How To Do Research
Integrated Knowledge Solutions
iksinc@yahoo.com
Iksinc.wordpress.com
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
What is research?
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
What is research?Seven Stages to
Successful research
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
What is research?Seven Stages to
Successful research
Making Technical
Presentations
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
What is research?Seven Stages to
Successful research
Making Technical
Presentations
Writing G...
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
What is research?Seven Stages to
Successful research
Making Technical
Presentations
Writing G...
What is Research?
iksinc.wordpress.com
What is Research?
iksinc.wordpress.com
Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind,
to est...
What is Research?
iksinc.wordpress.com
Studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation
aime...
What is Research?
iksinc.wordpress.com
Studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation
aime...
In Computer Science Context
iksinc.wordpress.com
In Computer Science Context
iksinc.wordpress.com
Discovery of new knowledge of computing through
mathematical analysis, mo...
Why Do Research?
iksinc.wordpress.com
Why Do Research?
• To contribute to knowledge
iksinc.wordpress.com
Why Do Research?
• To contribute to knowledge
• To satisfy intellectual curiosity
iksinc.wordpress.com
Why Do Research?
• To contribute to knowledge
• To satisfy intellectual curiosity
• For enjoyment you derive from posing y...
Why Do Research?
• To contribute to knowledge
• To satisfy intellectual curiosity
• For enjoyment you derive from posing y...
Why Do Research?
• To contribute to knowledge
• To satisfy intellectual curiosity
• For enjoyment you derive from posing y...
Knowledge Sources or Ways of
Knowing
iksinc.wordpress.com
Knowledge Sources or Ways of
Knowing
• Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on
feelings rat...
Knowledge Sources or Ways of
Knowing
• Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on
feelings rat...
Knowledge Sources or Ways of
Knowing
• Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on
feelings rat...
Knowledge Sources or Ways of
Knowing
• Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on
feelings rat...
Seven Steps to Successful Research
iksinc.wordpress.com
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
iksinc.wordpress.com
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
iksinc.wordpress.com
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorit...
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorit...
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorit...
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorit...
Seven Steps to Successful Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorit...
Nonlinear Nature of Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Out...
Nonlinear Nature of Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Out...
Nonlinear Nature of Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Out...
Nonlinear Nature of Research
• Defining the Research Question
• Information Gathering
• Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Out...
Defining the Research Question
iksinc.wordpress.com
Defining the Research Question
• What subfield of CS/IT interests me?
iksinc.wordpress.com
Defining the Research Question
• What subfield of CS/IT interests me?
• Within the subfield, what interests me more?
iksin...
Defining the Research Question
• What subfield of CS/IT interests me?
• Within the subfield, what interests me more?
• Wha...
Defining the Research Question
• What subfield of CS/IT interests me?
• Within the subfield, what interests me more?
• Wha...
Defining the Research Question
iksinc.wordpress.com
Defining the Research Question
• Is the topic timely?
iksinc.wordpress.com
Defining the Research Question
• Is the topic timely?
• Does it have potential for further
research/jobs?
iksinc.wordpress...
Defining the Research Question
• Is the topic timely?
• Does it have potential for further
research/jobs?
• Are there good...
Defining the Research Question
• Is the topic timely?
• Does it have potential for further
research/jobs?
• Are there good...
Defining the Research Question
• Is the topic timely?
• Does it have potential for further
research/jobs?
• Are there good...
Information Gathering
iksinc.wordpress.com
Information Gathering
• Locating prior published work
iksinc.wordpress.com
Information Gathering
• Locating prior published work
– Make sure to check the homepages of prominent
active researchers f...
Information Gathering
• Locating prior published work
– Make sure to check the homepages of prominent
active researchers f...
Information Gathering
• Locating prior published work
– Make sure to check the homepages of prominent
active researchers f...
Information Gathering
• Locating prior published work
– Make sure to check the homepages of prominent
active researchers f...
Reading Papers
iksinc.wordpress.com
Reading Papers
• Do paper reading in two or three
passes. Ignore the technical
details in the first pass
iksinc.wordpress....
Reading Papers
• Do paper reading in two or three
passes. Ignore the technical
details in the first pass
• Generally, read...
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
iksinc.wordpress.com
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
– What is the research pr...
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
– What is the research pr...
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
– What is the research pr...
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
– What is the research pr...
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
– What is the research pr...
First Pass of Reading
• The first pass reading should be done to answer
the following questions:
– What is the research pr...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
What to Take Away from a Paper after
Reading
• Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer
the following questions ...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Organizing References
iksinc.wordpress.com
Make use of software tools to organize your notes and
references as you do lite...
Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm
Outline
iksinc.wordpress.com
Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm
Outline
• Develop an outline of your solution
– If possible, work through simple scenarios
...
Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm
Outline
• Develop an outline of your solution
– If possible, work through simple scenarios
...
Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm
Outline
• Develop an outline of your solution
– If possible, work through simple scenarios
...
Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm
Outline
• Develop an outline of your solution
– If possible, work through simple scenarios
...
Some Pointers on Developing a
Solution
iksinc.wordpress.com
Some Pointers on Developing a
Solution
• Try to map your problem into a framework
with known approaches for solutions
– Op...
Some Pointers on Developing a
Solution
• Try to map your problem into a framework
with known approaches for solutions
– Op...
Some Pointers on Developing a
Solution
• Try to map your problem into a framework
with known approaches for solutions
– Op...
Implementation/Simulation/Analysis
iksinc.wordpress.com
Implementation/Simulation/Analysis
• Test your implementation/simulation with test
cases of known results to ensure there ...
Implementation/Simulation/Analysis
• Test your implementation/simulation with test
cases of known results to ensure there ...
Implementation/Simulation/Analysis
• Test your implementation/simulation with test
cases of known results to ensure there ...
Organizing and Interpreting Results
iksinc.wordpress.com
Organizing and Interpreting Results
• It is not enough to just present the results. You must
do a careful analysis to show...
Organizing and Interpreting Results
• It is not enough to just present the results. You must
do a careful analysis to show...
Organizing and Interpreting Results
• It is not enough to just present the results. You must
do a careful analysis to show...
Writing and Communicating Results
iksinc.wordpress.com
Writing and Communicating Results
• Select some papers from your field as model papers and use
them as guides to write you...
Writing and Communicating Results
• Select some papers from your field as model papers and use
them as guides to write you...
Writing and Communicating Results
• Select some papers from your field as model papers and use
them as guides to write you...
Writing and Communicating Results
• Select some papers from your field as model papers and use
them as guides to write you...
Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing
iksinc.wordpress.com
Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing
• Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by
noting down the important points you w...
Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing
• Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by
noting down the important points you w...
Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing
• Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the
important points you w...
More Tips for Paper Writing
iksinc.wordpress.com
More Tips for Paper Writing
• Read some well-known works on writing and
communication:
– The Elements of Style (Fourth
Edi...
More Tips for Paper Writing
• Read some well-known works on writing and
communication:
– The Elements of Style (Fourth Edi...
More Tips for Paper Writing
• Read some well-known works on writing and communication:
– The Elements of Style (Fourth Edi...
More Tips for Paper Writing
• Read some well-known works on writing and communication:
– The Elements of Style (Fourth Edi...
Revising, Resubmitting, and
Publication
iksinc.wordpress.com
Revising, Resubmitting, and
Publication
• A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or
more revisions of...
Revising, Resubmitting, and
Publication
• A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or
more revisions of...
Revising, Resubmitting, and
Publication
• A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or
more revisions of...
Revising, Resubmitting, and
Publication
• A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or
more revisions of...
Revising, Resubmitting, and
Publication
• A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or
more revisions of...
Making Technical Presentations
iksinc.wordpress.com
Making Technical Presentations
• Three main elements of a technical
presentation
– Organization
– Visual aids
– Delivery a...
Making Technical Presentations
• Three main elements of a technical
presentation
– Organization
– Visual aids
– Delivery a...
Some Tips on Presentations
iksinc.wordpress.com
Some Tips on Presentations
• Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by
practicing as many times as you can
iks...
Some Tips on Presentations
• Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by
practicing as many times as you can
• C...
Some Tips on Presentations
• Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by
practicing as many times as you can
• C...
Some Tips on Presentations
• Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by
practicing as many times as you can
• C...
Some Tips on Presentations
• Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by
practicing as many times as you can
• C...
Some Tips on Presentations
• Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by
practicing as many times as you can
• C...
Writing Grant Proposals
iksinc.wordpress.com
Writing Grant Proposals
• Choose a problem/idea you wish
to pursue
iksinc.wordpress.com
Writing Grant Proposals
• Choose a problem/idea you wish
to pursue
• Prepare a brief concept paper
iksinc.wordpress.com
Writing Grant Proposals
• Choose a problem/idea you wish to
pursue
• Prepare a brief concept paper
• Identify the potentia...
Writing Grant Proposals
• Choose a problem/idea you wish to
pursue
• Prepare a brief concept paper
• Identify the potentia...
