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# Tg science q2 the laws of motion

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### Tg science q2 the laws of motion

1. 1. Quarter 2: Force, Motion and Energy Topic: The Laws of Motion Time Frame: 20 days Stage 1Content Standard: The learner demonstrates understanding of the Performance Standard: Learners, working in pairs, integrate theirLaws of motion in relation to observance of safety measures. understanding of the laws of motion in a clear, practical/applicable and comprehensive guide on safety and protection.Essential Understanding(s): The laws of motion are valuable when Essential Question(s): In what ways are the laws of motion importantintegrated in observing safety measures. in daily life?Learners will know: Learners will be able to: • Describe motion occurring in their daily activities I. Description of Motion • Predict how the laws of motion relate to one’s safety and 1. Distance and displacement protection. 2. Speed and velocity • Design and conduct experiments 3. Uniform velocity and uniform acceleration • Use appropriate techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret 4. Free fall, projectile and circular motion data II. Cause of Motion • Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models 1. Newton’s laws of motion using evidence a. Force and Inertia: the first law • Think critically and logically to make the relationships between b. Force, mass, and acceleration: the second law evidence and explanations c. Action and reaction: the third law • Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and predictions 2. Momentum and the laws of motion • Communicate scientific procedures and explanations 3. The law of universal gravitation • Compare and contrast motion concepts III. Forces and the Laws of Motion • Observe and infer motion activities 1. Mass, weight and gravity 2. Friction 3. Equilibrium IV. Implications of the Laws of Motion on Safety and Protection
2. 2. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science Stage 2Product or Performance Evidence at the level of understanding: Evidence at the level ofTask: performance:Integration of the laws of Learners should be able to demonstrate understanding by covering themotion in a clear, following six facets of understanding: Performance assessment ofpractical/applicable and advocacy materials (print andcomprehensive guide on EXPLANATION non-print) based on the followingsafety and protection Predicting that an accident is bound to happen for not considering the law/ criteria: s of motion and / or related concepts • Clarity a. Criteria • Practicality/ Applicability b. Accurate in varied contexts c. Clear • Comprehensiveness INTERPRETATION Illustrating the laws of motion as applied in real life situations • Accuracy (accurate integration of Laws of Criteria Accurate Motion) Comprehensive APPLICATION Proposing ways on how the laws of motion can be used in life Criteria Appropriate Effective PERSPECTIVE Analyzing the significance of the laws of motion in designing safety gadgets or protective devices/gears Criteria Credible Insightful7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 2/13
3. 3. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science EMPATHY Assuming the role of a victim of an accident due to inability to apply the laws of motion Criteria Receptive Perceptive Sensitive or responsive SELF-KNOWLEDGE Self-assessing how the laws of motion can help one become safety conscious Criteria Reflective Responsive Stage 3Teaching/Learning Sequence:EXPLORE As part of students’ initial activities, learners shall be given an overview of the laws of motion, what they are expected to learn and how their learning shall be assessed. In this stage, a diagnosis of their knowledge on motion concepts gained from elementary science and concepts related to it, shall form part of the prerequisites. Hence, learners shall: 1. undergo an assessment of their knowledge on motion concepts learned from elementary science. (Teacher’s Note/s or TN: assessment to use include either paper and pencil test, use of checklist, concept map, situational analysis, computations, etc. Teachers shall take note of learners prior knowledge and misconceptions, if any); 2. be oriented on the topic and sub-topics under the laws of motion. (TN: Include in the discussion the scientists responsible for motion concepts such as Aristotle, Galileo and Newton.) 3. make a graphic organizer to show how the laws of motion and other related concepts relate to one’s safety and protection. 4. be given sufficient time to raise questions leading to and / or answer essential questions tentatively. (TN: This would mean that7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 3/13
4. 4. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science they will be generating several ideas on why they need to know the laws of motion and related concepts. Strategies to use include either focus group discussion, brainstorming, jigsaw, etc. All ideas or questions raised should be published without any opinion/judgment. Let this be evaluated at the FIRM UP part) 5. be oriented that they need to show their understanding of the laws of motion and how these laws can serve as a guide to one’s safety and protection 6. be informed that this guide shall be assessed based on the following criteria: a) clarity, b) practicality/applicability in varied contexts, c) comprehensiveness, and d) accuracy.FIRM UPVaried learning experiences shall be introduced to help learners disprove misconceptions, examine/ assess prior knowledge and begin todiscover the validity of tentative ideas (TI) to