Subheadings
  24. 24. <ul><li>MeSH </li></ul><ul><li>1 – tee n* OR adolesce * OR &quot;Adolescent&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>2 – patient education OR patient information OR &quot;Patient Education as Topic&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglyc* OR hyperglyc* OR &quot;Blood Glucose&quot;[Mesh] OR &quot;Hypoglycemia&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul>From topic to search
  25. 25. <ul><li>Limits? </li></ul><ul><li>tee n* OR adolesce* OR &quot;Adolescent&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>patient education OR patient information OR &quot;Patient Education as Topic&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR &quot;Blood Glucose&quot;[Mesh] OR &quot;Hypoglycemia&quot;[Mesh] </li></ul>From topic to search Year of publication? Humans vs Animals? Type of publication? Language of publication?
  26. 26. From topic to search: same strategy, different words <ul><li>Moving from one database to another….. </li></ul>
  27. 27. From topic to search: same strategy, different words <ul><li>http:// www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters </li></ul>Medline (via OVID) 1 Epidemiologic studies/ 2 Exp case control studies/ 3 Exp cohort studies/ 4 Case control.tw. 5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. 6 Cohort analy$.tw. 7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 9 Longitudinal.tw. 10 Retrospective.tw. 11 Cross sectional.tw. 12 Cross-sectional studies/ 13 Or/1-12 Embase (via OVID) 1 Clinical study/ 2 Case control study 3 Family study/ 4 Longitudinal study/ 5 Retrospective study/ 6 Prospective study/ 7 Randomized controlled trials/ 8 6 not 7 9 Cohort analysis/ 10 (Cohort adj (study or studies)).mp. 11 (Case control adj (study or studies)).tw. 12 (follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 13 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 14 (epidemiologic$ adj (study or studies)).tw. 15 (cross sectional adj (study or studies)).tw. 16 Or/1-5,8-15
  28. 28. From topic to search: same strategy, different words <ul><li>http:// www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters </li></ul>Medline (via OVID) 1 Epidemiologic studies/ 2 Exp case control studies/ 3 Exp cohort studies/ 4 Case control.tw. 5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. 6 Cohort analy$.tw. 7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 9 Longitudinal.tw. 10 Retrospective.tw. 11 Cross sectional.tw. 12 Cross-sectional studies/ 13 Or/1-12 Medline (via Pubmed) #1 “Epidemiologic studies”[Mesh] #2 “case control studies”[Mesh] #3 “cohort studies”[Mesh] #4 Case control[Text Word] #5 (cohort stud*))[Text Word] #6 Cohort analy*[Text Word] #7 (Follow up AND (study or studies))[Text Word] #8 (observational AND (study or studies))[Text Word] #9 Longitudinal[Text Word] #10 Retrospective[Text Word] #11 Cross sectional[Text Word] #12 “Cross-sectional studies”[Mesh] #13 #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11 OR #12
  29. 29. 1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1-7 9 Animals/ 10 Humans/ 11 9 not (9 and 10) 12 8 not 11 13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 14 exp Back Pain/ 15 exp Low Back Pain/ 16 backache.ab,ti. 17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 18 coccyx.ab,ti. 19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 20 exp Sciatica/ 21 sciatica.ab,ti. 22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 23 lumbago.ab,ti. 24 or/13-23 25 exp Spine/ 26 discitis.ab,ti. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti. 31 spinal fusion.sh. 32 spinal neoplasms.sh. 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti. 34 intervertebral disk.sh. 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti. 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti. 38 or/25-37 39 exp activities of daily living/ 40 activities of daily living.tw. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab. 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab. 46 exp Bed Rest/ 47 bed rest.mp. 48 or/39-47 49 24 or 38 50 12 and 49 51 48 and 50
  30. 30. 1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1-7 9 Animals/ 10 Humans/ 11 9 not (9 and 10) 12 8 not 11 13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 14 exp Back Pain/ 15 exp Low Back Pain/ 16 backache.ab,ti. 17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 18 coccyx.ab,ti. 19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 20 exp Sciatica/ 21 sciatica.ab,ti. 22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 23 lumbago.ab,ti. 24 or/13-23 25 exp Spine/ 26 discitis.ab,ti. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti. 31 spinal fusion.sh. 32 spinal neoplasms.sh. 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti. 34 intervertebral disk.sh. 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti. 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti. 38 or/25-37 39 exp activities of daily living/ 40 activities of daily living.tw. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab. 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab. 46 exp Bed Rest/ 47 bed rest.mp. 48 or/39-47 49 24 or 38 50 12 and 49 51 48 and 50
  31. 31. Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica <ul><li>The objective of this review is to determine the effects of advice to rest in bed or stay active for patients with acute low-back pain or sciatica. </li></ul><ul><li>The following comparisons will be made: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed rest versus staying active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed rest versus other treatments (besides staying active) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter periods of bed rest versus longer periods of bed rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staying active versus other treatments (besides bed rest) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison between different forms of advice to stay active (e.g. avoiding bedrest, staying active) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007612/pdf_fs.html </li></ul>
  32. 32. Keywords <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying keywords and synonyms and MeSH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structuring your search strategy with boolean logic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DON’T plagiarise! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t lose marks through sloppy references </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Sensitivity vs Specificity
  34. 34. Sensitivity vs Specificity
  35. 35. Sensitivity vs Specificity
  36. 36. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>databases? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>websites? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hand searching? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>snowballing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>books? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grey literature? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ongoing trials? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// www.lib.cam.ac.uk/electronicresources / </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google? Search by Organisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which journals are key to your work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WoK or Scopus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LibrarySearch or COPAC or GoogleBooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: blog search ; SIGLE ; conference proceedings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trials registers </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><li>References & PDFs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Critically appraising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>managing refs & pdfs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>de-duplicating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>storing & accessing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using them (cite while you write) </li></ul></ul>CASP http://www.casp-uk.net “ How to read a paper” Trish Greenhalgh WB 18.343 – in the Medical Library or http://tinyurl.com/bmj-trish Zotero Mendeley EndnoteWeb Endnote Reference Manager RefWorks Papers Pdf xchange
  38. 38. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping up to Date </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>journal TOCs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>citation tracking </li></ul></ul>Email alerts RSS fees
  39. 39. <ul><li>introducing the research topic </li></ul><ul><li>reviewing relevant literature </li></ul><ul><li>Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping up to Date </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Up </li></ul><ul><ul><li>what did you actually do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and where did you do it? ( 750 words ?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Search log/diary </li></ul><ul><li>Results matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Tidying up your strategy </li></ul><ul><li>What did you find, where? </li></ul><ul><li>Explicit criterion = reproducable methodology </li></ul>
  40. 40. http://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1069.full.pdf http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7446/991.full.pdf
  41. 41. introducing the research topic reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) References Keeping up to Date Writing Up Stopping
  42. 42. Searching – Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Don’t try to do the whole search in one line </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t imagine that your first attempt will get all the articles you need </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t imagine it’s something that can be rattled off quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t give up! </li></ul>
  43. 43. Searching – Do’s & Don’ts <ul><li>Do think of alternative ways of talking about your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Do consider the various types of information that might be relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Do learn from your hits and your misses </li></ul><ul><li>Do remember that you still have to critically appraise each article </li></ul><ul><li>Do ask for help </li></ul>
  44. 45. Help! <ul><li>Isla Kuhn </li></ul><ul><li>Reader Services Librarian </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Library </li></ul><ul><li>Box 111 </li></ul><ul><li>Addenbrooke’s Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>phone: (01223) (3)36750 </li></ul><ul><li>web: http:// library.medschl.cam.ac.uk </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you. </li></ul>
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