What Should be in a Proposal?
iksinc.wordpress.com
What Should be in a Proposal?
• It should answer the following questions:
– What are you going to do?
– Why is it importan...
What Should be in a Proposal?
• It should answer the following questions:
– What are you going to do?
– Why is it importan...
What Should be in a Proposal?
• It should answer the following questions:
– What are you going to do?
– Why is it importan...
What Should be in a Proposal?
• It should answer the following questions:
– What are you going to do?
– Why is it importan...
Ethics in CS Research
iksinc.wordpress.com
Ethics in CS Research
• Authorship and the order of listing
iksinc.wordpress.com
Ethics in CS Research
• Authorship and the order of listing
• Plagiarism
iksinc.wordpress.com
Ethics in CS Research
• Authorship and the order of listing
• Plagiarism
• Multiple submissions
iksinc.wordpress.com
Ethics in CS Research
• Authorship and the order of listing
• Plagiarism
• Multiple submissions
• Data fudging and fabrica...
Ethics in CS Research
• Authorship and the order of listing
• Plagiarism
• Multiple submissions
• Data fudging and fabrica...
Authorship and Listing Order
iksinc.wordpress.com
Authorship and Listing Order
• Each person listed as an author should have
made direct and substantial contribution to
the...
Authorship and Listing Order
• Each person listed as an author should have made direct
and substantial contribution to the...
Authorship and Listing Order
• Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial
contribution to the...
Plagiarism
iksinc.wordpress.com
Plagiarism
• The American Heritage Dictionary
(2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize
as "to take and use as one's own the
wr...
Plagiarism
• The American Heritage Dictionary
(2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize
as "to take and use as one's own the
wr...
Plagiarism
• The American Heritage Dictionary
(2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize
as "to take and use as one's own the
wr...
iksinc.wordpress.com
iksinc.wordpress.com
iksinc.wordpress.com
Self-Plagiarism
iksinc.wordpress.com
Self-Plagiarism
• ACM defines it as the verbatim or near-
verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's
own copyrighted ...
Self-Plagiarism
• ACM defines it as the verbatim or near-verbatim
reuse of significant portions of one's own
copyrighted w...
Multiple Submissions
iksinc.wordpress.com
Multiple Submissions
• LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are
common although not desirable
iksinc.wordpress.com
Multiple Submissions
• LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are
common although not desirable
• It is okay to have one or two
co...
Multiple Submissions
• LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are
common although not desirable
• It is okay to have one or two co...
Data Fudging and Fabrication
iksinc.wordpress.com
Data Fudging and Fabrication
• Avoid temptations to:
– Do data smoothing to remove
irregularities to make the data
appear ...
Data Fudging and Fabrication
• Avoid temptations to:
– Do data smoothing to remove
irregularities to make the data
appear ...
Data Fudging and Fabrication
• Avoid temptations to:
– Do data smoothing to remove
irregularities to make the data appear
...
Conflict of Interest
• Avoid conflict of interest
situations by proper
disclosure. Examples of
conflict of interests
situa...
Conflict of Interest
• Avoid conflict of interest
situations by proper
disclosure. Examples of
conflict of interests
situa...
Conflict of Interest
• Avoid conflict of interest
situations by proper
disclosure. Examples of
conflict of interests
situa...
Conflict of Interest
• Avoid conflict of interest situations
by proper disclosure. Examples of
conflict of interests situa...
iksinc.wordpress.com
Thank you!
For questions, please contact
iksinc@yahoo.com
Also, visit my blog at
Iksinc.wordpress.com
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How to Do Research: Seven Steps to Successful Research

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A presentation for new doctoral students, especially in computer science and engineering

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How to Do Research: Seven Steps to Successful Research

  1. 1. How To Do Research Integrated Knowledge Solutions iksinc@yahoo.com Iksinc.wordpress.com
  2. 2. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com
  3. 3. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?
  4. 4. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research
  5. 5. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research Making Technical Presentations
  6. 6. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research Making Technical Presentations Writing Grant Proposals
  7. 7. Outline iksinc.wordpress.com What is research?Seven Stages to Successful research Making Technical Presentations Writing Grant Proposals Ethics & Professional Conduct in Research
  8. 8. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com
  9. 9. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. [Wikipedia]
  10. 10. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com Studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws [Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition] Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. [Wikipedia]
  11. 11. What is Research? iksinc.wordpress.com Studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws [Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition] Search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, with an open mind, to establish novel facts, usually using a scientific method. [Wikipedia] Research is an organized and systematic way of finding answers to questions
  12. 12. In Computer Science Context iksinc.wordpress.com
  13. 13. In Computer Science Context iksinc.wordpress.com Discovery of new knowledge of computing through mathematical analysis, modeling, and experimental evaluation of algorithms and computer software.
