2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                      Integrative Biolo...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
2010 Secondary Education Curriculum                                                                                       ...
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Sci q4 b diversityof life

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Sci q4 b diversityof life

  1. 1. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyQuarter: 4B Topic: Diversity of Life Time Frame: 20 daysStage 1Content Standard: Performance Standard:The learner demonstrates understanding of diversity of life to respect Learners manifest respect to other life forms and appreciate their valueother organisms and appreciate their value or usefulness. or usefulness through the conduct of comprehensive, community-based and innovative advocacy projects or activities.Essential Understanding(s): Essential Question(s):Understanding of diverse life forms is key to respecting other Why do we need to understand diverse life-forms?organisms and appreciating their value or usefulness through theconduct of advocacy projects or activities.Learners will know: Learners will be able to: I. Evolution 1. Make inferences from evidence of evolution. A. Evidence of change (geological evidence: age of the earth 2. Explain why organisms are classified. and fossil record; anatomical evidence: homologous, analogous structures, and vestigial organs; embryological 3. Analyze the ecological, medical, technological and economic uses of evidence; and biochemical evidence) certain organisms. B. Mechanism of change (scientific evidence and/or inferences dealing with artificial selection, natural selection, speciation and genetic variation) II. Biological Classification A. Usefulness of classification system B. Characteristics of organisms under existing Kingdom Systems III. Value or Usefulness of Certain Organisms Ecological, medical, technological and economic uses of certain organisms
  2. 2. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology Stage 2Product or Performance Task: Evidence at the level of understanding Evidence at the level of performanceConduct of comprehensive, community-basedand innovative advocacy projects or activities EXPLANATION Performance assessment of the conduct ofwith regard to respect for other organisms and advocacy based on the following criteria:appreciation of their value or usefulness Describe how living things differ from one another. a) Community-based projects or activities Criteria: b) Comprehensiveness a. Thorough (providing depth and breadth of c) Innovativeness the description) d) Manifestation of respect for other b. Clear (expressing with clarity the scientific organisms and appreciation of their thought in oral or written form) value or usefulness c. Justifiable (providing adequate evidence) INTERPRETATION Illustrate the interdependence of diverse organisms through analogies. Criteria: a. Meaningful (giving brief yet substantial discussion) b. Complete (using adequate analogies to illustrate the interdependence) APPLICATION Create a presentation to showcase how diversity of life exists in one’s immediate community.
  3. 3. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyCriterion:a. Appropriate (developing a presentation thatsuits one’s context or community)PERSPECTIVECompare different initiatives that promoteunderstanding of diversity of life.Criteria:a. Insightful (getting insight from similaritiesand differences between or among theseinitiatives)b. Credible (using at least one authoritativesource of information while expoundingsimilarities and differences)c. Reflective of critical thinking (distinguishingbetween irrelevant and relevant or inaccurateand accurate information)EMPATHYRole play human activities that either reduce,maintain or enrich diverse life-forms.Criteria:a. Perceptive (recognizing that humanactivities either reduce, maintain or enrichdiverse life-forms)b. Responsive (exhibiting how said activitiesaffect varied organisms)
  4. 4. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology SELF-KNOWLEDGE Recognize what one can do based on understanding of diversity of life. Criteria a. Reflective (becoming aware that this understanding can influence a person’s way of thinking, belief, attitude or behavior) b. Responsive (showing positive reaction based on this understanding) Stage 3Teaching/Learning Sequence:EXPLORE As part of initial activities, learners shall be given an overview of diversity of life, what they are expected to learn and how theirLearners shall: be assessed. In this stage, diagnosis of their knowledge gained from elementary science shall be assessed. learning shall 1. undergo an assessment of their knowledge on diversity of life (Suggestions: Assessment to use may include paper and pencil test, use of checklist, use of graphic organizer, etc. Teachers shall take note of learners’ prior knowledge, if any. Refer to the attached suggested assessment.) 2. be introduced to the topic Diversity of Life and subtopics such as evolution, biological classification and value or usefulness of certain organisms (Suggestions: Before introducing the topic, cut out pictures of different animals the number of which should match the actual number of students in a class. Place these pictures in a box. Without seeing the picture, allow each learner to get one. Organize a group with four members at most. Given five minutes, each group should discuss how to act out the animals they chose as accurately as possible. Begin the Guessing Game! While a group is acting out, other groups will identify the animal being portrayed. The group with the highest number of correct answers wins the game. Based on this activity, lead the learners to infer on diversity of life-forms. Other strategies may be used such as: use of documentary films showing varied organisms, conduct of role play where the main characters are
