Systematic review how to - lent 2013

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  • What is data? What’s the issue? = fragile – data format, elusive (particularly just when you need it!) = part of research methodology & part of legacy – people might want to build on your work = how much of what you produce will you want/need to keep Where will you record/store it? = multiple copies, multiple places (confidential data permitting) = Key things to consider here are: the names you give files and folders use of tags, or information in file properties whether you need to conform to any conventions in your field How will you share it? = why should you? Reputation Funding Impact Re-use = where? Dspace? Use repositories and data centres Choose open or controlled access Consider embargoes and redactions if necessary
  • Systematic review how to - lent 2013

    1. 1. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYSystematic Literature Reviews: A How To GuideIsla KuhnReader Services LibrarianMedical Library
    2. 2. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• how to clarify the question (or perhaps questions) on which you need to find literature• selecting the databases and other resources you will need to search• devising the most comprehensive literature search strategy so you know you’ve not missed any relevant studies• keeping up to date with new information appearing between the initial search and write-up• issues around management of process and results• management of references (using software such as EndNote), and getting hold of the full text article
    3. 3. 1 clinical trial.pt. 24 or/13-23 46 exp Bed Rest/ CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY2 randomized.ab,ti. MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/3 placebo.ab,ti. 26 discitis.ab,ti. 48 or/39-474 dt.fs. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 49 24 or 385 randomly.ab,ti. 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 496 trial.ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 51 48 and 507 groups.ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti.8 or/1-7 31 spinal fusion.sh.9 Animals/ 32 spinal neoplasms.sh.10 Humans/ 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti.11 9 not (9 and 10) 34 intervertebral disk.sh.12 8 not 11 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti.13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti.14 exp Back Pain/ 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti.15 exp Low Back Pain/ 38 or/25-3716 backache.ab,ti. 39 exp activities of daily living/17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 40 activities of daily living.tw.18 coccyx.ab,ti. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab.19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab.20 exp Sciatica/ 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab.21 sciatica.ab,ti. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab.22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.23 lumbago.ab,ti.
    4. 4. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topic • clarifying the question • setting parameters (inclusion/exclusion criteria not built into search?)lose marks through sloppy references Question Keywords Synonyms MeSH / Subject Headings / sub headings Boolean Logic Truncation / wildcards Limits
    5. 5. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • Topic -> question -> keywords/synonymsDiabetes, especially the impact of patient education ….. ”Is patient education effective in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”…………………keywords???.... synonyms???........................ Themes?
    6. 6. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”1 – teenagers2 – patient education3 – blood sugar PICO ? Patient/Problem/Population Intervention Synonyms? Comparison Outcome (time?)
    7. 7. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”1 – teenagers teens adolescents2– patient education patient information3 – blood sugar blood glucose hypoglycaemia hyperglycaemia
    8. 8. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY AND – to narrow the search by combining different topics eg “teenage” and “patient education” Both terms must be present in the results.
    9. 9. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYOR – to broaden your search, by combining similar terms eg “teenage” or “adolescent”Either term can be present in the resulting set of articles.
    10. 10. Boolean Logic CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYNOT – to restrict your search so that it does not contain a particular term egHypoglycaemia NOT hyperglycaemiaThe first, but not the second, term must be present.
    11. 11. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY ”Is patient education effecting in improving blood sugar control in teenage diabetics?”teenagers OR teens OR adolescentsANDpatient education OR patient informationANDblood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia
    12. 12. Question: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY 1st theme OR OR OR AND 2nd theme OR OR OR AND 3rd theme OR OR OR AND4th theme? OR OR OR
    13. 13. Mind map your question? CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYsynonym synonym synonym synonym 1st 2nd theme theme synonymsynonym Research questionsynonym synonym 3rd 4th theme theme synonym synonym synonymsynonym
    14. 14. Truncation CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYTreatment treat treats treating • Treat* treated • Treat? treater • Treat$ treatment treatments
    15. 15. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Truncation / wildcards?1 – teenagers OR teens OR adolescentsAND2 – patient education OR patient informationAND3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycaemia OR hyperglycaemia
    16. 16. Task CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Go to http://tinyurl.com/embase• Click through to open EMBASE• Using advance search, type a key word (untick “map to subject heading”)• How many hits?• Type the keyword with some truncation (use *) • How many hits?
    17. 17. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Where in the article record do you want the terms/keywords to appear? • Title? • Abstract? • All/any field?• Impact on sensitivity/specificity?
    18. 18. Task CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• In EMBASE• Type a key word, and search by “keyword” • How many hits?• Type a keyword and search by “title” • How many hits?
