103 Fema Lesschaeve

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An invited presentation made to the FEMA membership on the rationale for customization and personalization of product offering in the food industry and the food service industry

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103 Fema Lesschaeve

  1. 1. I consume, therefore I amRationale for customizing food products to consumer unique preferences Isabelle Lesschaeve, PhD Ag. Eng. FEMA Annual Meeting May 8, 2012
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. There is no ONE consumer
  4. 4. Determinants of Food Preferences and EvolutionCustomization of the Product Offering
  5. 5. There is no ONE consumerThree major determinants of food choice andpreference (Rozin, 1991): • Biological factors • Cultural factors • Individual/Psychological factorsAlso: • Socio-economic environment • Context of purchase • Heuristics
  6. 6. Biological determinants
  7. 7. Biological DeterminantsInnate likes for sweet and dislikes for bitter and sour foods (Birch, 1982)In utero nutrition impacts future child’s preference (Schaal, 2006)Genetics: • Gender • Sensitivity to PROP
  8. 8. Biological DeterminantsSensory sensitivity • Anosmia or hyperosmia • Agueusia • Decreased sensitivity with aging
  9. 9. Development of Food Preference • Preference increases with exposure and familiarity (mere exposure theory, Zajonc 1968) • Preferences are acquired by associative learning • Results in desirable post-digestive consequences • Acceptance or Rejection (Rozin, 2007)? • Ruled by sensory/hedonic reasons • Anticipated consequences • Ideational Reasons
  10. 10. Investigating Sensory PreferencesWhite wine
  11. 11. Sensory Preferences for White Winesby Canadian Consumers Use of preference mapping:  To describe the sensory landscape available to consumers  To determine the sensory attributes driving likes and dislikes for white wine Lesschaeve et al., in press
  12. 12. Consumer tests - Tasting Title Setting Sub-headline• Rate their liking on a scale How much do you like this glass of wine? Dislike extremely Like extremely
  13. 13. White Wine Preference Map Observations (axes F1 and F2: 48.18 %) 15 6 Petroleum 10 Oak 14 1 10 5 3 Smooth Burning 12 7 11 Liking 0 F2 (12.27 %) -5 5 18 9 Sweet -10 16 Lychee -15 Peas Pepper Floral -20 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 F1 (35.91 %) Lesschaeve et al, 2011)
  14. 14. Segmentation based on SensoryPreferencesMost marketing professionals are familiar with segmentation based on demographics or lifestyles
  15. 15. Segmentation based on Usage and Habits © 2005 Constellation wines US
  16. 16. White Wine Sensory Preference Map Observations (axes F1 and F2: 48.18 %) 15 6 Petroleum 10 Oak 14 1 10 77% 5 3 Smooth Burning 12 7 11 Liking 0 F2 (12.27 %) -5 5 18 9 Sweet -10 16 Lychee -15 Peas Pepper Floral -20 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 F1 (35.91 %) Lesschaeve et al, 2011)
  17. 17. White Wine Sensory Preference Map Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Total sample (N=92) (N=28) (N=120) Proportion in the total 77 % 23 % 100 % sample Proportion Local Wine 32 % 43 % 34 % Drinkers Proportion NS Imported Wine 30 % 39 % 32 % Drinkers Proportion 38 % 18 % 33 % Millenials Lesschaeve et al, in press)
  18. 18. White Wine Sensory Preference Map Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Total sample (N=92) (N=28) (N=120) Proportion in the total 77 % 23 % 100 % sample Proportion Local Wine 32 % 43 % 34 % Drinkers Proportion NS Imported Wine 30 % 39 % 32 % Drinkers Proportion 38 % 18 % 33 % Millenials Lesschaeve et al, in press)
  19. 19. Intense Smell and Flavor Some Vanilla Chardonnay (USA) Toasted Oak FlavorSweet TasteFruity Smell and Flavor AlcoholSmooth H ISmell and A Flavor F J G N K RBerry V Lingering W M O T D Aftertaste C S P E L Spicy oak Q U BLiking Sour Taste Bitter TasteLesschaeve et al, 2001 Dry, Puckery
  20. 20. Red Wine Preference Map (USA) ASTRINGENT TOASTED OAK VANILLA W8 W10 W12 BACK LPEPPER VISCOUSW9 G3 W13 BUTTER W6 W7 W5 W14 W4 W15 BERRY JAM W3 HOT BITTER AT BANDAIDSMOOTH W2 W16 W1 RASPBERRY GRASSY G2 SMOKY ASPARAGUS G1SWEET CASSIS COOKED FRUIT Lesschaeve et al , 2000
  21. 21. Common Latent Dimensions acrossProduct CategoriesSensory preferences tend to reflect biology • From unripe to ripe (Citrus to tropical) • From safe to unsafe (Fruit to Wood/Mineral; Sweet to Bitter)