  14. 14. Why Do Research? iksinc.wordpress.com
  15. 15. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge iksinc.wordpress.com
  16. 16. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity iksinc.wordpress.com
  17. 17. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity • For enjoyment you derive from posing your own problems and solving them iksinc.wordpress.com
  18. 18. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity • For enjoyment you derive from posing your own problems and solving them • To help career growth (Promotion & Tenure) iksinc.wordpress.com
  19. 19. Why Do Research? • To contribute to knowledge • To satisfy intellectual curiosity • For enjoyment you derive from posing your own problems and solving them • To help career growth (Promotion & Tenure) • To see places and meet interesting people from all over the world at subsidized expenses iksinc.wordpress.com
  20. 20. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing iksinc.wordpress.com
  21. 21. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research iksinc.wordpress.com
  22. 22. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research • Authority: Information received from experts, books, etc. Its strength depends on the strength of these sources. • We use this kind of source for literature review iksinc.wordpress.com
  23. 23. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research • Authority: Information received from experts, books, etc. Its strength depends on the strength of these sources. • We use this kind of source for literature review • Logic: Gained by reasoning • We rely on this when analyzing/modifying/improving an algorithm iksinc.wordpress.com
  24. 24. Knowledge Sources or Ways of Knowing • Intuition: Takes forms such as belief, faith, intuition, etc. Based on feelings rather than hard, cold "facts.“ • In research we often use this knowledge source for coming up with an initial idea for research • Authority: Information received from experts, books, etc. Its strength depends on the strength of these sources. • We use this kind of source for literature review • Logic: Gained by reasoning • We rely on this when analyzing/modifying/improving an algorithm • Empirical: Based on demonstrable, objective facts ,determined through observation and/or experimentation. • Used when we want to study the behavior of a complex piece of software or the accuracy of an algorithm using benchmark data sets. iksinc.wordpress.com
  25. 25. Seven Steps to Successful Research iksinc.wordpress.com
  26. 26. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question iksinc.wordpress.com
  27. 27. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering iksinc.wordpress.com
  28. 28. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline iksinc.wordpress.com
  29. 29. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis iksinc.wordpress.com
  30. 30. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  31. 31. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  32. 32. Seven Steps to Successful Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  33. 33. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  34. 34. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  35. 35. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  36. 36. Nonlinear Nature of Research • Defining the Research Question • Information Gathering • Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Organizing and Interpreting Results • Writing and Communicating Results • Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  37. 37. Defining the Research Question iksinc.wordpress.com
  38. 38. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? iksinc.wordpress.com
  39. 39. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? • Within the subfield, what interests me more? iksinc.wordpress.com
  40. 40. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? • Within the subfield, what interests me more? • What is my chief strength? – Mathematical abstraction – Implementation/Experimentation – Problem solving iksinc.wordpress.com
  41. 41. Defining the Research Question • What subfield of CS/IT interests me? • Within the subfield, what interests me more? • What is my chief strength? – Mathematical abstraction – Implementation/Experimentation – Problem solving • What would be the outcome? – A better model – A better algorithm – A new application iksinc.wordpress.com
  42. 42. Defining the Research Question iksinc.wordpress.com
  43. 43. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? iksinc.wordpress.com
  44. 44. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? iksinc.wordpress.com
  45. 45. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? • Are there good prior works to build upon? iksinc.wordpress.com
  46. 46. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? • Are there good prior works to build upon? • How big is the research community? iksinc.wordpress.com
  47. 47. Defining the Research Question • Is the topic timely? • Does it have potential for further research/jobs? • Are there good prior works to build upon? • How big is the research community? • Who are the major players? iksinc.wordpress.com
  48. 48. Information Gathering iksinc.wordpress.com
  49. 49. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work iksinc.wordpress.com
  50. 50. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work iksinc.wordpress.com
  51. 51. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work – Use ACM/IEEE digital libraries, Google and CiteSeer to locate important papers iksinc.wordpress.com
  52. 52. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work – Use ACM/IEEE digital libraries, Google and CiteSeer to locate important papers – Make sure to look through the recent proceedings of the prestigious conferences in your area iksinc.wordpress.com
