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Sci q4 a   genetics Sci q4 a genetics Presentation Transcript

  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyQuarter: 4A Topic: Genetics Time Frame: 25 days Stage 1Content Standard: Performance Standard:The learner demonstrates understanding of genetics to make The learner manifests understanding of genetics by making informedinformed decision in promoting good health, improving livelihood, decision to promote good health, improve livelihood, and make futureand making future choices. choices.Essential Understanding(s): Essential Question(s):Genetics becomes valuable when used in making informed decisions When does genetics become valuable?to promote good health, improve livelihood, and make soundchoices.Learners will know: Learners will be able to:I. Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Laws of Heredity 1. Analyze the vital role of DNA, RNA and proteins in the transmission of hereditary traits.II. Molecular Genetics 2. Describe Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Laws of Heredity.A. DNA and RNAB. Chromosomes 3. Apply Mendel’s principles in solving problems on geneticsC. Proteins and expression of traitsD. Mutation 4. Describe sex-related inheritance.III. Sex-Related Inheritance 5. Cite some pressing issues concerning the usefulness of genetics.IV. Usefulness of GeneticsA. Promoting good healthB. Improving livelihoodC. Uses of DNA technologyD. Making sound future choices Stage 2
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyProduct or Performance Task: Evidence at the Level of Understanding Evidence at the Level of PerformanceManifest understanding of genetics by making Performance assessment of learner’sinformed decision in choosing matters EXPLANATION decision based on the following criteria:pertaining to promotion of good health,improvement of livelihood, and making future Explain how genetics can be used to 1. Informed;choices determine the characteristics of an organism. 2. Involved matters pertaining to Criteria: a. promotion of good health a. Thorough (explaining how traits are b. improvement of livelihood transmitted from parents to offspring using concepts in genetics); c. use of technology b. Clear (expressing with clarity the thought d. making sound future choices in oral or written form); c. Justifiable ( providing different examples and concrete situations). INTERPRETATION Make sense of the importance of how genetics controls the characteristics of organisms Criterion a. Meaningful ( giving brief yet substantial discussion on the importance of how genetic information are transmitted from parents to offspring and how individuals differ from one another). APPLICATION
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyPropose how genetics can be applied inaddressing certain situations or solving someproblems (e.g. crimes)Criteria:a. Appropriate (using applicable concept/s on genetics in addressing certain situations or solving problems);.b. Practical (discussing how the proposed solution can be done with ease).PERSPECTIVEInfer on the cost effectiveness of applyinggenetics in improving industries.Criteria:a. Insightful (drawing lessons or insights deduced from the application of genetics in improving industries);b. Credible (using authoritative sources of information in genetics);c. Reflective of critical thinking (combining research, understanding of historical context; developing higher order thinking skills while making an inference) .EMPATHY
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyAssume the role of a geneticist who appliesgenetics in studies or experiments whileupholding respect for life and high ethicalstandards.Criteria:a. Perceptive (accepting that geneticists may be prone to biases as they apply genetics in their studies or experiments);b. Receptive (accepting readily/ willingly that a geneticists should adhere to uphold the value of respect for life and high ethical standards while applying genetics in studies or experiments).SELF-KNOWLEDGEBe aware that one is capable of makinghis/her life better by making good use of hisinherited traits based on understanding ofgenetics.Criteria:a. Reflective (becoming aware of one’s inherited traits based on understanding of genetics);b. Responsive (reacting positively as a result of recognizing how to make good use of these traits). Stage 3
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyTeaching/Learning Sequence:EXPLORE As part of initial activities, learners shall be given an overview of genetics, what they are expected to learn and how their learning shall be assessed. In this stage, diagnosis of their understanding related to genetics which were gained from elementary science shall form part of the prerequisites.Learners shall: 1. undergo an assessment of their understanding of inheritance of traits from parents to offspring (Suggestions: Assessment to use includes paper and pencil test, use of checklist, use of graphic organizer, etc. Teachers shall take note of learners’ prior knowledge, superstitious beliefs and misconceptions, if any. Refer to attached suggested assessment.) 2. be introduced to the topic genetics and its subtopics such as molecular genetics, Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Laws of Heredity, and sex-related inheritance (Suggestion: The teacher may ask learners to identify the similarities and dissimilarities of parents and their offspring before being introduced to the aforecited topic and subtopics.) 3. be oriented on related and varied resources and materials to be used in understanding molecular genetics, Mendelian and Non- Mendelian laws of heredity, sex-related inheritance and usefulness of genetics (see resources and equipment/materials needed.) 4. be given time to formulate questions leading to the Essential Question with focus on how understanding of genetics can be used in making informed decisions to promote good health, improve livelihood, use technology and make future choices (Suggestions: KWL, Focus Group Discussion, brainstorming, think-pair & square, dyads, round robin, etc.) 5. generate as many tentative ideas (TI) relevant to the Essential Question (EQ) as possible to show what they already know about when genetics become valuable (Suggestions: Brainstorming, Focus Group Discussion, graphic organizer, concept mapping, etc. At this point, the teacher shall be careful not to reject learners’ opinion but shall encourage them to give their ideas without being judged as right or wrong. Each
