Development and Research


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by Chris Grodoski & Liz Rex

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  • Imperfectmetacognition
  • Larger problem of representation, composition, consistency, and communication
  • Background knowledge
  • The production in this case, an activity used at the start of a course, is focused on creating narratives. These narratives help students to to understand how images work in conjunction with one another to create narratives. They are also used as a reference point to help students develop meaningful interpretations in their interpretive and production work. Since narratives generally emerge from conflict, students write about the ways the images compare and contrast. Students also include popular culture references, which helps me further place student’s background knowledge. This combined organizer, however, is less visually appealing. Yet the narrative comes about, we see, from a background knowledge that includes 1. the Great Depression, 2. Child Labor Laws, and 3. Symbolic knowledge that has the hamburger representing a “full appetite” and the boy as a symbol of “poverty” and “lack of food”Clearly this student’s capacities for narratives creation are more advanced, and production and interpretation goals for this student needed to be more challenging to meet developmental needs. Provides a reason to at least be grading for concept knowledge and craftsmanship separatelyHowever, this example is on the surface successful. The elements of the organizer highlight a few things about the student, and where this student lies relative to the chart (from the previous slide). Not only is the narrative simple, but the compare/contrast and popular culture points reveal little background knowledge about alligators and dogs!
  • Group Thinking
  • Great opportunity to integrate with other areas – students plot-lined a story around that conflict. Elaboration and flexibility because the grouping provides a new set of problemsCan the kids articulate them? Use the kids definition of the problem in a rubric!
  • This is important knowledge for meeting young people where they’re at and for scaffolding them through lessons designed to be in their zone of proximal developmentThese categories are based on a synthesis of developmental theories from art and reading and include researchers such as Solso, Parsons, Housen, Bloom, Kintsch, Gardner, Darras, Kindler, and Lowenfeld
  • Production on left, interpretation on right
  • The Chinese oven problem
  • Inversion or Rotation are subsets of RearrangementEasily identifiableAlready using it in drawing instruction, but now connecting it to meaning making.
  • Visual culture art education promotes the idea of a cultural critique, a highly creative act in which students are reflective enough about shared narratives to begin to question them.
  • Development and Research

