Drugs

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  • Organisms same as PnG Adv effects: diarrhoea, alteration of gut flora, rashes.
  • 1.vestibular/cochlear-conc dependent 2.Loss of urinary concentrating ability 3.Reduced ach release, antagonise with inj ca salt
  • Remainder is retained in the delivery system or is deposited in the oropharynx
  • Insulin overdose antidote.

Transcript

  • 1. Drugs in viva Kripali rai 080201336
  • 2. Catogaries:• Emergency drugs• Antibiotics• Drugs in asthama• Steroids• Anticonvulsants• Cardiac drugs
  • 3. antibiotics• Ceftazidime, cefotaxime.• Procaine penicillin, benzyl penicillin, benzathin penicillin, ampicillin.• Gentamycin, amikacin, streptomycin.
  • 4. Cephalosporins:• Ceftazidime : 3rdgeneration(pseudomonas). route: parentral. side effects: neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, ↑ serum transaminase and blood urea. use: febrile neutropenia.
  • 5. Cephalosporins:• Cefotaxime: not active against anaerobes route: parentral indications: meningitis, life threatening resistant/ hospital acquired infection,septicemia & infections in immunocompromised.
  • 6. Cephalosporins:Adverse effects:• Pain (thrombophlebitis)• Diarrhoea• Hypersenstivity• Nephrotoxicity• Bleeding• Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
  • 7. Cephalosporins:Uses:• Alternative to PnG• Respiratory, soft tissue & urinary infections,Septicemia.• Surgical prophylaxis• Gonorrhoea,thyphoid• Hospital acquired infections & infections in neutropenic patients.
  • 8. ß-lactam antibiotics:Penicillin-g(benzyl penicillin):• Narrow spectrum gram +ve.• Route: intravenous.• Short acting.• Dose: mild infections :50,000U– 100,000U/kg/day in divided doses every 4-6 hrsX7 days. Severe infections :200,000U– 600,000U/kg/day in divided doses every 2-6 hrsX14 days.
  • 9. ß-lactam antibiotics:Procaine penicillin :• Route: intramuscular.• Long acting.• Dose: 150,000 – 300,000U IM OD or BID X7 days.
  • 10. ß-lactam antibiotics:Benzathene penicillin:• Route: intramuscular.• Long acting.• Dose: 0.6 – 1.2million U IM monthly.
  • 11. ß-lactam antibiotics:Adverse effects:• Local irritancy & direct toxicity.• Hypersensitivity.• Jarisch-herxheimer reaction.
  • 12. ß-lactam antibiotics:Uses:• Streptococcal, pneumococcal, meningococcal infections.• Syphillis, diphtheria, tetanus and gas gangrene.• Rare infections.• Prophylactic uses: RF, bacterial endocarditis, agranulocytosis.
  • 13. ß-lactam antibiotics:Ampicillin: oral/IV/IM• Uses: UTI. respiratory infections. meningitis. gonorrhoea. typhoid, cholecystitis. bacillary desentry. SABE. septicaemias.
  • 14. Aminoglycosides:Streptomycin: gram –ve• Route: intramuscular.• Uses: tuberculosis(15mg/kg). SABE. Tuberculocidal Acts on extracellular bacilli plague. Category ІІ in initial phase (3Xper tularemia. week)
  • 15. Aminoglycosides:Gentamycin: more potent broader spectrum.• Route: parentral/eye drops/skin creams.• Uses: respiratory infections. pseudomonas,klebsiella/proteus meningitis.
  • 16. Aminoglycosides:• Amikacin: widest spectrum
  • 17. Aminoglycosides:Adverse effects:• Ototoxicity.• Nephrotoxicity.• Neuromuscular blockage.• Foetal ototoxicity during pregnancy.• Avoid: amphotericin B, vancomycin, cyclosporin, cysplatin.
  • 18. Asthalin respules:• Inhalation through mouth via a suitable nebulizer.• beta 2 -agonist providing short-acting (4-6 hours) bronchodilatation with a fast onset (within 5 minutes) in reversible airways obstruction.• 10%-20% of the dose reaches the lower airways.
  • 19. Asthalin respules:• Measured amount of drug + NS 2.5- 3ml.• Minimum starting dose: 0.5 ml (2.5 mg of salbutamol), diluted to 2-2.5 ml with sterile NS (<12 yrs).
  • 20. Rotahaler:
  • 21. Rotahaler:
  • 22. Dextrose:• Hypoglycemia.• 0.5 g/kg (2 mL/kg of 25% dextrose) IV infusion over 2-3mins.• 1 mg glucagon SC/IM.