TIME MANAGEMENT BY: LIYANA BT ABDUL HADI RABEAHTUL ADAWIYAH BT ISA NUR IKLIL FAIRUZ BT AHMAD "Time management is not a peripheral activity or skill. It is the core skill upon which everything else in life depends." - Brian Tracy
INTRODUCTION•Time is a terrible resource to waste. This is the most valuable resource ina project.•When it comes to project time management, it is not just the time of theproject manager, but it is the time management of the project team.•Scheduling is the easiest way of managing project time. In this approach,the activities of the project are estimated and the durations aredetermined based on the resource utilization for each activity.•In addition to the estimate and resource allocation, cost always plays avital role in time management. This is due to the fact that schedule over-runs are quite expensive.
DEFINITION TIME MANAGEMENT Time management is the act or process of exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase efficiency or productivity.PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Project Time Management is a subset of project management that includes the processes required to ensure timely completion of the project.
Define Activities•Process to identify specific actions that need to be performed to produce project deliverables•Outputs of Define Activities process are; - Activity List - Activity Attribute - Milestone List•Decomposition is one of the tools and techniques used ; Leads to the work package, the lowest level in the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) in the create WBS process, where the deliverables are identified.
Sequence Activities•Identifies and documents relationships among project activities.•Can be performed by using manual or automated techniques or project management software.•Tools and Techniques used for the Sequence Activities process are; 1. Precedence diagramming method (PDM) 2. Schedule network templates
1. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) • Used in Critical Path Methodology (CPM) – construct the project schedule network diagram. • Used node – to represent the activities & connects with them with arrows that reflect dependencies and logical relationship that exist between the activities. • 4 types logical relationship : node 1 Finish-to-start (FS) Finish-to-finish (FF) S F S F Start-to-start (SS) Start-to-finish (SF) • Most commonly – use finish-to-start (FS) •Called – Activity-On-Node (AON) and used by most project management software packages. •Does not – use dummy activities - allow for loops / conditional branches.
2. Schedule Network Templates • Used – to expedite preparation of networks of projects activities. • Includes – entire project or only a portion of it. • Portion of project schedule network diagram – referred to as a subnet work or a fragment network. Project Schedule Network Diagram : main output of sequence activities. schematic display of the project’s schedule activities and the logical relationship among them. produced manually or using project management software. have full project details or have one or more summary activities.
Estimate Activity Resources• Estimates the types & quantities of – materials, people, equipment or supplies required to perform each activity.• Is closely coordinated with the Estimate Costs process.• Tools & Techniques used are: Expert judgment Alternatives analysis Published estimating data Bottom-up estimating Project management software.
Estimate Activity Duration• Estimates of – the amount of work effort required and the amount of resources.• To be applied for approximating the work periods needed to complete the activity.• Use information on the activity : scope of work required resource types estimated resources quantities resource calendars. Advantages : is progressively elaborated with duration estimates becoming progressively more accuracy and better quality. all assumptions and data used for supporting the duration estimating are documented. -
Develop Schedule• Analyzes – activity sequences, duration, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule.• Iterative process• Determines – projects activities schedule start and finish dates. - milestones scheduled start and finish dates.• To be applied for approximating the work periods needed to complete the activity.• Tools & Techniques used are: A. Critical path method B. Critical chain method C. Resource leveling D. Schedule compression
Constraints and Milestones Constraints 1) Factors that will limit a management team’s options for a defined course of action. 2) An internal or external restriction that will affect the project’s performance. Internal to the project – dates impose on any planned activity. - used to restrict the start or finish dates for the tasks. - E.g : “Starts no earlier than” and “finish no later than”. External to the project – market window on a technology project - weather restrictions on outdoor activities -E.g : governments-mandated compliance requirements.
Milestones1) Summaries schedules that identify significant or major milestones in the project.2) Denotes identified deliverables and their specified dates of completion, as requested by: - Project sponsor - Customer - Other stakeholders3) Once scheduled, the milestones may be difficult to shift.
Critical path Method and Critical Chain Method A. Critical Path Method (CPM) 1) to determine the amount of flexibility in scheduling various logical network paths in the project schedule network. 2) also to determine the minimum total duration of the project. 3) to calculate a single deterministic early and late start and finish date for each activity. B. Critical Chain Method 1) a schedule network analysis technique that modifies that project to account for limited resources.
Resource Leveling Heuristics and Schedule Compression C. Resource Leveling Heuristics 1) Done because mathematical analysis produces a preliminary early- start schedule that requires more than allocated resources during certain time periods. 2) E.g : Rule of thumb – “allocate scarce resources to critical path activities first”. 3) Often results in a project duration that is longer then the preliminary schedule (called resource based method). D. Schedule Compression 1) Shortens the project schedule to meet the imposed dates, schedule’s constraints or other objectives without changing the scope of the project.
Project Schedule • At least a planned start date and a planned finish date for each activity. • A targeted schedule can also be made with defined target start and end date for every activity. •Can be presented in detail or in summary form. (referred to as milestone schedule) •Often presented graphically or in tabular form. •Graphically presented using : Milestone charts Bar charts Project schedule network diagrams
Control ScheduleSchedule control is concerned with: •Determining the current status of the project schedule •Influencing the factors that create schedule changes •Determining that the project schedule has changed •Managing the actual changes as they occur.Schedule control is a portion of the Integrated Change Controlprocess: •Inputs •Tools and Techniques •Outputs
Schedule Control Overview: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs
Conclusion• Time management is a key responsibility of a project manager. The project manager should equip with a strong skill and sense for time management.• There are a number of time management techniques that have been integrated into the management theories and best practices.• Time management is very important to make sure: - more efficient - more in control - more fulfilled - more energy - develop more qualities - achieve what you want to and need to -- faster