the EQ. Furthermore, differentiated instruction will also be provided to address their uniquestrengths and needs. Activities that will equip them with the necessary knowledge and skills like accessing and gathering information focusedon concepts that are found to be difficult in the EXPLORE phase will be tackled.Description of motion Distance, displacement, speed and velocity 7. conduct an activity on displacement and distance and on speed and velocity. (TN: Let the teacher guide learners to record data on how motion can be described using any one of the following activities: walking, jogging, jumping, using a toy car with stopwatch/timer, etc. Have learners record the distances or changes in position and compare/contrast this from displacement. Relative motion can be included in the discussion. Again this activity is repeated but time is recorded to be able to get the speed of walking or jogging or jumping, etc. Use these same data to compare/contrast speed from velocity. The following concepts are to be considered: Motion– change in position with respect to a fixed point. Relative motion – a body is considered to have movement as long as it changes its position from a given fixed point. However, using another fixed point/s may not have changed the body’s position. Distance – a measure of length without regard to direction. Displacement – change in position with respect to a fixed point. (direction of motion is indicated)7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 4/13
5. 5. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science Speed – distance covered per amount of travel time and does not include direction of motion. Average speed – total distance covered per unit of time Velocity – distance covered per amount of travel time and includes direction of the motion.) 8. translate the data on motion using graphs. (TN: Using the same activity above, learners will plot their motion on a distance-time, displacement-time, speed-time, and velocity–time graphs. They can then describe the line graph formed and how speed-time and velocity-time graphs look like. It is important for learners, particularly for visual types, to be familiar with these graphs so they can easily describe / translate / understand motion activities. Furthermore, if they think beyond what they see in the graph, they can point out that the slope of the distance-time graph is actually the speed of the object while the area under the speed-time graph is equivalent to the distance traveled. The following graphs should be drawn: distance-time, displacement-time, speed time, and velocity-time. Give ample time for learners to become familiar with the motion activities illustrated in graphs.). 9. compare and contrast these graphs using the same motion data. Uniform velocity and uniform acceleration 10. investigate bodies moving with uniform velocity and uniform acceleration. (TN: This is supposedly the first time learners will encounter the concepts uniform velocity and uniform acceleration. Use a familiar data of objects moving with uniform velocity and uniform acceleration. Example of uniform velocity is a jogger who maintains her speed as she jogs along one direction. Showing the distances covered per unit time; draw from learners when an object moves with uniform velocity. Do the same for uniform acceleration where the speed change is shown per unit time. Draw from learners when an object moves with uniform acceleration. The following are to be considered: Uniform velocity – when the distance covered by a body is equal per equal time interval moving along the same direction Uniform acceleration – when the speed of a body changes in equal amounts in equal interval of time. If they are familiar with it already, similar data may be given where the moving bodies, after halfway the previous distance, are now heading towards the opposite direction. Use graphs of motion to help them explain the event. Concept: This velocity becomes negative. However, the magnitude of this negative uniform velocity remains the same.)7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 5/13
6. 6. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science 11. relate distance to time in uniform velocity and speed to time in uniform acceleration. (TN: This will determine if learners have clearly understood and are able to differentiate the two concepts). Graph data to clearly illustrate the motion using distance- time, speed time and acceleration-time graphs. Consider the following relationships to get the data on distance, velocity, and acceleration where the initial velocity, v i =0: d vf d= vt , v = t , a = t or you may use the data below for the graphing activity: Uniform Velocity Uniform Acceleration d (m) t (s) v (m/s) d (m) t (s) v (m/s) a (m/s2) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 3 3 3 9 3 3 1 4 4 4 16 4 4 1 You can ask learners to raise questions regarding motion and the graphs of the two examples above. Here are sample questions: What is the acceleration of a body moving with uniform velocity? Describe the change in velocity per second. Illustrate uniform velocity and uniform acceleration.) Free fall, projectile and circular motion 12. Use real-life situations, book illustrations or drawings or ICT materials to let learners individually or in pairs, describe free fall, projectile, and circular motions. (TN: The activities cited at the Resources page may be performed to help learners understand further these motions. Projectile motion is clearly illustrated in books using strobe-light photograph of two balls. Consider the following concepts: Free fall is a vertical projectile going downwards or it accelerates toward the surface of the earth. A ball thrown straight up is opposite the direction of free fall. Neglecting air resistance, a freely falling body is uniformly accelerating towards the earth. Projectiles are usually the horizontal projectiles mentioned in several instructional materials. It is easier to understand if the complete motion is split into two. The first goes horizontally and the second moves vertically.7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 6/13
