Design Science in Action ...


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Design Science in Action ...

  1. 1. Design Science in Action: Developing a Framework for Introducing IT Systems into Operational Practice test case situation to-be s’ ? s situation as-is P 1 generic situation to-be 2a 4 problem t’ 2b ? t hypothesis 3 GP generic situation as-is generic problem Ilia Bider - DSV SU Paul Johannesson – DSV SU Erik Perjons – DSV SU Lena Johansson – DSV SU Presentation at ICIS 2012, Orlando, Florida December 18, 2012 Pre-proceedings: Proceedings: DSV - Stockholm University1
  2. 2. Dual Goal with the presentation 1. Present our view on Design Science Research (DSR) as a process of generating and testing hypothesis for adoption in practice. This process can be driven in numerous ways beside the traditional cycle of problem->requirements->solution->demonstration-> evaluation Bider, I., Johannesson, P., and Perjons, E. 2012. "Design science research as movement between individual and generic situation-problem-solution spaces," (to appear) in Baskerville R., De Marco, M., and Spagnoletti, P. (eds.) Organizational Systems. An Interdisciplinary Discourse, Springer. 2. Present an example that serves to illustrate and be a test case for the above view DSV - Stockholm University2
  3. 3. Difference between DSR and empirically-based research (EMR) EMR DSR Timeline Past & Present Future Aimed at Explaining the world as it Suggesting a new world that was or as it is does not yet exist Process Establishing facts and Generating and testing developing theories that hypothesis for adoption explains these facts Relation to Follow practice Lead practice practice Example: communism as designed by K. Marx and his followers DSV - Stockholm University3
  4. 4. DS process as movement between the two worlds test case situation to-be s’ +1 s situation as-is P problem generic situation to-be t’ 0 t hypothesis GP generic situation as-is generic problem DSV - Stockholm University4
  5. 5. Example to be discussed - Generic innovation test case situation to-be s’ ? s situation as-is P 1 generic situation to-be 2a 4 problem t’ 2b ? t hypothesis 3 GP generic situation as-is generic problem DSV - Stockholm University5
  6. 6. Situation at handsOrganization• Non-for-profit (interest) organization• Association of tenants in West region of Sweden• Central office – about 60-70 employees• Democratic management style with a strong CEOtrying to become process oriented• With the help of an IT system DSV - Stockholm University
  7. 7. System – a BPS system based on theshared spaces & collaborative planning Structure of the process case/instance DSV - Stockholm University
  8. 8. System - continuing Plans for a particular user DSV - Stockholm University
  9. 9. Problem – the users do not use the system• General comment – It might be a good system, but I do not understand what I should use it for?• Specific problem - Collaborative planning not intuitive• New processes introduced at the same time (customer feedback) – no experience of dealing with them• Previously totally ad-hoc processes (lobbying) are to be structured – requires adaptation DSV - Stockholm University
  10. 10. GeneralizationGeneric situation:• Introduction in organizational practice of an IT systems that aim at changing the work and communication practices of an organization = organizational change• The introduction process = ad hoc and already startedGeneric problem• The process stammer – nothing happensGeneric solution required• Introduction process model – methodology of driving an introduction process• That can be used in the middle of an unsuccessful introduction process DSV - Stockholm University
  11. 11. Developing a solution – theoretical background• State-oriented view of business processes• Kotter’s [1996] eight stages for change management• Sharma and Yetton [2003]• The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) DSV - Stockholm University
  12. 12. State-oriented view on business processes• For each item Ordered = Delivered • Invoiced = To pay• To pay = Total + Freight + Tax • Paid = Invoiced • Ordered > Delivered shipment • To pay > Invoiced invoicing DSV - Stockholm University
  13. 13. Kotter’s eight stages for change management1. Establishing a sense of urgency2. Creating the guiding coalition3. Developing a vision and strategy4. Communicating the change vision5. Empowering broad-based action6. Generating short-term wins7. Consolidating gains and producing more change8. Anchoring new approaches in the culture DSV - Stockholm University
  14. 14. Sharma and Yetton suggestions on institutional context changes1. New structures, e.g. create a training group, or introduce a help-desk.2. New performance control systems -the ones that favour system usage, e.g. introduce a system that rewards active users.3. New coordination mechanisms. New IT systems often require changes in existing work processes, which have to be redesigned in order to ensure benefits from the system.4. Changes to performance goals. An introduction process is often characterized by a period of decline in performance, which should be planned in advanced. DSV - Stockholm University
  15. 15. The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)Factors that define users’ behaviour:1. Performance expectancy – how much I will gain2. Effort expectancy - how hard I need to work3. Social influence – what happened if I don’t do it.4. Facilitated conditions – how much help I will get from the organization DSV - Stockholm University
  16. 16. Solution – the A3 framework General Scheme DSV - Stockholm University
  17. 17. Solution – the A3 framework Process model DSV - Stockholm University
  18. 18. Reflections from the project• DS is difficult to plan in advance• Tight deadlines so that not to miss an opportunity for testing a solution in the current case• Even when a known problem have known solutions there could be an opportunity for DS if the context is different• The demonstration phase requires tight cooperation between researchers and practitioner to implement the solution DSV - Stockholm University
  19. 19. Thank you for your attention! Main Contact Ilia Bider, SU/IbisSoft Email: ilia@{,ibissoft}.se DSV - Stockholm University19