Surrounded by natural barriers including deserts, mountains, and the Persian Gulf. This isolation left Iran open to attacks for Central Asian Nomads. They also had to suffer in a hot, dry climate with limited water and resources.
This harsh environment was a lot harder to live in than other places such as Mesopotamia, and because of these things had a much lower population which lived in the North and West areas. Farming was also tougher since in order to keep the water from evaporation, all irrigation channels had to be underground. Finally, there was probably some dependence on the trade of Iran’s rich mineral deposits and timber.
If you remember from the last chapter, a people known as the Medes helped the Chaldeans overthrow the Assyrian Empire. This same civilization is the ancestor of the Persian Empire. Persians first started gaining power through the early Persian rulers, known as Achaemenids because of their lineage to Achaemenes, who married Medians to get power. However, it wasn’t untill Cyrus came along and united the Persians against the Medians before they gained complete power.
How does Darius rule the largest empire in the world? To start, he split the empire into 20 pieces and placed a governor known as a satrap in charge. Over the satrap court became like a miniature Persian royal court, with the position becoming hereditary. Also, some satraps from outer provinces had much autonomy, meaning they basically ruled without Persian interference. However, no matter how far away each province paid much tribute, which the central government horded so much that it became scarce in some areas. This tribute did pay for well-maintained roads that all converged at Susa, the capital of the Persian empire, and for garrisons that kept the population from revolting.The kings were seen as the masters of the people, and they controlled large amounts of land throughout the empire known as “Kings Land”
The kings were also law givers, but in much the same way as Cyrus, allowed other rituals, civilizations, and religions to continue throughout the empire. He managed the central administration of the kingdom at Susa, but he did perform ceremonies at Persepolis, in the Persian homeland.Women also had a much higher standing in the empire than in other civilizations. They could own land, travel freely, and could potentially be politically influential.
The main religion of the area was Zoroastrianism. We are not sure who founded Zoroastrianism, but the hymns are credited to Zoroaster. These hymns are called Gathas. Now, believers of Zoroastrianism believe in a dual universe, a physical one, which we live in, and a spiritual one, in which the god of good, Ahuramazda, continueally fights the god of evil, Angra.
Here’s a short video which you will like.
Greece is located in parts of the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia. It is a mountainous region, with a low amount of farmland compared to most other great civilizations. This is in part because of the fact that Greece is made up of islands. The climate; however, was hot and dry in the summer and the winter was cool because of air brought in from the ocean.
Depended on rainfall for cropsCattle and horses-northern Greece, sheep and goats-southernFine marble and clay were abundantFew metal deposits and little timber
Relied heavily on tradeMain transport-sea and oceanAcquired metals and other raw materialsSea transport-cheaper and faster than landImports (read off slide)
Greece went through several different stages similar to Egypt’s Old, Middle, and New kingdomsRead off slide
Focal point of Greek history is the introduction of democracy-rule by people, however, not every government was democratic. Some places were ruled by and aristocracy, some monarchy, others oligarchy, and different combinations of them. Some monarchies were ruled by tyrants.
Worshiped gods portrayed in Illiad and OdysseyUsed sacrifices in worshipTemples believed to be residencies of gods
Athens and Sparta, the 2 great city states, were very diferent from each other.Read off slide
Read off slide
By: Jack Benninghoff Cody S. Joseph Lester Michael Smith Chapter 4, Greece and Iran
Geography and Resources Surrounded by Deserts, Mountains, and Persian Gulf Open to attacts by Central Asian Nomads Hot, Dry Climate Limited Water Reserves Few Natural Resources
Effects Sparse Population Mostly in the North and West areas Underground Irrigation Some Dependence on Trade of Minerals and Timber
Rise of the Persian Empire First Civilization-Medes Helped overthrow Assyrian Empire Achaemenids-Persian Rulers-Joined Median Court through Marriage Cyrus-United Persians + Overthrew Medes First Persian Emperor Cyrus expanded empire across Anatolia and Mesopotamia Respected religions and customs Cambyses, Cyrus’ Son, Conquered Egypt and Nubia Darius I took throne and expanded empire into Indus Valley and Europe
Imperial Organization Empire divided into 20 provinces, each ruled by a satrap Position of satrap was hereditary Some had much autonomy Provinces paid tribute Paid for roads that all converged at the capital, Susa And garrisons at key locations Kings Masters of all subjects and nobles Controlled “Kings Land”
Kings were also lawgivers, but allowed other customs Managed central administration Performed ceremonies at Persopolis, in the Persian homeland Women could own land, travel, and be politically influential.
Religion Main Religion-Zoroastrianism Zoroastriansim Founder- Unclear, but hymns are ascribed to Zoroaster Gathas-hymns of Zoroastrianism Believed in the existence of a dualistic universe God of good, Ahuramazda, fights god of evil, Angra