7. 7. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science Ignoring air resistance, the body accelerates vertically downwards and moves horizontally with uniform velocity. Circular motion as the name implies moves the body in a circular path. It is similar to a horizontal projectile except that it completes its curve into a circle. The direction of the velocity is tangential to the circular path.)Cause of motion 13. Respond to the question, “What cause/s motion?” before introducing the laws of motion. (TN: Other follow-up questions may be raised such as: “What cause/s uniform speed or uniform velocity and uniform acceleration?” , What cause/s projectile motion?” and “What causes circular motion? [Learners may be encouraged to formulate these question/s]. Let the responses be published on bulletin boards and validate them after the discussion on the laws of motion.) Law of inertia 14. Describe how the law of inertia affects the motion of an object. (TN: Demonstrate the laws of motion using varied activities. After the group activities on the first law, conduct a discussion group for learners to cite its application in everyday situations. At this point, learners can now conclude that any change in motion is caused by the presence of a net force or a nonzero force.) Law of inertia – Every object continues in its state of rest, or a uniform speed in a straight line, unless acted on by a nonzero force. Law of acceleration 15. illustrate how mass and net force affects acceleration of a body in everyday situation. (TN: Use the simplest laboratory or ICT activities . Translate the data using distance-time graph, speed-time graph and acceleration-time graph. After the second law activities, use another parallel activity to check again student understanding. Any calculations are made to better understand the 2nd law and not to test learners’ computational skills. Cite real life situations showing the law of acceleration. Consider the following: Law of acceleration – the acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the netForce F same direction as the net force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. In brief, acceleration = mass or a=m . One may now ask, “What causes objects at rest to move or objects in uniform velocity to change its velocity? What affects acceleration of objects? What happens when you accelerate in the direction of your velocity? What happens when you accelerate7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 7/13
8. 8. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science against your velocity? What happens when you accelerate at an angle to your velocity?) 16. relate speed when the net force is along or opposite the direction of motion and afterwards respond to the question, “ What happens if the quantity used is velocity instead of speed?” (TN:The net force along the direction of motion increases the speed (with constant mass). The net force opposite the direction of motion decreases the speed. The net force along the direction of motion increases the velocity. The net force opposite the direction of motion, decreases the velocity. 17. explain zero acceleration (equilibrium) and illustrate its relevance in our life. (TN: When the net force acting on an object is zero, the forces on the object are balanced. This condition is known as equilibrium . Briefly, zero acceleration would mean zero net force and inertia (at rest or at constant velocity) is maintained. To keep track of the number and direction of all the forces, it is useful to draw a free-body diagram). Newton’s third law of motion: action-reaction 18. respond to the questions, “Why is it difficult to walk on a soft ground?” and “What is the nature of force?” (TN: Tentative ideas are published on the bulletin board for later reference.Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first. We can call one force the action force, and the second force the reaction force.) 19. perform activities to demonstrate the third law of motion. (TN: Different pairs [or groups of 3s or 4s] of learners may perform different sets of activities depending on the available materials. Using their data, learners may infer from the results in their activity, using their own statement, what the third law of motion is.) 20. Cite real life situations showing the application of the third law of motion. Momentum and 2nd law of motion: 21. realize that force results from changes in momentum. (TN: Samples of these are car crashes, ship collisions, etc. When the acceleration is high, the force is also high. Rapid changes in momentum imply large accelerations, and thus result in large forces.) 22. infer that the momentum form of the second law of motion helps us realize how to prevent accidents. (TN: Derive the Δv momentum quantity using the 2nd law of motion equation, F = m , then Ft=mΔv or F=ρ/t where ρ is the symbol for Δt momentum. Ask learners questions like what is most damaging to the human body, a 100 g volleyball hitting you with a speed of 0.5 m/s or a 10 g squash ball hitting you with a speed of 10 m/s given the same time of impact? )7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 8/13