    19. 19. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    20. 20. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/201
    21. 21. Task - EMBASE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Type in a keyword, tick “map to subject heading” Relevant match? Select & explode How many hits?• Type in same keyword, tick “map to subject heading” Relevant match? Select & explode How many hits?• Type in same keyword, tick “map to subject heading” Relevant match? Select & focus How many hits?
    22. 22. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY MeSH1 – teen* OR adolesce* OR exp"Adolescent“/AND2 – patient education OR patient information OR exp”Patient Education as Topic“/AND3 – blood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR exp”Blood Glucose“/ OR exp"Hypoglycemia“/
    23. 23. From topic to search CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY Inclusion / exclusion criterion?teen* OR adolesce* OR exp"Adolescent“/ANDpatient education OR patient information OR exp”Patient Education as Topic“/ANDblood sugar OR blood glucose OR hypoglycae* OR hyperglyca* OR exp”Blood Glucose“/ OR exp"Hypoglycemia“/ Year of publication? Humans vs Animals? Type of publication? Language of publication?
    24. 24. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY1 teen* 9 blood sugar2 adolesce* 10 blood glucose3 exp"Adolescent“/ 11 hypoglycae*4 1 or 2 or 3 12 hyperglyca*5 patient education 13 exp”Blood Glucose“/6 patient information 14 exp"Hypoglycemia“/7 exp”Patient Education as 15 9 or 10 or 11 or 12 or 13 or 14 Topic“/ 16 4 and 8 and 158 5 or 6 or 7
    25. 25. 1 clinical trial.pt. 24 or/13-23 46 exp Bed Rest/ CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY2 randomized.ab,ti. MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/3 placebo.ab,ti. 26 discitis.ab,ti. 48 or/39-474 dt.fs. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 49 24 or 385 randomly.ab,ti. 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 496 trial.ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 51 48 and 507 groups.ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti.8 or/1-7 31 spinal fusion.sh.9 Animals/ 32 spinal neoplasms.sh.10 Humans/ 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti.11 9 not (9 and 10) 34 intervertebral disk.sh.12 8 not 11 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti.13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti.14 exp Back Pain/ 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti.15 exp Low Back Pain/ 38 or/25-3716 backache.ab,ti. 39 exp activities of daily living/17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 40 activities of daily living.tw.18 coccyx.ab,ti. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab.19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab.20 exp Sciatica/ 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab.21 sciatica.ab,ti. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab.22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.23 lumbago.ab,ti.
    26. 26. 1 clinical trial.pt. 24 or/13-23 46 exp Bed Rest/ CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY2 randomized.ab,ti. MEDICAL LIBRARY 47 bed rest.mp. 25 exp Spine/3 placebo.ab,ti. 26 discitis.ab,ti. 48 or/39-474 dt.fs. 27 exp Spinal Diseases/ 49 24 or 385 randomly.ab,ti. 28 (disc adj degeneration).ab,ti. 50 12 and 496 trial.ab,ti. 29 (disc adj prolapse).ab,ti. 51 48 and 507 groups.ab,ti. 30 (disc adj herniation).ab,ti.8 or/1-7 31 spinal fusion.sh.9 Animals/ 32 spinal neoplasms.sh.10 Humans/ 33 (facet adj joints).ab,ti.11 9 not (9 and 10) 34 intervertebral disk.sh.12 8 not 11 35 postlaminectomy.ab,ti.13 dorsalgia.ab,ti. 36 arachnoiditis.ab,ti.14 exp Back Pain/ 37 (failed adj back).ab,ti.15 exp Low Back Pain/ 38 or/25-3716 backache.ab,ti. 39 exp activities of daily living/17 (lumbar adj pain).ab,ti. 40 activities of daily living.tw.18 coccyx.ab,ti. 41 day to day activ$.ti,ab.19 coccydynia.ab,ti. 42 daily activit$.ti,ab.20 exp Sciatica/ 43 ordinary activit$.ti,ab.21 sciatica.ab,ti. 44 normal activit$.ti,ab.22 spondylosis.ab,ti. 45 stay$ active.ti,ab.23 lumbago.ab,ti.
    27. 27. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYAdvice to rest in bed versus advice to stay active for acutelow-back pain and sciaticaThe objective of this review is to determine the effects of advice to rest in bed or stay active for patients with acute low-back pain or sciatica.The following comparisons will be made: • Bed rest versus staying active • Bed rest versus other treatments (besides staying active) • Shorter periods of bed rest versus longer periods of bed rest • Staying active versus other treatments (besides bed rest) • Comparison between different forms of advice to stay active (e.g. avoiding bedrest, staying active)http://mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD007612/pdf_fs.html
    28. 28. From topic to search: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYsame strategy, different wordsMoving from one database to another…..