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology tentative idea (TI) shall be written on the board.) 6. be grouped accordingly to choose some of the identified prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and tentative ideas (TI) (Suggestion: Whatever each group of learners selected, the group shall be asked to challenge or explore the validity of the prior knowledge, alternative conceptions or tentative ideas during the Firm Up Stage.) 7. be oriented that they need to show their understanding on genetics by making informed decisions 8. be informed that this understanding shall be assessed based on the following criteria: 1. informed, and 2 . involved matters pertaining to (a) development of one’s potentials, (b) promotion of good health, (c) improvement of livelihood, (d) use of technology and (e) making sound future choices (Suggestion: Brainstorming may be used to discuss how these criteria shall be used. Learners need to be clarified on how to making decisions shall be assessed. Such details of criteria may be revised based on agreements reached.)FIRM UP Varied learning experiences shall be introduced to help learners disprove alternative conceptions (if any), examine/assess prior knowledge, and begin to discover the validity of tentative ideas (TI) related to the EQ; make their understanding of genetics, equip them with skills and knowledge; and undergo differentiated instruction to address their unique strengths and needs.I. Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Laws of Heredity A. Mendelian Genetics 1. analyze Mendel’s experiment on garden peas illustrating the Mendelian principles of inheritance (Main Ideas: The patterns of inheritance of traits observed by Gregor Mendel in garden peas are explained by his laws of (a) dominance, (b) segregation of genes of each gene pair during gamete formation, and (c) independent assortment of genes for different traits as they are transmitted from one generation to the next.) (Suggested Strategies: simulation, concept mapping, modified lectures, learning station, focus group discussion)
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Suggested Activities: Learners will be introduced to the concept of heredity by asking them to observe each other’s physical features and make them realize their physical differences while affirming their similarities at the same time. Encourage learners to speak of their observation and lead them into understanding that their traits are passed on to them from their parents through the process called heredity. Use this as an introduction in discussing the Mendelian Laws of Genetics. Reinforce their understanding of the process of heredity by performing the attached suggested activity G 9. In this activity learners learn the principle of Mendelian genetics by using coins to represent their gametes and their mate and then identify the genetic makeup and phenotypic traits of their resulting baby.)2. infer that genes control the inheritance of a character (Main Ideas: (a) The cell organelles responsible for the transmission of hereditary traits are the chromosomes in the nucleus. (b) The genetic material in chromosomes is deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).(c) The portion of a DNA molecule which is responsible for the transmission of a particular trait from parent to offspring is called a gene. (Suggested Strategies: concept mapping, modified lecture, graphic organizer, etc.) (Suggested Activities: Ask learners to describe DNA, a gene and a chromosome. From there, learners will be guided to infer that the gene, not the character, is passed on to the next generation.)3. identify traits that follow Mendelian patterns of heredity (Main Ideas: Mendel probably chose to work with peas because they are available in many varieties. Of the numerous characteristics or traits of peas, seven were particularly interesting to him. These traits are flower color, flower position, seed color, seed shape, pod shape, pod color and stem length. Mendel’s principles also apply to other organisms. The basic principles of Mendelian genetics can be used to study inheritance of an organism’s traits.) (Suggested Strategies: group discussion, graphic organizer, brainstorming) (Suggested Activities: Using any of the strategies mentioned, learners will be asked to identify the different traits that follow the Mendelian pattern of heredity and discuss the corresponding characters associated with each trait. Explain that one character is dominant over another.)4. solve monohybrid and dihybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of parents (Main Idea: A Punnett square is a chart which shows/predicts all possible gene combinations in a cross of parents [whose genes
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology are known].) (Suggested Strategy: problem solving) (Suggested Activities: Ask learners to predict the genotype and phenotype of monohybrid and dihybrid crosses using a Punnett square; refer to attached suggested activity G 10. Encourage them to solve monohybrid and dihybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of parents. Refer to the attached suggested activity G 11.)B. Non-Mendelian Genetics 5.infer that certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian principles of heredity (Main Idea: There are patterns of inheritance that do not follow Mendel’s principle. These include (a) incomplete dominance and codominance, (b) multiple alleles, and (c) sex-related inheritance.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, brainstorming, learning stations, modified lecture, simulation, etc) (Suggested Activities: Conduct a review of the Mendelian principles of genetics. Explain that not all genes show simple patterns of dominant and recessive alleles. In addition, many important traits are controlled by more than two alleles. Engage learners to perform activities on Non Mendelian Genetics. The attached suggested activity G 12 is about Incomplete dominance. In the attached suggested activity G 13, learners will identify which blood type a person would have based on their alleles, observe the alleles that an offspring would have and identify the blood types of the offspring, and use the observations and rules gleaned from this to predict the blood types of other offspring, when given the genotypes of their parents.) 6. revisit prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI on Mendelian and Non-Mendelian patterns of heredity , if any (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask each group of learners to discuss those prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI which the group previously chose for investigation. This group shall be asked to reason out for either assessing, confirming or rejecting these respectively in the light of the activities conducted and analyses made pertaining to Mendelian and Non-Mendelian patterns of heredity.)