  5. 5. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology personified organisms endemic in the community, interpretative dance showing how different organisms behave, poem writing/ poster making/ collage making focusing on the diversity of life found in one’s locality, and so on.)3. be oriented on related and varied resources and materials to be used in understanding diversity of life (Suggestion: See resources and equipment/materials needed.)4. be given time to formulate questions on diversity of life and cluster these to initially find out what is/are interesting for them5. be given time to formulate other questions leading to Essential Question focusing on where the understanding of diversity of life leads to (Suggestions: Strategies to use include either KWL, Focus Group Discussion, brainstorming, think-pair & square, dyads, round robin, etc.)6. generate as many tentative ideas (TI) related to the Essential Question (EQ) as possible (Suggestions: Strategies to use include brainstorming, Focus Group Discussion, graphic organizer, concept mapping, etc. At this point, the teacher shall be careful not to reject learners’ opinion but shall encourage them to give their ideas without being judged as right or wrong. Each tentative idea (TI) shall be written on the board.)7. be grouped accordingly to choose some of the identified prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or tentative ideas (TI) (Suggestions: Whatever each group of learners selected, the group shall be asked to challenge or explore the validity of these prior knowledge or tentative ideas during the Firm Up Stage.)8. be informed that they need to show their understanding of diversity of life by conducting advocacy projects or activities9. be informed that the conduct of this environmental activity or project shall be based on the following criteria: (a) community-based projects or activities, (b) comprehensiveness, (c) innovativeness, and (d) manifestation of respect or protection for other organisms, and appreciation of their origin and value or usefulness (Suggestions: Brainstorming may be used to discuss how these criteria shall be used. For fast learners, they shall be asked to develop their own criteria and rubrics and later compare these to the criteria found in this Teaching Guide. Let them decide to choose the most appropriate criteria by revising what they did or combining both sets of criteria so long as these will lead to objective assessment of the product or performance. For average learners: Give them the criteria and ask them to develop a scoring rubric. Assist them to revise
  6. 6. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology these rubrics until an objective assessment can be made. For slow learners: Give them the criteria and the rubrics. Ask them if they understand and agree with these.) 10. conceptualize the design of advocacy projects or activities (Suggestion: Learners shall be guided on how to propose and conduct advocacy projects or activities.)FIRM UP Varied learning experiences shall be introduced to help learners disprove alternative conceptions, examine/ assess prior knowledge and begin to discover the validity of tentative ideas (TI) related to the EQ; make their understanding of diversity of life real; equip them with skills and knowledge; and undergo differentiated instruction to address their unique strengths and needs. This involves acquiring scientific knowledge which is about accessing information, i.e., what information is needed, where information can be located and how information can be gathered focusing on diversity of life. I. Evolution (Main Ideas: In studying evolution, teachers shall guide learners to distinguish scientific data, inferences and some of the arguments from science. Statements made by scientists are not necessarily statements of science. Nor are such statements necessarily true; although the prestige of science is such that they are often taken to be so. Some of their statements are expressions of personal belief. Of course, it does not mean that they are false because they contain hints as to the evidence that might be adduced to support that belief; but it does mean that those statements must not be treated as if they are authoritative science. What needs to be investigated is the category into which they fit, and, most important of all, whether or not they are true. As learners study evolution, what needs to be encouraged is the use of critical thinking.) A. Evidence of Change (Main Idea: Evidences of evolution can be divided into two groups: direct evidences or those that are directly observable; and indirect evidences or those from which we can safely infer the phenomenon of evolution.) A.1 Geological Evidence (Age of the Earth, Fossil Record) Learners shall: 1. determine how the earth’s history spans from the present to the assumed age of the earth (about 5 billion years ago)
  7. 7. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Main Idea: The history of Earth spans from the present to about 5 billion years back. By comparison, the history of life on the planet spans about 4/5 of that time. Such a comparison is called a proportion.) (Suggested Strategies: dyads, brainstorming, focus group discussion, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Using a meter-long timeline, learners will be asked to compare time spans in the history of Earth. Refer to suggested activity DOL 1.)2. discuss the geologic time scale (Main Ideas: The geologic time scale reveals many interesting “observations”. It shows a) that the ancestral form of most of the major animal group today ‘suddenly’ appeared only around half a billion years ago from the present. b) humans appeared only in the last million to ten thousand years from the present.) (Suggested Strategies: dyads, Group discussions, brainstorming, etc) (Suggested Activity: Learners will be asked to perform suggested activity DOL 2. In this activity, learners will make a geologic time line.)3. analyze the available data that support or negate the assumed age of the earth (Main Idea: The generally accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about 4.55 billion years [plus or minus about 1%]. This value is derived from several different lines of evidence.) (Suggested Strategies: group discussion, brainstorming graphic organizers, etc) (Suggested Activity: Using any of the strategies mentioned, learners will be asked to analyze available data that support or negate the assumed age of the earth. Topics to be discussed include controversies in using radioactive dating in evaluating the age of a material.)4. describe how fossils are formed (Main Ideas: The term fossilisation refers to a variety of often complex processes that enable the preservation of organic remains within the geological record. Types of preservation include permineralization, cast and mold, replacement and recrystallization.)