  53. 53. Information Gathering • Locating prior published work – Make sure to check the homepages of prominent active researchers for their most recent work – Use ACM/IEEE digital libraries, Google and CiteSeer to locate important papers – Make sure to look through the recent proceedings of the prestigious conferences in your area – Try to locate review papers of your’s and related fields iksinc.wordpress.com
  54. 54. Reading Papers iksinc.wordpress.com
  55. 55. Reading Papers • Do paper reading in two or three passes. Ignore the technical details in the first pass iksinc.wordpress.com
  56. 56. Reading Papers • Do paper reading in two or three passes. Ignore the technical details in the first pass • Generally, reading the abstract, introduction, and summary and conclusion sections is good enough to determine whether a given paper should be read in detail or not. iksinc.wordpress.com
  57. 57. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: iksinc.wordpress.com
  58. 58. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? iksinc.wordpress.com
  59. 59. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? iksinc.wordpress.com
  60. 60. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? iksinc.wordpress.com
  61. 61. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? – What is new in this paper? iksinc.wordpress.com
  62. 62. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? – What is new in this paper? – How are the research claims substantiated? iksinc.wordpress.com
  63. 63. First Pass of Reading • The first pass reading should be done to answer the following questions: – What is the research problem the paper attempts to address? – What is the motivation of the research work? – Is the research work attempting to overcome the weaknesses of existing approaches? – What is new in this paper? – How are the research claims substantiated? – Conclusions and pointers to future work iksinc.wordpress.com
  64. 64. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: iksinc.wordpress.com
  65. 65. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? iksinc.wordpress.com
  66. 66. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? iksinc.wordpress.com
  67. 67. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? iksinc.wordpress.com
  68. 68. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? – How can the research results be improved? iksinc.wordpress.com
  69. 69. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? – How can the research results be improved? – Can the research results be applied to another context? iksinc.wordpress.com
  70. 70. What to Take Away from a Paper after Reading • Once you have read a paper in depth, try to answer the following questions to yourself: – What is the core of the research problem addressed in the paper? – Are there some alternative approaches to address the research problem? – Are there some good arguments to be made against the assumptions/approach taken by the authors? – How can the research results be improved? – Can the research results be applied to another context? – Are there some gaps in the work? iksinc.wordpress.com
  71. 71. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  72. 72. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  73. 73. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  74. 74. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  75. 75. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  76. 76. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  77. 77. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  78. 78. Organizing References iksinc.wordpress.com Make use of software tools to organize your notes and references as you do literature review. This will help you later in writing your own paper.
  79. 79. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline iksinc.wordpress.com
  80. 80. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios iksinc.wordpress.com
  81. 81. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios • Think about complexity. Is your solution going to scale well? iksinc.wordpress.com
  82. 82. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios • Think about complexity. Is your solution going to scale well? • What is the chief strength of your solution? – This will be your main selling point in your papers iksinc.wordpress.com
  83. 83. Forming a Hypothesis/Algorithm Outline • Develop an outline of your solution – If possible, work through simple scenarios • Think about complexity. Is your solution going to scale well? • What is the chief strength of your solution? – This will be your main selling point in your papers • Weaknesses of your solution? – Any major weakness is likely to hinder your paper. So avoid any major weakness by reformulating or reworking your solution iksinc.wordpress.com
  84. 84. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution iksinc.wordpress.com
  85. 85. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution • Try to map your problem into a framework with known approaches for solutions – Optimization – Graph theory – Probabilistic – Divide and conquer iksinc.wordpress.com
  86. 86. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution • Try to map your problem into a framework with known approaches for solutions – Optimization – Graph theory – Probabilistic – Divide and conquer • Strive for simplicity and avoid complex solutions iksinc.wordpress.com
  87. 87. Some Pointers on Developing a Solution • Try to map your problem into a framework with known approaches for solutions – Optimization – Graph theory – Probabilistic – Divide and conquer • Strive for simplicity and avoid complex solutions • Sit on your solution for few days and then come back to it – This helps in locating weaknesses/flaws that generally get overlooked in the initial excitement iksinc.wordpress.com
  88. 88. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis iksinc.wordpress.com
  89. 89. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Test your implementation/simulation with test cases of known results to ensure there are no bugs/mistakes iksinc.wordpress.com