  22. 22. Consumer Preference and Food Choice Socio-economic Product Consumer context Perception of sensory attributes Physical and chemical Price, availability, characteristics brand, Nutritional value Psychological factors: social-cultural factors Personality, previous experience, mood, beliefs, values Demographics Physiological effects: Attitudes towards sensory attributes, Satiety, hunger, thirst, Behaviour: health/nutrition, appetite Choice/Consumption price/quality /Preference (Adapted from Shepherd, 1985)
  23. 23. Psychological determinantsRole of Heuristics
  24. 24. HeuristicsStrategies using readily accessible, though loosely applicable, information to control problem solving in human beingsTriggers: • Package information: price, brand, claims, nutritional facts, ingredients, design • Beliefs generating attitudes • Personal values • Motivation • Memory
  25. 25. Influence of InformationSensory preferences for peaches may be altered by information 10 9 L i 8 k i 7 n 6 g 5 Blind S Labeled 4 c o 3 r e 2 s 1 0 LNO LO INO IO Wu et al, 2012
  26. 26. Liking of the same white wine as afunction of region of origin and price 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 -0.5 -1 Niagara P. None Beamsville None $13-15 $16-20 Appellation Sub-Appellation Price range Lesschaeve et al, 2009
  27. 27. Other heuristicsEffect of a position in a sequence of tastings Low Knowledge High Knowledge(Mantonakis et. al, 2009)
  28. 28. Factors Triggering Purchase at POSOntario Consumers’ Motivationsfor Purchasing Red Wine
  29. 29. Elements testedCategory1: Wine Type Category4: Extrinsic and In Store CuesCabernet Franc...the other Cabernet Pure sophisticationMeritage... a traditional blend of Cabernet Sauvignon, With such a strong reputation, this winerys wines must be goodCabernet Franc and Merlot Experience the charm of the winery through its winesPinot Noir… you can taste the terroir in every sip Funky, bright and colourful.... a wine for lifes lighter momentsGamay Noir… adapts to different wine styles With a staff pick… your choice is simpleShiraz or Syrah… same grape, same wine regardless of the Buy worry free… available for you to samplenameMade partially or entirely from dried red grapes to Category5: Beliefs/Valuesconcentrate the flavours you enjoy Worth every penny Feel good serving to the people you care aboutCategory2: Region of Origin Reflects your lifestyle and individualityProduct of France Great reviews on-line... your buying decision made easyProduct of Australia Rich in antioxidantsProduct of Chile Recommended by family and friends... you are sure to love itProduct of Canada, VQA Prince Edward CountyProduct of Canada, VQA Niagara Peninsula Category6: QualityBlended from International and Canadian wines Great wine, every time... with the taste you expectCategory3: Consumption Occasion Taste the quality of craftsmanship from the grape grower to theMake an evening out with a loved one even more winemakerenjoyable Ruby red with flavours of black currant and a hint of green pepperA great way to celebrate special occasions A full bodied wine with a warm plumy fruit flavour and a little bit ofSure to impress clients and colleagues alike drynessRelaxes you after a busy day Pale in colour with a light flavour of raspberries and soft oak notesA wine to enjoy with friends Made in the tradition of the greatest wine producersA great accompaniment to your meal
  30. 30. Example of vignette
  31. 31. Typing consumers mindset for red wineThree distinct segments:• Cool climate enthusiasts (37%) favor cabernet franc and pinot noir wines from cool climate regions with rich flavours;• Social Sippers (23%) are driven by meritage style and value wines matching their lifestyle;• Big red drinkers (40%) who enjoy full bodied wine from Australia.
  32. 32. Nice to know there are different consumersegments. How do we use this information?
  33. 33. Typing consumers mindset for red wine
  34. 34. Typing consumers mindset for red wine
  35. 35. Typing consumers mindset for red wine
  36. 36. Summary• Biological factors along with individual characteristics moderate individual sensory preferences• Latent dimensions of sensory preference exist across product categories• Psychological and non sensory factors lead consumers to use heuristics to help them make a choice• Knowledge of these factors and how they affect consumers decision making enables customization of product offering• Sensory attributes and non sensory cues need to align to maximise consumer experience
  37. 37. Thank You!Dr. Isabelle LesschaeveIsabelle.lesschaeve@vinelandresearch.com+1 905 562-0320 Ext.769 www.vinelandresearch.com

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