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  1. 1. Collocations (in IT jargon and general English) Zoran Šaško [35857/07-R] Nikola Šapina [36087/07-R] Matija Šaško [36020/07-R] Sveučilište u Zagrebu Fakultet organizacije i informatike Varaždin U Varaždinu, 17. siječanj 2008.
  2. 2. What are collocations? <ul><li>Collocations are collections of words that &quot;fit together&quot;; i.e. they are predictable patterns and phrases or groups of words that we typically use together </li></ul><ul><li>Idioms like &quot;take a break&quot;, structures like &quot;If I had the chance, I would ...&quot; and word combinations like &quot;get on a bus /get in a car&quot; are all considered collocations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of collocations <ul><li>There are several different types of collocation made from combinations of verb, noun, adjective etc. Some of the most common types are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverb + Adjective: completely satisfied (NOT downright satisfied) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective + Noun: excruciating pain (NOT excruciating joy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun + Noun: a surge of anger (NOT a rush of anger) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun + Verb: lions roar (NOT lions shout) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb + Noun: commit suicide (NOT undertake suicide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb + Expression With Preposition: burst into tears (NOT blow up in tears) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb + Adverb: wave frantically (NOT wave feverishly) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What are some characteristics of collocations? <ul><li>Collocations can be described in a number of ways. </li></ul><ul><li>One way of thinking about them is in terms of &quot;fixedness&quot; - in other words, the degree to which you can vary the basic pattern and still have a collocation. </li></ul><ul><li>We can only define the fixedness or unfixedness of collocations in terms of a continuum - all we can say is that some are more fixed than others but we can't make a neat dividing line between &quot;fixed&quot; and &quot;unfixed&quot;. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are some characteristics of collocations? <ul><li>A very fixed collocation is one in which the pattern has very few expected variations. </li></ul><ul><li>So, for example, the phrase &quot;kick the bucket&quot; is an idiom, a relatively fixed collocation meaning &quot;to die“ </li></ul><ul><li>Like &quot;kick the bucket&quot;, most collocations which are very fixed form a particular expected meaning rather than a structure. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are some characteristics of collocations? <ul><li>Less fixed collocations are often more structural - common patterns that help structure a sentence but don't carry as much specific meaning by themselves. For example a less fixed collocation might be something like: </li></ul><ul><li>Let's + verb which directs an audience's attention + preposition + noun which describes an idea. This is a commonly used structural pattern into which you can insert a variety of words and still have commonly used patterns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Let's move on to the next point. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let's go back to the last chapter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let's move away from this paragraph </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What are some characteristics of collocations? <ul><li>However, there are still a limited number of words which will &quot;fit&quot; into this pattern. So, for example, we don't typically say &quot;Let's go out of this paragraph&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Words that are commonly used with other words are examples of less fixed collocations which are not as structural in nature. So for example, we use &quot;bus&quot; and &quot;car&quot; with only certain sets of other words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We say &quot;Get on a bus&quot;/&quot;climb on a bus&quot; but usually not &quot;enter a bus&quot; or &quot;get in a bus&quot;. However, we say &quot;get in a car&quot;. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We say &quot;take the bus&quot;/&quot;ride the bus&quot;/&quot;go there on the bus&quot; but usually not &quot;We can drive there on the bus&quot;. However we say &quot;We can drive there in her car.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What are some characteristics of collocations? <ul><li>It's not important to be able to classify collocations according to their exact degree of fixedness. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it probably is helpful to know that some collocations are more fixed than others: if you recognize a collocation as very fixed, you can learn it as one item; if you recognize it as less fixed, you understand that there's a pattern there that you can use to build a collection of useful related phrases. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why should we learn collocations? <ul><li>Our brain tends to store language in chunks, rather than individual words </li></ul><ul><li>So, when we speak or write, it is more efficient for us to remember and use phrases as chunks rather than constructing them one word at a time. This increased efficiency promotes fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity with collocations and the resulting ability to make guesses about a speaker/writer's speech should increase a non-native speaker's efficiency as a listener or reader. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The End