EU Common Security and Defense Policy in 2000s

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History and present of Common Security and Defense Policy of the European Union for a class on EU Transformation Political and Institutional Aspects at Belarusian State University within MA in Human …

History and present of Common Security and Defense Policy of the European Union for a class on EU Transformation Political and Institutional Aspects at Belarusian State University within MA in Human Rights and Democratization for Eastern Partnership countries academic mobility semester

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  • 1. • History of Common European Defense after World War II – – – – • • • • Western European Union & Amsterdam Treaty Petersberg tasks Helsinki Headline Goals Berlin Plus Agreement European Security Strategy (2003) European Defense Agency (2004) Other notable institutions Treaty of Lisbon changes – Mutual Defense Clause – Euroforces – Outside missions • Further developments • Sources & Credits
  • 2. • 1947 - Treaty of Dunkirk between UK and France after WWII • 1948 - military Article 4 of the Treaty of Brussels which included the BeNeLux countries • 1948 - Western Union Defense Organization under British Field Marshal Montgomery (US and Canada joined in 1949 through North Atlantic Treaty) • 1954 - amendment of the Treaty of Brussels at the London and Paris Conferences - Western European Union • 1992 - Petersberg tasks (incorporated in Amsterdam Treaty): – Humanitarian and rescue tasks – Peacekeeping tasks – Tasks for combat forces in crisis management, including peacemaking • 1999 Cologne European Council – WEU Incorporated into EU with a position of High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy introduced
  • 3. "the Union must have the capacity for autonomous action, backed up by credible military forces, the means to decide to use them, and a readiness to do so, in order to respond to international crises” French President Jacques Chirac and British Prime Minister Tony Blair in St. Malo, 1998
  • 4. • 1999 - Helsinki Headline Goal – Helsinki Force Catalogue • 2003 - Berlin plus agreement – EU can use NATO structures, mechanisms and assets to carry out military operations if NATO declines to act.
  • 5. “A secure Europe in a better world” • Key threats facing Europe: – Terrorism – Proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) – Regional conflicts. – State failure – Organized crime "The world is full of new dangers and opportunities"
  • 6. • Strategic objectives: – Addressing the threats – Building security in its neighborhood – Developing an international order based on effective multilateralism • Policy implications for Europe – be more active in pursuing its strategic objectives – increase its capabilities – pursue coherent policies – work with its partners
  • 7. • Est. 2004 • main objective - to improve Member States’ military capacities. • set common objectives for Member States in terms of military capacity; • introduce and manage programmes in order to achieve the set objectives; • harmonize Member States’ operational needs and improve the methods for procuring military equipment; • manage defense technology research activities; • contribute to strengthening the industrial and technological base of the defense sector and improving the effectiveness of military expenditure.
  • 8. • 2002 - European Union Institute for Security Studies • 1992 (incorporated into EU in 2002) European Union Satellite Centre • Civilian Headline Goals: – Identify civilian crisis management priority areas for the EU – greater emphasis on civil-military cooperation in addition to a continued focus on improving readiness and deployability (2010) • Military Headline Goals: – …the EU should possess an autonomous military capacity to respond to crises; – Include the ability of Member States to deploy forces up to corps level, capable of the full range of Petersberg tasks; – Ensure that the EU possesses the military capabilities required to conduct the full range of missions encompassed by the Petersberg tasks.
  • 9. • European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP) Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP) Element of EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). • Establishing Common European defense Position of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy expanded
  • 10. • If a Member State is the victim of an armed attack on its territory, it can rely on the aid and assistance of the other Member States, which are obliged to help. • Two restrictions: – does not affect the security and defense policy of certain Member States, specifically those which are traditionally neutral; – does not affect the commitments made under the framework of NATO
  • 11. • Eurofor (land forces of Spain, France, Italy and Portugal) • Eurocorps (land forces of Germany, Belgium, Spain, France and Luxembourg) • Euromarfor (maritime forces of Spain, France, Italy and Portugal) • the European Air Group (air forces of Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom)
  • 12. (Protocol to the Treaty of Lisbon). • Member States commit to developing their defense capacities more intensively and to supplying combat units for planned missions. • The European Defense Agency regularly assesses participating Member States’ contributions. • Permanent structured cooperation must be authorized by the Council, which acts by a qualified majority at the request of participating States. • There is no Member States threshold for establishing permanent structured cooperation. • Member States are free to withdraw or participate in the permanent structured cooperation as long as they meet the commitment criteria
  • 13. Main aims: • peace-keeping and strengthening international security relying on civil and military assets provided by Member States. • Tasks before the Treaty of Lisbon: – humanitarian and rescue tasks; – conflict prevention and peace-keeping tasks; – tasks of combat forces in crisis management. • Tasks after the Treaty of Lisbon: – joint disarmament operations; – military advice and assistance tasks; – tasks in post-conflict stabilization ~ implementation may be delegated to a group of Member States to act in association with the High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
  • 14. • European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM), 1 Dec 2005 – : A border assistance mission to prevent smuggling, trafficking, and customs fraud on the Transnistria-section of the border. • European Union Monitoring Mission in Georgia (EUMM Georgia), 1 Oct 2008 – : Ceasefire monitoring mission after 2008 South Ossetia war.
  • 15. • December 2013 - European Council meeting with heads of states to discuss how to enhance defense capabilities, strengthen the defense industry and improve the effectiveness, visibility and impact of the CSDP.
  • 16. • http://www.eeas.europa.eu/csdp/aboutcsdp/index_en.htm • http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/foreign_and _security_policy/cfsp_and_esdp_implementation/r0 0004_en.htm • http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional _affairs/treaties/lisbon_treaty/ai0026_en.htm
  • 17. • MA in Human Rights and Democratization, Yerevan State University – • Belarusian State University, 2013 • https://plus.google.com/u/ 0/+KostiantynIakovliev/ • https://www.linkedin.com/i n/iakovliev