  8. 8. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Suggested Strategies: learning stations, simulation, use of creative expression through arts, PWA) (Suggested Activity: Learners will become aware of how fossils were formed and preserved by performing activity DOL 3)5. revisit prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI on Geological Evidence, if any (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask each group of learners to discuss that prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI which the group previously chose for investigation. This group shall be asked to reason out for assessing, confirming or rejecting these in the light of the activities conducted and analysis made.)A.2 Anatomical and Biochemical Evidence6. make inferences from other evidence of change (Main Ideas: Other evidences of evolution include homologous/analogous structures, vestigial organs, embryological development, sequence of amino acids, assumed human evolution, etc.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, document analysis, brainstorming, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Ask learners to investigate a variety of evidence of evolution. Divide the class into two. Group 1 will work on anatomical evidences of evolution while group 2 will work on biochemical evidences of evolution. The sample table below may be used for data collection. Encourage learners to discuss their work with the class. Special Area of Interest Evidence (descriptions or drawings) Significance Anatomy Molecular Biology7. Revisit prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI on anatomical and biochemical evidence, if any. (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask each group of learners to discuss that prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI which the group previously chose for investigation. This group shall be asked to reason out for assessing, confirming or rejecting these in the light of the activities conducted and analysis made.)
  9. 9. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyB. Mechanism of ChangeB.1 Artificial and Natural Selection (Main Ideas: Both natural and artificial selection produce changes in living organisms over time. However, the selective force of natural selection is the environment while the agent of change in artificial selection arises from human intervention.)8. describe artificial selection (Suggested Strategies: Use of ICT materials, brainstorming etc.) (Suggested Activity: Show the class a picture of the European wild mustard (Brassica oleracea) and the different varieties of crops bred from this wild species. Ask learners to perform suggested activity DOL 4. Lead them into understanding that artificial selection is the intentional reproduction of individuals in a population that have desirable traits.)9. describe natural selection (Suggested Strategies: dyads, brainstorming, graphic organizers, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Learners will be introduced to the concept of natural selection by performing suggested activity DOL 5. Learners shall understand that an adaptation is any characteristic that increases fitness, which is defined as the ability to survive and reproduce, b) living things that are well adapted to their environment survive and reproduce. Those that are not well adapted don’t survive and reproduce, and c) a heritable characteristic that helps an organism to have more offspring which survive to reproduce will tend to become more common in a population as a result of natural selection.)10. simulate natural selection (Suggested Activity: Ask learners to perform suggested activity DOL 6. This simulation activity demonstrates how natural selection works.)B.2 Speciation (Main Ideas: Speciation, or the appearance of a new species, is brought about by: (a) the appearance of new traits, either by mutation or by a new combination of genes through sexual reproduction; (b) natural selection, in favor of organisms that are equipped with the most effective adaptation and produce the greatest number of offspring; (c) genetic drift and (d) isolation.)