  90. 90. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Test your implementation/simulation with test cases of known results to ensure there are no bugs/mistakes • Whenever possible, use the platform or the environment popular in your area of research iksinc.wordpress.com
  91. 91. Implementation/Simulation/Analysis • Test your implementation/simulation with test cases of known results to ensure there are no bugs/mistakes • Whenever possible, use the platform or the environment popular in your area of research • Make sure to perform comparative study with standard datasets or benchmarks iksinc.wordpress.com
  92. 92. Organizing and Interpreting Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  93. 93. Organizing and Interpreting Results • It is not enough to just present the results. You must do a careful analysis to show that the results justify your solution iksinc.wordpress.com
  94. 94. Organizing and Interpreting Results • It is not enough to just present the results. You must do a careful analysis to show that the results justify your solution • If there are some parameters in your solution, then make sure that you have results for a range of parameter values to infer a trend iksinc.wordpress.com
  95. 95. Organizing and Interpreting Results • It is not enough to just present the results. You must do a careful analysis to show that the results justify your solution • If there are some parameters in your solution, then make sure that you have results for a range of parameter values to infer a trend • Make sure your graphs are labeled properly. Do not overcrowd graphs by putting too much information iksinc.wordpress.com
  96. 96. Writing and Communicating Results iksinc.wordpress.com
  97. 97. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper iksinc.wordpress.com
  98. 98. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper • Use your own words and phrases. Use quote marks if you are using sentences from other papers. iksinc.wordpress.com
  99. 99. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper • Use your own words and phrases. Use quote marks if you are using sentences from other papers. • Go over your writing several times. Generally writing consumes 50% of the research effort. iksinc.wordpress.com
  100. 100. Writing and Communicating Results • Select some papers from your field as model papers and use them as guides to write your paper • Use your own words and phrases. Use quote marks if you are using sentences from other papers. • Go over your writing several times. Generally writing consumes 50% of the research effort. • Don’t worry about the length of the initial draft. Make sure you don’t miss any point. It is much easier to trim a paper later on to meet the length requirements. iksinc.wordpress.com
  101. 101. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing iksinc.wordpress.com
  102. 102. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing • Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the important points you want to cover in each section of your manuscript iksinc.wordpress.com
  103. 103. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing • Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the important points you want to cover in each section of your manuscript • Remember, you are trying to “sell” your work to reviewers who will determine the fate of your paper. Make a compelling case in the introduction section of your paper because by the time a reviewer has finished this section, she has already made an initial decision about whether to accept or reject the paper. She will read the rest of the paper looking for evidence to support her decision. iksinc.wordpress.com
  104. 104. Some Useful Tips for Paper Writing • Begin by preparing an outline of your paper by noting down the important points you want to cover in each section of your manuscript • Remember, you are trying to “sell” your work to reviewers who will determine the fate of your paper. Make a compelling case in the introduction section of your paper because by the time a reviewer has finished this section, she has already made an initial decision about whether to accept or reject the paper. She will read the rest of the paper looking for evidence to support her decision. • The introduction section must have: – What is the problem? Why is it interesting and important? Weaknesses of the previous proposed solutions? How does the proposed solution overcomes all or some of the limitations of the existing approaches? What are the key components of the suggested approach and results? iksinc.wordpress.com
  105. 105. More Tips for Paper Writing iksinc.wordpress.com
  106. 106. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing iksinc.wordpress.com
  107. 107. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing • Avoid value judgments. Give the facts and let the readers judge. iksinc.wordpress.com
  108. 108. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing • Avoid value judgments. Give the facts and let the readers judge. • Run a spell checker and have someone who is particular about grammar read your paper iksinc.wordpress.com
  109. 109. More Tips for Paper Writing • Read some well-known works on writing and communication: – The Elements of Style (Fourth Edition), William Strunk Jr., E.B. White, Roger Angell, Longman. – Handbook of Technical Writing (Ninth Edition), Gerald J. Alred, Charles T. Brusaw, and Walter E. Oilu, St. Martin’s Press – Use active voice and simple, clear, direct phrasing • Avoid value judgments. Give the facts and let the readers judge. • Run a spell checker and have someone who is particular about grammar read your paper • Make sure to acknowledge the persons/organizations who have helped you in your research iksinc.wordpress.com
  110. 110. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  111. 111. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. iksinc.wordpress.com
