Systematic review how to- michaelmas 2013

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  • {"42":"What is data?\nWhat’s the issue? \n= fragile – data format, elusive (particularly just when you need it!)\n= part of research methodology & part of legacy – people might want to build on your work\n= how much of what you produce will you want/need to keep\nWhere will you record/store it?\n= multiple copies, multiple places (confidential data permitting)\n= Key things to consider here are:\nthe names you give files and folders \nuse of tags, or information in file properties\nwhether you need to conform to any conventions in your field\nHow will you share it?\n= why should you?\nReputation\nFunding\nImpact\nRe-use\n= where? Dspace? \nUse repositories and data centres\nChoose open or controlled access\nConsider embargoes and redactions if necessary\n"}
  • Systematic review how to- michaelmas 2013

    1. 1. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Systematic Literature Reviews: A 'How To' Guide Isla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library
    2. 2. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • how to clarify the question (or perhaps questions) on which you need to find literature • selecting the databases and other resources you will need to search • devising the most comprehensive literature search strategy so you know you’ve not missed any relevant studies • keeping up to date with new information appearing between the initial search and write-up • issues around management of process and results • management of references (using software such as EndNote), and getting hold of the full text article
    3. 3. What does “systematic” mean? • Explicit • Transparent • Methodical • Objective • Standardised • Structured • reproducable CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    4. 4. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • “who would want reviews to be unsystematic, if by ‘systematic’ we mean no more than ‘properly carried out, taking account of all the relevant evidence, and making reliable judgements about its validity and implications’? On this definition, to produce a systematic review is simply to do the job of reviewing well.” Hammersley (2002) Systematic or Unsystematic, is that the Question? Some reflections on the science, art, and politics of reviewing research evidence. http://www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/pdf/sys_unsys_phesg_hammersley.pdf
    5. 5. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY #1 Accidents/ #2 exp Accidents, Traffic/ #3 exp Accident Prevention/ #4 exp Motorcycles/ #5 motor-cycl* or motorcycl* or motor-bik* or motorbik* or scooter* or moped* or moto or motocycl* or motocicl* #6 trauma* or injur* or fatal* or accident* or crash* or prevent* or collide* or collision* #7 #1 or #2 or #3 or #4 or #5 or #6 #8 head near protect* #9 head near shield* #10 helmet* #11 exp Head Protective Devices/ #12 #8 or #9 or #10 or #11 #13 #7 and #12
    6. 6. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD
    7. 7. 1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1-7 9 Animals/ 10 Humans/ 11 9 not (9 and 10) 12 8 not 11 13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 14 exp Back Pain/ 15 exp Low Back Pain/ 16 backache.ab,ti. 17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 18 coccyx.ab,ti. 19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 20 exp Sciatica/ 21 sciatica.ab,ti. 22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 23 lumbago.ab,ti. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 46 exp Bed Rest/ 24 or/13-23 MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/ 48 or/39-47 26 discitis.ab,ti. 49 24 or 38 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 49 51 48 and 50 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti. 31 spinal fusion.sh. 32 spinal neoplasms.sh. 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti. 34 intervertebral disk.sh. 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti. 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti. 38 or/25-37 39 exp activities of daily living/ 40 activities of daily living.tw. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab. 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.
    8. 8. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic • clarifying the question • setting parameters (inclusion/exclusion criteria not built into search?) lose marks through sloppy references Question Keywords Synonyms MeSH / Subject Headings / sub headings Boolean Logic Truncation / wildcards Limits
    9. 9. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • Topic -> question -> keywords/synonyms Diabetes, especially the impact of patient education ….. ”Is patient education effective in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” …………………keywords???.... synonyms???........................ Themes?
    10. 10. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” 1 – teenagers 2 – patient education 3 – blood sugar PICO ? Synonyms? Patient/Problem/Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (time?)
    11. 11. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” 1 – teenagers teens adolescents 2– patient education patient information 3 – blood sugar blood glucose hypoglycaemia hyperglycaemia
    12. 12. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY AND – to narrow the search by combining different topics eg “teenage” and “patient education” Both terms must be present in the results.
    13. 13. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY OR – to broaden your search, by combining similar terms eg “teenage” or “adolescent” Either term can be present in the resulting set of articles. MEDICAL LIBRARY
    14. 14. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY NOT – to restrict your search so that it does not contain a particular term eg Hypoglycaemia NOT hyperglycaemia The first, but not the second, term must be present.