    29. 29. From topic to search: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY same strategy, different words MEDICAL LIBRARY Medline (via OVID) Embase (via OVID) 1 Epidemiologic studies/ 1 Clinical study/ 2 Exp case control studies/ 2 Case control study 3 Exp cohort studies/ 3 Family study/ 4 Case control.tw. 4 Longitudinal study/ 5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. 5 Retrospective study/ 6 Cohort analy$.tw. 6 Prospective study/ 7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 7 Randomized controlled trials/ 8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 8 6 not 7 9 Longitudinal.tw. 9 Cohort analysis/ 10 Retrospective.tw. 10 (Cohort adj (study or studies)).mp. 11 Cross sectional.tw. 11 (Case control adj (study or studies)).tw. 12 Cross-sectional studies/ 12 (follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. 13 Or/1-12 13 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. 14 (epidemiologic$ adj (study or studies)).tw. 15 (cross sectional adj (study or studies)).tw. 16 Or/1-5,8-15• http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters
    30. 30. From topic to search: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARYsame strategy, different words MEDICAL LIBRARYMedline (via OVID) Medline (via Pubmed)1 Epidemiologic studies/ #1 “Epidemiologic studies”[Mesh]2 Exp case control studies/ #2 “case control studies”[Mesh]3 Exp cohort studies/ #3 “cohort studies”[Mesh]4 Case control.tw. #4 Case control[Text Word]5 (cohort adj (study or studies)).tw. #5 (cohort stud*))[Text Word]6 Cohort analy$.tw. #6 Cohort analy*[Text Word]7 (Follow up adj (study or studies)).tw. #7 (Follow up AND (study or studies))[Text Word]8 (observational adj (study or studies)).tw. #8 (observational AND (study or studies))[Text9 Longitudinal.tw. Word]10 Retrospective.tw. #9 Longitudinal[Text Word]11 Cross sectional.tw. #10 Retrospective[Text Word]12 Cross-sectional studies/ #11 Cross sectional[Text Word]13 Or/1-12 #12 “Cross-sectional studies”[Mesh] #13 #1 OR #2 OR #3 OR #4 OR #5 OR #6 OR #7 OR #8 OR #9 OR #10 OR #11 OR #12• http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html Observational Study Filters
    31. 31. Keywords CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literature • identifying keywords and synonyms and MeSH • structuring your search strategy with boolean logicReferences • DON’T plagiarise! • Don’t lose marks through sloppy references
    32. 32. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    33. 33. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    34. 34. Sensitivity vs Specificity CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    35. 35. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!) • http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/electronicresources/ databases? • Google? Search by Organisation websites? hand searching? • Which journals are key to your work? snowballing? • WoK or Scopus books? • LibrarySearch or COPAC or GoogleBooks grey literature? • Google: blog search; SIGLE; conference proceedings ongoing trials? • Trials registers
    36. 36. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topic CASP http://www.casp-uk.netreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!) “How to read a paper” Trish GreenhalghReferences & PDFs WB 18.343 – in the Medical Library or http://tinyurl.com/bmj-trish • Critically appraising Zotero Mendeley • managing EndnoteWeb Endnote • storing Reference Manager RefWorks • using them (cite while you write) Papers • Data extraction Pdf xchange Prisma
    37. 37. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!)ReferencesKeeping up to Date • alerts Email alerts • journal TOCs RSS fees • citation tracking
    38. 38. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!)ReferencesKeeping up to DateManagement of process and results – more info on data management • What is the data you need to record? • Where will you record it? Where will you store it? • How will you record it? • How will you share it? When should all this start?
    39. 39. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYintroducing the research topicreviewing relevant literatureIdentify relevant sources (and then search them!)ReferencesKeeping up to DateManagement of process and resultsWriting Up • what did you actually do? • and where did you do it? (750 words?) • Search log/diary • Results matrix • Tidying up your strategy • What did you find, where? • Explicit criterion = reproducable methodology
    40. 40. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY http://www.bmj.com/content/328/7446/991.full.pdfhttp://jech.bmj.com/content/61/12/1069.full.pdf
    41. 41. Books that might help CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY • http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|1258728 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|317470http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|4750307 http://search.lib.cam.ac.uk/?itemid=|cambrdgedb|4850812
    42. 42. Stopping CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY• Repetition• Change in ratio of “good” : ”bad” articles retrieved• Boundaries/Parameters?• Databases are not infinite: • if your strategy is good enough, and your current awareness strategy is in place, trust it, and stop.
    43. 43. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARY
    44. 44. Help! CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY MEDICAL LIBRARYIsla Kuhn Reader Services Librarian Medical Library Box 111 Addenbrooke’s Hospital email: ilk21@cam.ac.uk phone: (01223) (3)36750 web: http://library.medschl.cam.ac.uk Thank you.

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