  112. 112. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. iksinc.wordpress.com
  113. 113. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. • Pay careful attention to the comments/suggestions of the reviewers. Try to incorporate them as much as possible and revise your paper for resubmission. iksinc.wordpress.com
  114. 114. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. • Pay careful attention to the comments/suggestions of the reviewers. Try to incorporate them as much as possible and revise your paper for resubmission. • Include a cover letter thanking the reviewers and explaining point by point how you have accommodated most of their concerns iksinc.wordpress.com
  115. 115. Revising, Resubmitting, and Publication • A paper is rarely accepted as it is. So be prepared for one or more revisions of your manuscript. • The best outcome you can hope is “Accept with a minor Revision.” Celebrate it because it is rare. • Pay careful attention to the comments/suggestions of the reviewers. Try to incorporate them as much as possible and revise your paper for resubmission. • Include a cover letter thanking the reviewers and explaining point by point how you have accommodated most of their concerns • In the event your paper is not accepted at your publication of first choice, don’t lose heart. Browse through next tier list of publications and submit there. iksinc.wordpress.com
  116. 116. Making Technical Presentations iksinc.wordpress.com
  117. 117. Making Technical Presentations • Three main elements of a technical presentation – Organization – Visual aids – Delivery and style iksinc.wordpress.com
  118. 118. Making Technical Presentations • Three main elements of a technical presentation – Organization – Visual aids – Delivery and style • Before you prepare your presentation – Prepare an outline – Think about your audience and their background iksinc.wordpress.com
  119. 119. Some Tips on Presentations iksinc.wordpress.com
  120. 120. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can iksinc.wordpress.com
  121. 121. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand iksinc.wordpress.com
  122. 122. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research iksinc.wordpress.com
  123. 123. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research • Speak clearly and loud enough. Modulate your voice Look at your audience and make eye contact. iksinc.wordpress.com
  124. 124. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research • Speak clearly and loud enough. Modulate your voice Look at your audience and make eye contact. • Watch for audience’s non-verbal feedback and adjust your delivery iksinc.wordpress.com
  125. 125. Some Tips on Presentations • Never read from slides or from your notes. Prepare by practicing as many times as you can • Check out the room and the equipment beforehand • Be confident. Remember, you are the foremost expert on your own research • Speak clearly and loud enough. Modulate your voice Look at your audience and make eye contact. • Watch for audience’s non-verbal feedback and adjust your delivery • Always carry a backup presentation file on a USB or through email/cloud iksinc.wordpress.com
  126. 126. Writing Grant Proposals iksinc.wordpress.com
  127. 127. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue iksinc.wordpress.com
  128. 128. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue • Prepare a brief concept paper iksinc.wordpress.com
  129. 129. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue • Prepare a brief concept paper • Identify the potential funding sources – NSF/NIH/DOE/DHS – Foundations and industry consortia, e.g. EPRI iksinc.wordpress.com
  130. 130. Writing Grant Proposals • Choose a problem/idea you wish to pursue • Prepare a brief concept paper • Identify the potential funding sources – NSF/NIH/DOE/DHS – Foundations and industry consortia, e.g. EPRI • Contact the program officers and discuss your idea with them iksinc.wordpress.com
  131. 131. What Should be in a Proposal? iksinc.wordpress.com
  132. 132. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project iksinc.wordpress.com
  133. 133. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project • Most funding agencies have templates for different kinds of proposals, follow the pertinent template iksinc.wordpress.com
  134. 134. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project • Most funding agencies have templates for different kinds of proposals, follow the pertinent template • Stay within the page limits and strictly follow the guidelines for submission iksinc.wordpress.com
  135. 135. What Should be in a Proposal? • It should answer the following questions: – What are you going to do? – Why is it important to do? – Novelty of your approach and expected contributions – Your unique qualifications to do the project • Most funding agencies have templates for different kinds of proposals, follow the pertinent template • Stay within the page limits and strictly follow the guidelines for submission • Seek help from your sponsored research office for preparing budget iksinc.wordpress.com
  136. 136. Ethics in CS Research iksinc.wordpress.com
  137. 137. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing iksinc.wordpress.com
  138. 138. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism iksinc.wordpress.com
  139. 139. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism • Multiple submissions iksinc.wordpress.com
  140. 140. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism • Multiple submissions • Data fudging and fabrication iksinc.wordpress.com
  141. 141. Ethics in CS Research • Authorship and the order of listing • Plagiarism • Multiple submissions • Data fudging and fabrication • Conflict of interest iksinc.wordpress.com
  142. 142. Authorship and Listing Order iksinc.wordpress.com