9. 9. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science Momentum and 3rd law of motion 23. infer from the activities that the forward momentum is equal to the backward momentum. (TN: Other than laboratory activities, learners can share their experiences like throwing something while using their skateboards or roller skates, etc. Consider this concept –“The law of conservation of momentum is a consequence of Newton’s third law - that equal and opposite forces create opposite accelerations, such that the momentum before collision is equal and opposite the momentum after collision.” Ask the question – “What does this imply in regard to the masses and velocities of objects that collided?” Let learners cite an experience, personal or vicarious, that relates to this law.) The law of universal gravitation 24. relate Newton’s falling apple story to the law of universal gravitation. (TN: Gravity is one of the most important sources of centripetal force. All objects in the universe that has mass attract each other.) 25. demonstrate in groups of 3s or 4’s using experiments, activities, graphic organizers or other strategies including ICT materials on how and why the following occurs: laws of motion, free fall, projectile, and circular motion, equilibrium, impulse, momentum, and law of universal gravitation.II. Forces and Equilibrium Mass, weight, gravity 26. differentiate mass from weight. (TN: make use of illustrations, or ICT materials or other activities such that learners will draw the difference between the two and infer that gravity is the force acting on an object. Consider the following: Mass is a measure of inertia or the amount of matter an object has. Weight describes the force of gravity acting on an object or the gravitational force with which bodies attract each other. The weight of an object depends on two things: its mass and the strength of gravity.) 27. infer that a freely falling object accelerates due to gravity at 9.8 m/s2 towards the center of the earth. (TN: The acceleration due to gravity is the name given to the value 9.8 m/s2 and the symbol is italic g. Learners may use [10 m/s2 instead of 9.8 m/s2 in calculations] the free fall apparatus, and if this is not available, use of rubber balls on a ramp and/or dropping it on top of the 2nd/3rd floor of the nearest school building to experimentally get the value of g. [For safety knowledge, later calculations should include the momentum /force that this freely falling object exerts on the ground/any object it hits.] It may also help to show the caricature of Newton seeing an apple fell that made him consider the force of gravity)7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 9/13
10. 10. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science The force of friction 28. demonstrate that friction is a resistive force. (TN: Ask learners to present some events/experiences that portray this such as skydiving, putting rubber mats in bathroom, placing stair guards /rough parts at the edge of stairs, etc. Consider the following: All motion creates friction. It acts to reduce motion, or slow things down. We can refer to it as frictional forces. Describing friction as resistive means that it always works against the motion that produces it. The normal force is the force perpendicular to both surfaces which are moving relative to each other. In many problems, the normal force is the reaction in an action-reaction pair. Ask the question -“How does friction affect acceleration?”) 29. infer the role of friction in changing the velocity of moving bodies. (TN: In the discussion of above activities, this may have been included so this serves as a follow-up or rethinking/revisiting the concept ) 30. determine how the knowledge of friction and law of acceleration can help one gain safety consciousness. (TN: Let learners relate an experience, personal or vicarious, of how frictions help avert accidents.) Equilibrium 31. determine how the knowledge of equilibrium and law of acceleration can help one gain safety consciousness. (TN: Examples to be shown for learners to think about are the use of product standards in buying monobloc chairs, cement ceramics, etc. and banca, bridge, signboard, computer table, etc. There should be emphasis on how forces act in an equilibrium – maybe forces are balanced rather than zero force acting on an object; forces drawn to show equilibrium and non-equilibrium events; and the use of free-body diagrams to identify all the forces and where they act. Consider the following: Equilibrium and the law of acceleration help us prove the existence of forces that are difficult to see. An example is a book at rest on a table. This means the book has zero acceleration and thus has zero net force. But we know there is weight, so there must be another force in the opposite direction that makes the net force zero [the normal force]. There is a government thrust to make use of product standards for safety and economic reasons. When is equilibrium stable, unstable and neutral? Some things topple over more easily than others. Those structures with wider base and lower center of gravity are more stable. For example, a pyramid box: it may be slightly disturbed but the center of gravity remains over the area of its base. Its shape alone creates restoring forces that tend to return the object to equilibrium. Unstable: An inverted pyramid may be balanced but its base is so small that the center of gravity will pass beyond it immediately7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 10/13