    15. 15. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?” teenagers OR teens OR adolescents AND patient education OR patient information AND blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia
    16. 16. Question: 1st theme CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR OR AND 2nd theme OR AND 3rd theme OR AND 4th theme? OR
    17. 17. Mind map your question? synonym CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY synonym synonym synonym 2nd theme 1st theme synonym synonym Research question synonym synonym 3rd theme 4th theme synonym synonym synonym synonym
    18. 18. Truncation CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Treatment treat treats treating • Treat* treated • Treat? treater • Treat$ treatment treatments
    19. 19. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Truncation / wildcards? 1 – teenagers OR teens OR adolescents AND 2 – patient education OR patient information AND 3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia
    20. 20. Task • Go to http://tinyurl.com/embase • Click through to open EMBASE • Using advance search, type a key word (untick “map to subject heading”) • How many hits? • Type the keyword with some truncation (use *) • How many hits? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    21. 21. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • Where in the article record do you want the terms/keywords to appear? • Title? • Abstract? • All/any field? • Impact on sensitivity/specificity?
    22. 22. Task • In EMBASE • Type a key word, and search by “keyword” • How many hits? • Type a keyword and search by “title” • How many hits? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    23. 23. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    24. 24. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/201
    25. 25. Task - EMBASE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY • Type in a keyword, tick “map to subject heading” Relevant match? Select & explode How many hits? • Type in same keyword, tick “map to subject heading” Relevant match? Select & explode How many hits? • Type in same keyword, tick “map to subject heading” Relevant match? Select & focus How many hits? MEDICAL LIBRARY
    26. 26. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY MeSH 1 – teen* OR adolesce* OR exp"Adolescent“/ AND 2 – patient education OR patient information OR exp”Patient Education as Topic“/ AND 3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR exp”Blood Glucose“/ OR exp"Hypoglycemia“/
    27. 27. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Inclusion / exclusion criterion? teen* OR adolesce* OR exp"Adolescent“/ AND patient education OR patient information OR exp”Patient Education as Topic“/ AND blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR exp”Blood Glucose“/ OR exp"Hypoglycemia“/ Year of publication? Humans vs Animals? Type of publication? Language of publication?
    28. 28. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY 1 teen* 9 blood sugar 2 adolesce* 10 blood glucose 3 exp"Adolescent“/ 11 hypoglycae* 4 1 or 2 or 3 12 hyperglyca* 5 patient education 13 exp”Blood Glucose“/ 6 patient information 14 exp"Hypoglycemia“/ 7 exp”Patient Education as Topic“/ 15 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 16 4 and 8 and 15 8 5 or 6 or 7
    29. 29. 1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1-7 9 Animals/ 10 Humans/ 11 9 not (9 and 10) 12 8 not 11 13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 14 exp Back Pain/ 15 exp Low Back Pain/ 16 backache.ab,ti. 17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 18 coccyx.ab,ti. 19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 20 exp Sciatica/ 21 sciatica.ab,ti. 22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 23 lumbago.ab,ti. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 46 exp Bed Rest/ 24 or/13-23 MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/ 48 or/39-47 26 discitis.ab,ti. 49 24 or 38 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 49 51 48 and 50 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti. 31 spinal fusion.sh. 32 spinal neoplasms.sh. 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti. 34 intervertebral disk.sh. 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti. 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti. 38 or/25-37 39 exp activities of daily living/ 40 activities of daily living.tw. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab. 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.
    30. 30. 1 clinical trial.pt. 2 randomized.ab,ti. 3 placebo.ab,ti. 4 dt.fs. 5 randomly.ab,ti. 6 trial.ab,ti. 7 groups.ab,ti. 8 or/1-7 9 Animals/ 10 Humans/ 11 9 not (9 and 10) 12 8 not 11 13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 14 exp Back Pain/ 15 exp Low Back Pain/ 16 backache.ab,ti. 17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 18 coccyx.ab,ti. 19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 20 exp Sciatica/ 21 sciatica.ab,ti. 22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 23 lumbago.ab,ti. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 46 exp Bed Rest/ 24 or/13-23 MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/ 48 or/39-47 26 discitis.ab,ti. 49 24 or 38 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 49 51 48 and 50 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti. 31 spinal fusion.sh. 32 spinal neoplasms.sh. 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti. 34 intervertebral disk.sh. 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti. 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti. 38 or/25-37 39 exp activities of daily living/ 40 activities of daily living.tw. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab. 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.
