Nasal Oxygen Catheter• It is a plastic tube which has a loop at one end. At the end of the loop it has 2 prongs.• These prongs are meant to be inserted into the anterion nostrils to deliver oxygen.• The other end of the plastic tube is meant to be attached to the oxygen source.• The nasal prongs are of 2 sizes – Peadiatric & Adult.
Uses• It is meant to deliver oxygen to the naso pharynx, leaving th oral cavity free. Thus it is more comfortable to the patient as it allow speech nutrition.
METERED DOSE INHALER (MDI)• The MDI is one of the most popular devices used for long term maintenance therapy of asthama• It consists of a metallic canister which contains the medicine along with the propellant ( usually a CFC, though inhalers without CFC are now available) which delivers the medicine to the patient in the form of an aerosol.• The canister is inverted and fixed to the inhaler before actuating the device.
• The patient breathes out and puts the mouth piece of the inhaler in his mouth.• By pressing on top of the inverted canister, a puff of the aerosolized medicine is generated.• The patient should take a deep inspiration as soon as the puff is generated and then hold his breath for a few seconds before braething out gently.USES Treatment of acute attack of asthma. Maintenance of prevention of repeated attacks of asthma.
Medicine given via MDI• Inhaled beta 2 agonist drugs –1. Short acting : salbutamol , terbutaline (used to terminate acute episodes of bronchial asthma.)2. Long acting : Salmeterol , formoterol (used in maintenance therapy of those with persistant asthma)• Inhaled anti cholinergic drugs like ipratropium bromide• Inhaled mast cell stabalizers – cromolyn sodium• Inhaled steroids – beclomethasone , budesonide
Side Effects• Tremors – beta agonists• Palpitations & tachycardia – beta agonists• Oral candidiasis – steroid deposit in mouth• Sore throat – dude to steroid deposit in pharynx and larynx
DRY POWDER INHALERS• Dry powdered inhalers consist of 2 halves.• The upper half consists of mouth piece and a raised square slot into which a capsule containing the medication in dry powdered form can be inserted.• The lower half is kind of a reservoir which can be attached to the upper half.• The lower halve consists of a fin like device which cuts the capsule on rotating , thus depositing the powder into the reservoir.• The patient breathes out, puts the mouth piece in his mouth and takes a deep breathe, thus inhaling the powder.• DPI’s are suited for childer over 5 yrs as they requrie greater inspiratory effort.
• Advantages :1. Small portable device2. No need to coordinate inspiration with device actuation.• Disadvantages1. Cannot be used in children before 5 yrs.2. The dry powder can be depositted in the mouth or pharynx if inspiratory efforts not good.3. The dry powder might be affected by humid climate.