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Phylogeny & classification
 

Phylogeny & classification

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This is a PowerPoint to supplement chapter 18 in Miller and Levine's Dragonfly book.

This is a PowerPoint to supplement chapter 18 in Miller and Levine's Dragonfly book.

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    Phylogeny & classification Phylogeny & classification Presentation Transcript

    • Phylogeny & Classification All of chapter 18. Yup, the whole thing in one class.
    • Linnaean Classification This system was created long before scientists understood that organisms evolved. Because the Linnaean system is not based on evolution, most biologists are switching to a classification system that reflects the organisms' evolutionary history. K ing P hilip C ame O ver F or G ood S oup.
    • Binomial Nomenclature
      • Each species is assigned a two part scientific name.
      • Written in italics
      • First word is capitalized
      • Second word is lowercase
    • Binomial Nomenclature Homo sapien Oncorhynchus keta human chum salmon Genus species
    • What is a Phylogeny?
      • The context of evolutionary biology is phylogeny
      • The connections between all groups of organisms as understood by ancestor/descendant relationships.
    • Different ways of drawing trees All of these state the same relationships!
    • When a lineage splits (speciation), it is represented as branching on a phylogeny.
    • Clades A clade is a grouping that includes a common ancestor and all the descendents (living and extinct) of that ancestor. Using a phylogeny, it is easy to tell if a group of lineages forms a clade. Imagine clipping a single branch off the phylogeny—all of the organisms on that pruned branch make up a clade.                                                            
    • Identifying Clades Are reptiles a clade? No! That means that either "reptile" is not a valid phylogenetic grouping or we have to start thinking of birds as reptiles.
    • Sample Practice Question*
      • For the tree above, you would need to say:
      • the frog and salamander are more closely related to each other than to the lizard, snake, bird, and mouse
      • the lizard and snake are more closely related to each other than to the bird, mouse, frog, or salamander
      • the bird is more closely related to the lizard and the snake than it is to the mouse, frog, or slamander
      • the mouse is more closely related to the lizard, snake, and bird than it is to the frog or salamander
      * Information for this practice question comes from: http://www.utm.edu/departments/cens/biology/rirwin/391/391Phylog.htm
    • Practice Question* Note that the previous example gives four statements about the relationships: one for each ancestral species on the tree.  See if you can give the same kind of description of relationships for each of the phylogenies pictured above. * Information for this practice question comes from: http://www.utm.edu/departments/cens/biology/rirwin/391/391Phylog.htm
    • Homologies help determine how species are related.
    • Homology vs. Analogy
      • Homologies are similar characteristics shared by two different organisms because they were inherited from a common ancestor.
      • Analogis are similar characteristics shared by two different organisms because of convergent evolution.
    • Molecular Biology is a powerful tool in classification
      • DNA & RNA comparisons
        • A molecular clock can be calibrated in actual time. Possible to graph base substitutions against known evolutionary landmarks.
    • Molecular Clocks
    • Kingdoms & Domains
      • Linnaeus’s two kingdoms, Animalia and Plantae don’t adequately represent the full diversity of life.
      • Instead, scientists made five kingdoms
        • Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
      • Then they split Monera into Eu bacteria and Archae bacteria
      • Leading to the three kingdom system
    • Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Prokaryote Prokaryote Eukaryote E.coli halophiles Amoeba Mushroom, yeast Moss, ferns, flowering plants Sponges, worms, insects, fishes, mammals