    31. 31. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Advice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acute low-back pain and sciatica The objective of this review is to determine the effects of advice to rest in bed or stay active for patients with acute low-back pain or sciatica. The following comparisons will be made: • Bed rest versus staying active • Bed rest versus other treatments (besides staying active) • Shorter periods of bed rest versus longer periods of bed rest • Staying active versus other treatments (besides bed rest) • Comparison between different forms of advice to stay active (e.g. avoiding bedrest, staying active) http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007612/pdf_fs.html
    32. 32. From topic to search: same strategy, different words Moving from one database to another….. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    33. 33. From topic to search: same strategy, different words Medline (via OVID) 1 Epidemiologic studies/ 2 Exp case control studies/ 3 Exp cohort studies/ 4 Case control.tw. 5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. 6 Cohort analy$.tw. 7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 9 Longitudinal.tw. 10 Retrospective.tw. 11 Cross sectional.tw. 12 Cross-sectional studies/ 13 Or/1-12 • CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Embase (via OVID) 1 Clinical study/ 2 Case control study 3 Family study/ 4 Longitudinal study/ 5 Retrospective study/ 6 Prospective study/ 7 Randomized controlled trials/ 8 6 not 7 9 Cohort analysis/ 10 (Cohort adj (study or studies)).mp. 11 (Case control adj (study or studies)).tw. 12 (follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 13 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 14 (epidemiologic$ adj (study or studies)).tw. 15 (cross sectional adj (study or studies)).tw. 16 Or/1-5,8-15 http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters
    34. 34. From topic to search: same strategy, different words Medline (via OVID) 1 Epidemiologic studies/ 2 Exp case control studies/ 3 Exp cohort studies/ 4 Case control.tw. 5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. 6 Cohort analy$.tw. 7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 9 Longitudinal.tw. 10 Retrospective.tw. 11 Cross sectional.tw. 12 Cross-sectional studies/ 13 Or/1-12 • CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Medline (via Pubmed) #1 “Epidemiologic studies”[Mesh] #2 “case control studies”[Mesh] #3 “cohort studies”[Mesh] #4 Case control[Text Word] #5 (cohort stud*))[Text Word] #6 Cohort analy*[Text Word] #7 (Follow up AND (study or studies))[Text Word] #8 (observational AND (study or studies))[Text Word] #9 Longitudinal[Text Word] #10 Retrospective[Text Word] #11 Cross sectional[Text Word] #12 “Cross-sectional studies”[Mesh] #13 #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11 OR #12 http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters
    35. 35. Keywords CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic reviewing relevant literature • identifying keywords and synonyms and MeSH • structuring your search strategy with boolean logic References • DON’T plagiarise! • Don’t lose marks through sloppy references
    36. 36. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    37. 37. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    38. 38. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    39. 39. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) databases? • http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/electronicresources/ websites? • Google? Search by Organisation hand searching? • Which journals are key to your work? snowballing? • WoK or Scopus books? • LibrarySearch or COPAC or GoogleBooks grey literature? • Google: blog search; SIGLE; conference proceedings ongoing trials? • Trials registers
    40. 40. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic CASP http://www.casp-uk.net reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) References & PDFs • Critically appraising “How to read a paper” Trish Greenhalgh WB 18.343 – in the Medical Library or http://tinyurl.com/bmj-trish • using them (cite while you write) Zotero Mendeley EndnoteWeb Endnote Reference Manager RefWorks Papers • Data extraction Pdf xchange • managing • storing Prisma
    41. 41. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) References Keeping up to Date • alerts • journal TOCs • citation tracking Email alerts RSS fees
    42. 42. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) References Keeping up to Date Management of process and results – more info on data management • • • • What is the data you need to record? Where will you record it? Where will you store it? How will you record it? How will you share it? When should all this start?
    43. 43. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY introducing the research topic reviewing relevant literature Identify relevant sources (and then search them!) References Keeping up to Date Management of process and results Writing Up • what did you actually do? • and where did you do it? (750 words?) • • • • • Search log/diary Results matrix Tidying up your strategy What did you find, where? Explicit criterion = reproducable methodology
    44. 44. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7446/991.full.pdf http://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1069.full.pdf
    45. 45. Books that might help • CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|1258728 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|317470 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|4750307 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|4850812
    46. 46. Stopping CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • Repetition • Change in ratio of “good” : ”bad” articles retrieved • Boundaries/Parameters? • Databases are not infinite: • if your strategy is good enough, and your current awareness strategy is in place, trust it, and stop.
    47. 47. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    48. 48. Help! CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Isla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library Box 111 Addenbrooke’s Hospital email: ilk21@cam.ac.uk phone: (01223) (3)36750 web: http://library.medschl.cam.ac.uk Thank you.

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