  10. 10. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Suggested Strategies: library work, use of ICT materials, simulation, etc) (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask learners to perform suggested activity DOL 7. This activity simulates how reproductive isolation can lead to speciation. B.3 Genetic Variation 11. make an investigation on mutations, genetic recombination, and genetic drift and how these concepts are used in explaining evolution (Main ideas: Genetic variation among a population’s members is the raw material for evolution by natural selection. Mutations, genetic recombination and genetic drift are processes that generate this variation.) (Suggested Strategies: concept mapping, library work, use of ICT materials, simulation, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Ask learners to discuss their understanding of what DNA does in general. Ask them if genetic variations can drive evolution. Learners may perform suggested activity DOL 8 to better understand how mutation is viewed important to evolution.) 12. revisit prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI on mechanism of change, if any (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask each group of learners to discuss the prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI which the group previously chose for investigation. This group shall be asked to reason out for assessing, confirming or rejecting these in the light of the activities conducted and analyses made.)II. Biological Classification A. Usefulness of the Classification System 13. discuss the importance of classifying organisms (Main Ideas: The scientific grouping of organisms has some specific advantages: a) it makes the study of organisms convenient; b) it helps in the specific identification of any given organism; c) the study of each distinct group pg organisms helps us to integrate life as a whole; d) it provides information about the organisms, which occur in specific geographical regions, and e) it indicates the evolutionary relationship by establishing the gradually increasing complexity of forms and structures in different groups of organisms.) (Suggested Strategies: group discussion, brainstorming, etc.)
  11. 11. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Suggested Activity: Ask learners what the word “classify” means. Elicit responses from learners until all of them understand that classify means to put into groups based on common characteristics. Mention that, at a conservative estimate, there are about 1 million different types (species) of animals, and over 300,000 species of plants. More have yet to be discovered, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Lead them into understanding that the only way to study this great diversity of organisms is to divide living things into manageable groups. To work with the diversity of life, we need a system of biological classification that names and orders organism in a logical manner. Introduce learners to the importance of classifying organism by performing suggested activity DOL 9.)B. Characteristics of Organisms under Existing Kingdom-Systems14. discuss the of classification (Main Ideas: Scientists classify numerous organisms. By classification, we mean the scientific process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities. Taxonomy, on the other hand, is the science of naming and classifying organisms. A good system of taxonomy allows scientists to communicate about the organisms without confusion. To classify organisms, scientists use physical similarities and differences as well as DNA.) (Suggested Strategies: library work, use of ICT materials, etc.) (Suggested Activity: The teacher may use the activity below as starting point of discussing Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. Mnemonics like “Kuya Pedro’s Class Ordered Family-Size Garlic Bread Special” may be used for the sequence of these levels from the biggest to the smallest –that is, K for Kingdom, P for Phylum, C for Class, O for Order, F for Family, G for Genus, and S for Species. Reinforce their understanding of taxonomy by performing the attached suggested activity DOL 10.)15. discuss characteristics of organisms placed in each of the six kingdoms (Main Ideas: The six kingdoms are arranged into larger groups called domains: Bacteria, Archae, and Eukarya based on cell type, cell number, and how organisms get their energy. Organisms in Archaea and Bacteria domains are made up of unicellular prokaryotic cells. They differ in cell chemistry. Archaea can survive extreme temperatures. The domain Eukarya is made up of the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia. These organisms are mostly multicellular. Organisms in the Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia Kingdoms are all made up of eukaryotic cells.) (Suggested Strategies: concept mapping, focus group discussion, library work, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Attached suggested activity DOL 11 can be used to introduce learners to the six Kingdoms classification. Using various references such as internet and books, ask learners to identify the different characteristics of each Kingdoms. Ask learners to