  143. 143. Authorship and Listing Order • Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial contribution to the work. All listed authors must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of the research article. –David Baltimore (Nobel laureate) case iksinc.wordpress.com
  144. 144. Authorship and Listing Order • Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial contribution to the work. All listed authors must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of the research article. – David Baltimore (Nobel laureate) case • Ordering conventions are discipline/culture specific – In CS, the ordering generally indicates the relative contributions of different authors with the first author having made the most contribution – In mathematics and theoretical CS research, the names are generally listed alphabetically iksinc.wordpress.com
  145. 145. Authorship and Listing Order • Each person listed as an author should have made direct and substantial contribution to the work. All listed authors must be prepared to accept full responsibility for the content of the research article. – David Baltimore (Nobel laureate) case • Ordering conventions are discipline/culture specific – In CS, the ordering generally indicates the relative contributions of different authors with the first author having made the most contribution – In mathematics and theoretical CS research, the names are generally listed alphabetically • Acknowledgement – Include anyone who has made some contribution, for example in editing, loaning an equipment, providing some financial support iksinc.wordpress.com
  146. 146. Plagiarism iksinc.wordpress.com
  147. 147. Plagiarism • The American Heritage Dictionary (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as "to take and use as one's own the writings or ideas of another." iksinc.wordpress.com
  148. 148. Plagiarism • The American Heritage Dictionary (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as "to take and use as one's own the writings or ideas of another." • Always make sure you give proper credit to your sources and any verbatim material is used with quotes iksinc.wordpress.com
  149. 149. Plagiarism • The American Heritage Dictionary (2nd College Ed.) defines plagiarize as "to take and use as one's own the writings or ideas of another." • Always make sure you give proper credit to your sources and any verbatim material is used with quotes • See IEEE and ACM guidelines – http://www.acm.org/publications/policies /plagiarism_policy http://www.ieee.org/publications_standar ds/publications/rights/plagiarism.html iksinc.wordpress.com
  150. 150. iksinc.wordpress.com
  151. 151. iksinc.wordpress.com
  152. 152. iksinc.wordpress.com
  153. 153. Self-Plagiarism iksinc.wordpress.com
  154. 154. Self-Plagiarism • ACM defines it as the verbatim or near- verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source. iksinc.wordpress.com
  155. 155. Self-Plagiarism • ACM defines it as the verbatim or near-verbatim reuse of significant portions of one's own copyrighted work without citing the original source. – Self-plagiarism does not apply to publications based on the author's own previously copyrighted work (e.g., appearing in a conference proceedings) where an explicit reference is made to the prior publication. Such reuse does not require quotation marks to delineate the reused text but does require that the source be cited. iksinc.wordpress.com
  156. 156. Multiple Submissions iksinc.wordpress.com
  157. 157. Multiple Submissions • LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are common although not desirable iksinc.wordpress.com
  158. 158. Multiple Submissions • LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are common although not desirable • It is okay to have one or two conference papers and a journal paper on the same research topic as long as each paper makes its own significant contribution iksinc.wordpress.com
  159. 159. Multiple Submissions • LPUs (Least Publishable Units) are common although not desirable • It is okay to have one or two conference papers and a journal paper on the same research topic as long as each paper makes its own significant contribution • Never submit the same work to two places at same time to expedite publication iksinc.wordpress.com
  160. 160. Data Fudging and Fabrication iksinc.wordpress.com
  161. 161. Data Fudging and Fabrication • Avoid temptations to: – Do data smoothing to remove irregularities to make the data appear extremely accurate and precise iksinc.wordpress.com
  162. 162. Data Fudging and Fabrication • Avoid temptations to: – Do data smoothing to remove irregularities to make the data appear extremely accurate and precise – Retain only those results that fit the theory and discarding others iksinc.wordpress.com
  163. 163. Data Fudging and Fabrication • Avoid temptations to: – Do data smoothing to remove irregularities to make the data appear extremely accurate and precise – Retain only those results that fit the theory and discarding others – Create/invent some or all of the research data to substantiate your research iksinc.wordpress.com
  164. 164. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: iksinc.wordpress.com
  165. 165. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: – Reviewing a paper/proposal of a friend/company where you have a stake iksinc.wordpress.com
  166. 166. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: – Reviewing a paper/proposal of a friend/company where you have a stake – Writing a book review published by a friend iksinc.wordpress.com
  167. 167. Conflict of Interest • Avoid conflict of interest situations by proper disclosure. Examples of conflict of interests situations are: – Reviewing a paper/proposal of a friend/company where you have a stake – Writing a book review published by a friend – Hiring your relatives on funded projects iksinc.wordpress.com
  168. 168. iksinc.wordpress.com Thank you! For questions, please contact iksinc@yahoo.com Also, visit my blog at Iksinc.wordpress.com
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