    1. 1. OverviewIll-structured Domains Creativity Flexible knowledge  Problem solving Context driven  Convergent and divergent thinking  Elaboration  Flexibility
    2. 2. Overview Collaboration Instruction Group thinking  Development  Goldilocks principle Group structure  Social-emotional engagement Creativity assessment  Anchored learning  Perceptual-motor grounding  Coherence effect  Testing and spacing effect  Cognitive disequilibrium
    3. 3. New Search
    4. 4.  A need for participatory learning, tutorial Ill-Structured guidance, and support for aiding the Domains management of complexity The use of multiple  The learner must mental and engage in constructive processes involving the pedagogical diverse contexts in representations which fine arts conventions are The promotion of embedded…artists multiple alternative must attain an accurate systems of linkage and deeper understanding of among knowledge content material, reason elements with it, and be able to apply it in diverse, ill- structured, and
    5. 5. Creativity • Problem solving• Convergent and divergent thinking • Elaboration • Flexibility
    6. 6. Problem Solving
    7. 7. Problem Solving Research Practice Unstructured, ill- structured, semi- structured, highly- structured
    8. 8. Design Problems
    9. 9. Design Problems
    10. 10. Design Problems
    11. 11. Convergent and Divergent Thinking Research Practice Creativity results from a  Domain knowledge combination of both transformed
    12. 12. Assessment Example
    13. 13. ElaborationThe amount of technical orconceptual depth extension in a creative work
    14. 14. Flexibility The amount of variancein a solution to a creative visual problem
    15. 15. Collaboration •Group thinking •Group structure •Creativity assessment
    16. 16. The Story ofGothica and Friends
    17. 17. Collaborative Narratives
    18. 18. Instructional Practices Development Goldilocks principleSocial-emotional engagement Anchored learningPerceptual-motor grounding Coherence effect Testing and spacing effect Cognitive disequilibrium
    19. 19. Parson’s Theory Solso’s Artistic Housen’s Stage of Aesthetic Interpretation Theory Stages Model Gardner’s Kintsch’s Bloom’s Emerging Forms Construction- Taxonomy of Knowledge Integration Model Model Lowenfeld’s Kindler and Drawing Darras’s Semiotic Development Development Model Map
    20. 20. Meta-cognitive, inquiry based production in whichpersonally relevant and novel insights and theories are produced on previous field knowledge previous field knowledge Recognition of style as manipulated and communicative, arguments are reasoned and verified in a community Expressiveness and personal meaning are overriding factors in judgment Judgment based solely in beauty, realism, & recognition Judgments are neither good nor bad, based on frameworks generated from basic perceptions Perceptual & Fact Based Interpretation
    21. 21. Metacognitive, inquiry based production Metacognitive, inquiry based production inin which personally relevant and novel which personally relevant and novel insights insights and theories are produced on and theories are produced on previous field previous field knowledge knowledge previous field knowledge UPPERFormal elements, style, and composition SECONDARY Recognition of style as manipulated are manipulated in service to expressiveness, meaning, or a valued LEVEL and communicative, arguments are critical stances reasoned and verified in a community Expressiveness and personal Expressiveness and personalmeaning is an overriding factor in meaning are overriding factors in production judgment LOWER Production ideals based solely in MIDDLE Judgment based solely in beauty, realism, recognition LEVEL beauty, realism, recognition Idealized Schematic Judgments are neither good norRepresentations, produced largely value bad, based on frameworks generated free and based on basic perceptions from basic perceptions Perceptual & Fact Based Production Perceptual & Fact Based Interpretation
    22. 22. Upper Middle-Level Production Does this work meet this What is the indicator? criteria? Formal elements, style, and composition are manipulated in service toexpressiveness, meaning, or a valued critical stances
    23. 23. “My goal for this piece was to combine and rearrange elements from different images of heroes in popular culture. I combined Christian elements (a cross, a halo, angel wings, and the flaming sward said to guard the Garden of Eden) with the not-so-Christian element of an assassin from the popular video game Assassin’s Creed. I decided to repeat thearrows heading towards the man on the cross to amplify the heroic qualities of the image. The multitude of arrows shows that the man is facing a large force all byhimself. I did omit the army from thescene, though, to draw focus to theman on the cross. I decided to draw the cross on a large scale to emphasize the Christian elements of the image. By combing theseelements, I transformed the images into a morally contradictory work, completely changing the drawings meaning.”
    24. 24. Goldilocks Principle (ZPD) Research Practice Assignments should not be too hard or two easy, but at the right level of difficulty for the student’s level of skill or prior knowledge. Flow
    25. 25. Social-Emotional Engagement Research Practice Emotion and Cognition  What are your burning questions about art, its Deep Questions value, and your art practice? Discovery and self- regulated earning
    26. 26. Questioning“The artist could have made it huge but he put in upside down or to the side and that would have gotten attention too, but why did he put it upside down?” “I think if a statue is upside-down it is dishonoring someone because, most statues I see are up right and are remembering/honoring someone. So this could be a new way of dishonoring someone without really slandering their name and such.”
    27. 27. SharedNarrativesPersonalNarrativesCritiquingNarratives
    28. 28. Anchored Learning Research Practice Learning and teaching  Develop a list of well activities should be documented, real world designed around an problems that "anchor" which is based on professionals in the visual a contextualized case arts face. These problems study or problem situation. Curriculum materials should not have clear should allow exploration by solutions. the learner to allow active manipulation, questioning, and involvement in the situation
    29. 29. Perceptual-motor grounding Research Practice Dual coding and multi-  In what situations do you use writing with art or connect media effects visuals with words? “the presentation  What additional perceptual- motor grounding experiences contains words and can you weave into your pictures, and the practice? presentation is designed to foster meaningful learning”
    30. 30. Coherence Effect Research Practice Less is more  What are the 2 most important craftsmanship Negative suggestion skills you want your effects students to gain?  What are the 2 most important ideas about art that you want your students to gain?  What are the 2 most important mental habits you want your students to gain?
    31. 31. Testing and Spacing Effects Research Practice How will you weave in your teaching priorities withcoherence and in an anchored way to your students’ experience?
    32. 32. Assessment Highlight specific learning priorities by name Challenge students to apply and adapt them in different contexts Provide students multiple modes of responding Repeat
    33. 33. Cognitive Disequilibrium Research Practice An imbalance that happens when our consistent vision of the world’s workings is disrupted Provides an opportunity  What are aspects of your for meaningful learning curriculum that are disruptive to the consistencies held by your students?
    34. 34. Thank you! Chris Grodoski