How to Do Research: Seven Steps to Successful Research
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How to Do Research: Seven Steps to Successful Research

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A presentation for new doctoral students, especially in computer science and engineering

A presentation for new doctoral students, especially in computer science and engineering

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  • 1. How To Do Research Integrated Knowledge Solutions iksinc@yahoo.com Iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 2. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 3. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?
  • 4. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research
  • 5. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research Making Technical Presentations
  • 6. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research Making Technical Presentations Writing Grant Proposals
  • 7. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research Making Technical Presentations Writing Grant Proposals Ethics & Professional Conduct in Research
  • 8. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 9. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. [Wikipedia]
  • 10. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com Studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws [Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition] Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. [Wikipedia]
  • 11. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com Studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws [Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition] Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. [Wikipedia] Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions
  • 12. In Computer Science Context iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 13. In Computer Science Context iksinc.wordpress.com Discovery of new knowledge of computing through mathematical analysis, modeling, and experimental evaluation of algorithms and computer software.
  • 14. Why Do Research? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 15. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 16. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 17. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity • For enjoyment you derive from posing your own problems and solving them iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 18. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity • For enjoyment you derive from posing your own problems and solving them • To help career growth (Promotion & Tenure) iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 19. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity • For enjoyment you derive from posing your own problems and solving them • To help career growth (Promotion & Tenure) • To see places and meet interesting people from all over the world at subsidized expenses iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 20. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 21. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 22. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research • Authority: Information received from experts, books, etc. Its strength depends on the strength of these sources. • We use this kind of source for literature review iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 23. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research • Authority: Information received from experts, books, etc. Its strength depends on the strength of these sources. • We use this kind of source for literature review • Logic: Gained by reasoning • We rely on this when analyzing/modifying/improving an algorithm iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 24. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research • Authority: Information received from experts, books, etc. Its strength depends on the strength of these sources. • We use this kind of source for literature review • Logic: Gained by reasoning • We rely on this when analyzing/modifying/improving an algorithm • Empirical: Based on demonstrable, objective facts ,determined through observation and/or experimentation. • Used when we want to study the behavior of a complex piece of software or the accuracy of an algorithm using benchmark data sets. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 25. Seven Steps to Successful Research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 26. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 27. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 28. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 29. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 30. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 31. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 32. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 33. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 34. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 35. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 36. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 37. Defining the Research Question iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 38. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 39. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? • Within the subfield, what interests me more? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 40. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? • Within the subfield, what interests me more? • What is my chief strength? – Mathematical abstraction – Implementation/Experimentation – Problem solving iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 41. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? • Within the subfield, what interests me more? • What is my chief strength? – Mathematical abstraction – Implementation/Experimentation – Problem solving • What would be the outcome? – A better model – A better algorithm – A new application iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 42. Defining the Research Question iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 43. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 44. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 45. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? • Are there good prior works to build upon? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 46. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? • Are there good prior works to build upon? • How big is the research community? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 47. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? • Are there good prior works to build upon? • How big is the research community? • Who are the major players? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 48. Information Gathering iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 49. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 50. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 51. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work – Use ACM/IEEE digital libraries, Google and CiteSeer to locate important papers iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 52. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work – Use ACM/IEEE digital libraries, Google and CiteSeer to locate important papers – Make sure to look through the recent proceedings of the prestigious conferences in your area iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 53. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work – Use ACM/IEEE digital libraries, Google and CiteSeer to locate important papers – Make sure to look through the recent proceedings of the prestigious conferences in your area – Try to locate review papers of your’s and related fields iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 54. Reading Papers iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 55. Reading Papers • Do paper reading in two or three passes. Ignore the technical details in the first pass iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 56. Reading Papers • Do paper reading in two or three passes. Ignore the technical details in the first pass • Generally, reading the abstract, introduction, and summary and conclusion sections is good enough to determine whether a given paper should be read in detail or not. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 57. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 58. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 59. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 60. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 61. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? – What is new in this paper? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 62. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? – What is new in this paper? – How are the research claims substantiated? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 63. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? – What is new in this paper? – How are the research claims substantiated? – Conclusions and pointers to future work iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 64. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 65. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 66. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 67. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 68. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? – How can the research results be improved? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 69. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? – How can the research results be improved? – Can the research results be applied to another context? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 70. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? – How can the research results be improved? – Can the research results be applied to another context? – Are there some gaps in the work? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 71. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 72. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 73. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 74. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 75. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 76. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 77. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 78. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  • 79. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 80. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 81. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios • Think about complexity. Is your solution going to scale well? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 82. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios • Think about complexity. Is your solution going to scale well? • What is the chief strength of your solution? – This will be your main selling point in your papers iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 83. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios • Think about complexity. Is your solution going to scale well? • What is the chief strength of your solution? – This will be your main selling point in your papers • Weaknesses of your solution? – Any major weakness is likely to hinder your paper. So avoid any major weakness by reformulating or reworking your solution iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 84. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 85. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution • Try to map your problem into a framework with known approaches for solutions – Optimization – Graph theory – Probabilistic – Divide and conquer iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 86. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution • Try to map your problem into a framework with known approaches for solutions – Optimization – Graph theory – Probabilistic – Divide and conquer • Strive for simplicity and avoid complex solutions iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 87. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution • Try to map your problem into a framework with known approaches for solutions – Optimization – Graph theory – Probabilistic – Divide and conquer • Strive for simplicity and avoid complex solutions • Sit on your solution for few days and then come back to it – This helps in locating weaknesses/flaws that generally get overlooked in the initial excitement iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 88. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 89. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Test your implementation/simulation with test cases of known results to ensure there are no bugs/mistakes iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 90. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Test your implementation/simulation with test cases of known results to ensure there are no bugs/mistakes • Whenever possible, use the platform or the environment popular in your area of research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 91. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Test your implementation/simulation with test cases of known results to ensure there are no bugs/mistakes • Whenever possible, use the platform or the environment popular in your area of research • Make sure to perform comparative study with standard datasets or benchmarks iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 92. Organizing and Interpreting Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 93. Organizing and Interpreting Results • It is not enough to just present the results. You must do a careful analysis to show that the results justify your solution iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 94. Organizing and Interpreting Results • It is not enough to just present the results. You must do a careful analysis to show that the results justify your solution • If there are some parameters in your solution, then make sure that you have results for a range of parameter values to infer a trend iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 95. Organizing and Interpreting Results • It is not enough to just present the results. You must do a careful analysis to show that the results justify your solution • If there are some parameters in your solution, then make sure that you have results for a range of parameter values to infer a trend • Make sure your graphs are labeled properly. Do not overcrowd graphs by putting too much information iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 96. Writing and Communicating Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 97. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 98. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper • Use your own words and phrases. Use quote marks if you are using sentences from other papers. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 99. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper • Use your own words and phrases. Use quote marks if you are using sentences from other papers. • Go over your writing several times. Generally writing consumes 50% of the research effort. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 100. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper • Use your own words and phrases. Use quote marks if you are using sentences from other papers. • Go over your writing several times. Generally writing consumes 50% of the research effort. • Don’t worry about the length of the initial draft. Make sure you don’t miss any point. It is much easier to trim a paper later on to meet the length requirements. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 101. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 102. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing • Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the important points you want to cover in each section of your manuscript iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 103. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing • Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the important points you want to cover in each section of your manuscript • Remember, you are trying to “sell” your work to reviewers who will determine the fate of your paper. Make a compelling case in the introduction section of your paper because by the time a reviewer has finished this section, she has already made an initial decision about whether to accept or reject the paper. She will read the rest of the paper looking for evidence to support her decision. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 104. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing • Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the important points you want to cover in each section of your manuscript • Remember, you are trying to “sell” your work to reviewers who will determine the fate of your paper. Make a compelling case in the introduction section of your paper because by the time a reviewer has finished this section, she has already made an initial decision about whether to accept or reject the paper. She will read the rest of the paper looking for evidence to support her decision. • The introduction section must have: – What is the problem? Why is it interesting and important? Weaknesses of the previous proposed solutions? How does the proposed solution overcomes all or some of the limitations of the existing approaches? What are the key components of the suggested approach and results? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 105. More Tips for Paper Writing iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 106. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 107. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing • Avoid value judgments. Give the facts and let the readers judge. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 108. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing • Avoid value judgments. Give the facts and let the readers judge. • Run a spell checker and have someone who is particular about grammar read your paper iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 109. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing • Avoid value judgments. Give the facts and let the readers judge. • Run a spell checker and have someone who is particular about grammar read your paper • Make sure to acknowledge the persons/organizations who have helped you in your research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 110. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 111. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 112. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 113. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. • Pay careful attention to the comments/suggestions of the reviewers. Try to incorporate them as much as possible and revise your paper for resubmission. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 114. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. • Pay careful attention to the comments/suggestions of the reviewers. Try to incorporate them as much as possible and revise your paper for resubmission. • Include a cover letter thanking the reviewers and explaining point by point how you have accommodated most of their concerns iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 115. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. • Pay careful attention to the comments/suggestions of the reviewers. Try to incorporate them as much as possible and revise your paper for resubmission. • Include a cover letter thanking the reviewers and explaining point by point how you have accommodated most of their concerns • In the event your paper is not accepted at your publication of first choice, don’t lose heart. Browse through next tier list of publications and submit there. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 116. Making Technical Presentations iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 117. Making Technical Presentations • Three main elements of a technical presentation – Organization – Visual aids – Delivery and style iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 118. Making Technical Presentations • Three main elements of a technical presentation – Organization – Visual aids – Delivery and style • Before you prepare your presentation – Prepare an outline – Think about your audience and their background iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 119. Some Tips on Presentations iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 120. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 121. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 122. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 123. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research • Speak clearly and loud enough. Modulate your voice Look at your audience and make eye contact. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 124. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research • Speak clearly and loud enough. Modulate your voice Look at your audience and make eye contact. • Watch for audience’s non-verbal feedback and adjust your delivery iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 125. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research • Speak clearly and loud enough. Modulate your voice Look at your audience and make eye contact. • Watch for audience’s non-verbal feedback and adjust your delivery • Always carry a backup presentation file on a USB or through email/cloud iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 126. Writing Grant Proposals iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 127. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 128. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue • Prepare a brief concept paper iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 129. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue • Prepare a brief concept paper • Identify the potential funding sources – NSF/NIH/DOE/DHS – Foundations and industry consortia, e.g. EPRI iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 130. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue • Prepare a brief concept paper • Identify the potential funding sources – NSF/NIH/DOE/DHS – Foundations and industry consortia, e.g. EPRI • Contact the program officers and discuss your idea with them iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 131. What Should be in a Proposal? iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 132. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 133. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project • Most funding agencies have templates for different kinds of proposals, follow the pertinent template iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 134. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project • Most funding agencies have templates for different kinds of proposals, follow the pertinent template • Stay within the page limits and strictly follow the guidelines for submission iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 135. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project • Most funding agencies have templates for different kinds of proposals, follow the pertinent template • Stay within the page limits and strictly follow the guidelines for submission • Seek help from your sponsored research office for preparing budget iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 136. Ethics in CS Research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 137. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 138. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 139. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism • Multiple submissions iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 140. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism • Multiple submissions • Data fudging and fabrication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 141. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism • Multiple submissions • Data fudging and fabrication • Conflict of interest iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 142. Authorship and Listing Order iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 143. Authorship and Listing Order • Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial contribution to the work. All listed authors must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of the research article. –David Baltimore (Nobel laureate) case iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 144. Authorship and Listing Order • Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial contribution to the work. All listed authors must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of the research article. – David Baltimore (Nobel laureate) case • Ordering conventions are discipline/culture specific – In CS, the ordering generally indicates the relative contributions of different authors with the first author having made the most contribution – In mathematics and theoretical CS research, the names are generally listed alphabetically iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 145. Authorship and Listing Order • Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial contribution to the work. All listed authors must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of the research article. – David Baltimore (Nobel laureate) case • Ordering conventions are discipline/culture specific – In CS, the ordering generally indicates the relative contributions of different authors with the first author having made the most contribution – In mathematics and theoretical CS research, the names are generally listed alphabetically • Acknowledgement – Include anyone who has made some contribution, for example in editing, loaning an equipment, providing some financial support iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 146. Plagiarism iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 147. Plagiarism • The American Heritage Dictionary (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as "to take and use as one's own the writings or ideas of another." iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 148. Plagiarism • The American Heritage Dictionary (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as "to take and use as one's own the writings or ideas of another." • Always make sure you give proper credit to your sources and any verbatim material is used with quotes iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 149. Plagiarism • The American Heritage Dictionary (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as "to take and use as one's own the writings or ideas of another." • Always make sure you give proper credit to your sources and any verbatim material is used with quotes • See IEEE and ACM guidelines – http://www.acm.org/publications/policies /plagiarism_policy http://www.ieee.org/publications_standar ds/publications/rights/plagiarism.html iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 150. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 151. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 152. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 153. Self-Plagiarism iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 154. Self-Plagiarism • ACM defines it as the verbatim or near- verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 155. Self-Plagiarism • ACM defines it as the verbatim or near-verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source. – Self-plagiarism does not apply to publications based on the author's own previously copyrighted work (e.g., appearing in a conference proceedings) where an explicit reference is made to the prior publication. Such reuse does not require quotation marks to delineate the reused text but does require that the source be cited. iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 156. Multiple Submissions iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 157. Multiple Submissions • LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are common although not desirable iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 158. Multiple Submissions • LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are common although not desirable • It is okay to have one or two conference papers and a journal paper on the same research topic as long as each paper makes its own significant contribution iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 159. Multiple Submissions • LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are common although not desirable • It is okay to have one or two conference papers and a journal paper on the same research topic as long as each paper makes its own significant contribution • Never submit the same work to two places at same time to expedite publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 160. Data Fudging and Fabrication iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 161. Data Fudging and Fabrication • Avoid temptations to: – Do data smoothing to remove irregularities to make the data appear extremely accurate and precise iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 162. Data Fudging and Fabrication • Avoid temptations to: – Do data smoothing to remove irregularities to make the data appear extremely accurate and precise – Retain only those results that fit the theory and discarding others iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 163. Data Fudging and Fabrication • Avoid temptations to: – Do data smoothing to remove irregularities to make the data appear extremely accurate and precise – Retain only those results that fit the theory and discarding others – Create/invent some or all of the research data to substantiate your research iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 164. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 165. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: – Reviewing a paper/proposal of a friend/company where you have a stake iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 166. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: – Reviewing a paper/proposal of a friend/company where you have a stake – Writing a book review published by a friend iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 167. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: – Reviewing a paper/proposal of a friend/company where you have a stake – Writing a book review published by a friend – Hiring your relatives on funded projects iksinc.wordpress.com
  • 168. iksinc.wordpress.com Thank you! For questions, please contact iksinc@yahoo.com Also, visit my blog at Iksinc.wordpress.com