11. 11. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science if the object is pushed very slightly. Neutral: A ball, if left alone stays where it is, but if moved , it stays in its new position. Wherever the ball lies, the center of gravity remains over the point of contact with the base. How do the above information help us avoid accidents? If you are to design a racing car, what would it be like?)III. Implications of the laws of motion to safety and protection 32. show how the laws of motion and other related concepts relate to one’s safety and protection using what s/he has learned from the above discussion. 33. perform an activity to evaluate the essential questions raised at the Explore part. (TN: Some of the activities above may have proven or evaluated the ideas presented at the Explore part, however, this may still be discussed for emphasis) DEEPEN Here, learners shall be engaged in understanding motion concepts and making meanings out of these information. Learners need to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink their ideas; express their understandings and engage in meaningful self-evaluation; and undergo in-depth discussion/ analysis using multiple sources of information and various modalities of manifesting learning. At the level of understanding, learners shall: 34. predict that an accident is bound to happen for not considering the law of motion and/or related concepts.. 35. illustrate the laws of motions as applied in real life situations (allow learners to make graphs, caricatures, diagram, collage, etc.). 36. propose ways on how laws of motion can be useful in life.( in school, at home, in the street, in the workplace, etc.) 37. analyze that the laws of motion are significant in designing safety gadgets or protective devices/ gears (in cycling, running, playing rough games, in a moving vehicle, etc.) 38. assume the role of a victim of an accident due to inability to apply the laws of motion. 39. aelf-assess whether the laws of motion can help one become safety conscious.7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 11/13
12. 12. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science To draw out the essential understanding, learners shall: 40. contemplate on the essential question “In what way are the laws of motion important in daily life?”. 41. reexamine their revised tentative ideas (TI). 42. justify their previous answers based on the understanding(s) gained. TRANSFER ++ There is a need to encourage learners to organize their learning experiences so that they can move from teacher-guided and concrete activities to independent applications where they create or produce new knowledge in science. This is to challenge learners to transfer their learning in new settings and use this creatively to generate new ideas, view things differently and reengineer processes. Learners shall be actively involved in designing, planning, producing new knowledge that will save and protect people from unnecessary accidents. Learners shall: 43. develop a guide on safety and protection at home, school or community integrating the laws of motion . 44. evaluate their product/performance.Resources (Web sites, Software, etc.) National Geographic,Biggs, A.H., et al. 2002. Glencoe Science Level Blue Teacher Wraparound Edition. Mc Graw Hill: __ Houghton Mifflin Company. 2005. McDougal Littell Science Integrated Course 2. McDougal Littell:Ilinois blue.msscience.com <classzone.com> by using the following code to create the username and password: MCDTCOWDMSSZ http://www.physicsclassroom.com http://newsy.missouri.edu/plans/65 Hsu, Tom. 2006. Integrated Science An Investigative Approach. CPO Science: Peabody, MA. Tillery, Bill W., Enger, Eldon D, et. Al. 2002. Integrated Science. McGraw Hill:New York Hewitt, Paul G., et. Al. 1994. Conceptual Physical Science. HarperCollinsCollege Publishers:New York Hewitt, Paul G. et.al. 2008. The Concepts of Integrated Science. Pearson Education South Asia Pte.Ltd.:Philippines Pople, Stephen. 1987. Explaining Physics GCSE Edition. Oxford University Press: Oxford OX2 6DPMaterials/Equipment Needed:7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 12/13
13. 13. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrated Science Stopwatch or other time recording device Meterstick or meter tape or ruler Rubber ball Graphing paper *Acceleration/momentum cart set-up *Projectile kit *Kit for equilibrium experiment * Force measurer * alternate materials Balloons meterstick Drinking straws timer/stopwatch String *clock Tape *alternate materials ICT Materials – software and /or hardware (Check the materials available in the Internet, library hubs or school/community)Suggested activities:Law of Inertia – fast pulling a coin atop a card on top of a drinking glass or at website www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l1a.cfm ;Law of Acceleration – activity can be similar to free fall or using the website: www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l3a.cfm Law ofAction-Reaction- demonstration using momentum cart or toy cars or using the website: www.physicsclassroom.com/Class/newtlaws/u2l4a.cfm;Projectile motion -Tossing two coins on top of the table simultaneously dropping of one and the other coin moving horizontally while it is going down or by making use of a projectile kit;Circular motion –drawing a circle on the floor where a student walks uniformly and shows his direction as he goes around it (from the Department published book - Physics in Your Environment);Law of Universal Gravitation – use of ICT materials to illustrate this law;Equilibrium – illustrate the three types – stable, unstable and neutral through graphics or a demonstration of an actual situation.7/22/2010 0:22 a7/p7 13/13