  12. 12. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology place sample organisms into different Kingdoms.)III. Value or Usefulness of Certain Organisms 16. analyze the value or usefulness of various organisms in regard to health, ecology, economy and technology. ( Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, library work, brainstorming, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Ask learners to make a concept map in regard to the usefulness of sample organisms. Refer to Suggested Activity DOL 12.)DEEPEN Here, learners shall be engaged in understanding scientific knowledge which includes the processing and making meanings out of the information. Learners need to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink their ideas; express their understandings and engage in meaningful self-evaluation; and undergo in-depth discussion on evolution, biological classification and value or usefulness of certain organisms using multiple sources of information and various modalities of manifesting learning.Given enough time, learners shall: 1. investigate sufficiency of data on any of the following transitional fossils which are used to support the supposed evolution of the following: a. primitive plants to modern plants b. single cells to invertebrates c. invertebrates to fish d. fish to amphibians e. amphibians to reptiles f. reptiles to birds g. reptiles to mammals (Suggested Strategies: use of internet, brainstorming, library work, document analysis, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Divide the class into five groups Assign the groups to focus on certain task – group 1 [primitive plants to modern plants and single cells to invertebrates]; group 2 [invertebrates to fish, fish to amphibians]; group 3 [amphibians to reptiles, reptiles to birds]; and group 4 [reptiles to mammals, land mammals to sea mammals]. Ask learners to investigate sufficiency of data on any transitional fossils which support the supposed evolution of the assigned topics. Ask the groups to present their outputs to the whole
  13. 13. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology class. The teacher may summarize the key points of these outputs.) 2. conduct an interview with a plant/animal breeder. Obtain data on his/her observations with regard to characteristics developed among the offspring (e.g., noted differences/ similarities, etc.) and relate these to what are learned about artificial selection 3. justify why viruses do not belong to any of the six kingdoms (Main Idea: Viruses share the genetic code with living organisms and affect living organisms. But most biologists do not consider viruses because they are not cells and are not able to reproduce independently. However, when viruses do infect living cells, they can make copies of themselves, regulate gene expression and evolve.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, focus group discussion, library work, use of resource person [microbiologist or doctor], etc.) (Suggested Activity: Ask learners to give their views regarding the nature of viruses as a form of life. Encourage them to research on viral structure, how viruses infect and cause diseases in plants, animals and human. Ask them to present their work to the whole class.) 4. conduct a survey of existing flora and fauna within the community and infer the richness of life-forms (Suggestions: Students may also visit zoos, herbaria, national parks.)At the level of understanding, learners shall: 5. describe how living things differ from one another (FU: Explanation) 6. illustrate the interdependence of diverse organisms through analogies (FU: Interpretation) 7. create a presentation to showcase how diversity of life exists in one’s immediate community (FU: Application) 8. compare and contrast different available theories that explain how life becomes diverse (FU: Perspective) 9. role play human activities that either reduce, maintain or enrich diverse life forms (FU: Empathy) 10. recognize what one can do based on understanding of diversity of life (FU: Self-knowledge)To draw out the Essential Understanding, learners shall:
  14. 14. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology 11. contemplate on the Essential Question - “Where does understanding of diversity of life lead to?” by doing the following: • reexamine their revised tentative idea (TI) • justify the TI based on the understanding (s) gainedTRANSFER There is a need to encourage learners to organize their learning experiences so that they can move from teacher-guided and concrete activities to independent applications where they may create or produce new knowledge in science. This is to challenge learners to transfer their learning in new settings and use this creatively to generate new ideas or view things differently. Learners shall be involved in planning, proposing and implementing advocacy projects and activities to respect other organisms and appreciate their origin and value or usefulness.Learners shall: 1. conduct comprehensive, community-based and innovative advocacy projects or activities respecting other organisms and appreciating their value or usefulness 2. evaluate their product/performance based on the following criteria: a) community based projects or activities; b) comprehensiveness; c) innovativeness; d) manifestation of respect for other organisms and appreciation of their value or usefulness.Resources (Web sites, Software, etc.)Weblinks • http://www.deped.gov.ph/iSchool Web Board/Science Web Board • http://www.deped.gov.ph/skoool.ph • http://www.deped.gov.ph/e-turo • http://www.deped.gov.ph/BSE/iDEP
  15. 15. 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology • http://www.pjoedu.wordpress/Philippine Studies/FREE TEXTBOOKS • http://www.teacherplanet.com • http://www.pil.ph • http://www.alcob.com/ICT Model School Network • http://www.APEC Cyber Academy.com • http://www.globalclassroom.net • http://www.think.com • http://archives.microbeworld.org/resources/experiment/pgs1-6.pdf • Biology by Kenneth R Miller and Joseph Levine • Teaching Reading in Science by Barton and Jordan • Biology by Carmelita M. Capco and Gilbert C. YangMaterials/Equipment : • Manila paper • Marking pens • Colored papers • Cutouts • Computer • Computer presentations • LCD Projector • Educational film

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