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyII. Sex-related Inheritance 7. discuss how sex in humans is determined (Main Idea: In humans, XX chromosomes determine femaleness and XY determine maleness.) (Suggested Strategies: dyads, brainstorming, simulation) (Suggested Activities: Conduct a review of meiosis and fertilization. This will provide the basis for understanding the inheritance of X and Y chromosomes. Ask learners how sex chromosomes separate during meiosis. Refer to the attached suggested activity G 14.) 8. explain different sex chromosomal aberrations (Main Idea: Disorders also occurs in the sex chromosomes. Examples of these abnormalities are Turner’s syndrome and Klinefelter’s syndrome.) (Suggested Strategies: panel discussion, use of resource persons, use of internet and other multimedia sources, brainstorming, etc) (Suggested Activities: Ask learners to gather information on the different sex chromosomal aberrations. Let them compare the different disorders and explain how nondisjunction causes chromosome number disorder.) 9. differentiate sex-limited and sex-influenced traits 10. make an inference on sex-linked traits (Main Ideas: Sex-related inheritance can be categorized in three ways: (a) Sex-linked traits which are determined by genes located on the X chromosome, (b) sex-influenced traits which occur when phenotypes are different between males and females with the same genotype and (c) sex-limited traits are those traits that can only be expressed in one sex or the other.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, brainstorming, learning station, forum, modified lectures, simulation, etc.) (Suggested Activities: 1. Divide the class into three groups. Assign the groups to focus on a certain task – group 1 [to research on sex linked traits]; group 2 [to research on sex-influenced traits]; and group 3 [to research on sex-limited traits]. Ask the groups to present their outputs to the whole class. The teacher may summarize the key points of these outputs. 2. Learners will explain how hemophilia is transmitted by performing the attached suggested activity G15. 3. Encourage learners to reflect on the importance of
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology understanding the special needs of color-deficient children and what can be done to help them. Let them undergo the Ishihara Test for Color Blindness at http://colorvisiontesting.com/ishihara.htm .) 11. revisit prior knowledge, misconceptions and/or TI on sex-related inheritance, if any (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask each group of learners to discuss those prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI which the group previously chose for investigation. This group shall be asked to reason out for assessing, confirming or rejecting these respectively in the light of the activities conducted and analyses made pertaining to sex-related inheritance.)III. Molecular Genetics (DNA, RNA, Chromosomes, Proteins and Expression of Traits, Mutation)Using the chosen prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or tentative ideas (TI) related to the EQ as starting/focal points ofinvestigation, learners shall: 12. describe the structures of RNA and DNA (Main Ideas: DNA and RNA are two different nucleic acids found in the cells of every living organism. These are the molecules that enable living organisms to reproduce their complex equipment from one generation to the next. Differences between DNA and RNA are: (a.) DNA is a double-stranded helix while RNA is single-stranded; (b.) the four bases found in DNA are adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). A fifth base, called uracil (U) usually takes the place of thymine in RNA.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, concept mapping, learning station, simulation, etc.) (Suggested Activities: 1. Introduce the concept of DNA by extracting DNA from a variety of cell samples. Refer to the attached suggested activity G 1.1, 2. Differentiate DNA and RNA in onion cells. Refer to attached suggested activity G1.2. c. Introduce the learners to DNA structure by performing the suggested activities G 1.3 and G 1.4. The learners will be able to manipulate the nucleotides [basic building blocks] of DNA and get a feel of how the molecule is produced.) 13. analyze the vital role played by DNA, RNA and proteins in heredity (Main Ideas: (a) A genetic character is manifested by means of certain protein molecules – enzymes, hormones, antibodies, etc. – produced by the cell. (b)The code for building a protein molecule is found in the DNA. This code is relayed by ribonucleic acid (RNA) to the ribosomes (in the cytoplasm), the site of protein synthesis. Thus, the flow of information from a gene to its product is from DNA to RNA to protein. (c)The sequence of nucleotides in DNA is matched by the sequence of nucleotides in RNA, which in turn determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein synthesized.)
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Suggested Strategies: concept mapping, use of ICT materials, simulation, graphic organizers) (Suggested Activities for Replication: The attached suggested activity G 2 can be used in presenting lectures on DNA replication. The model will allow learners to review the basic concept of DNA structure and then move them through the complex steps of DNA replication. Evaluate learners’ understanding of the topic by asking them to demonstrate the process of replication through the use of models. Refer to the attached suggested activity G 3.) (Suggested Activities for Transcription and Translation: 1. Ask learners to use models of the DNA molecule to transcribe an mRNA sequence, then translate it into a protein. Refer to the attached suggested activity G 4. 2. Learners may perform activity G 5. This activity demonstrates the translation process by analogy. Learners translate a DNA code by synthesizing a “protein” (amino acid sequence) in readable ENGLISH. Encourage learners to create and decipher new message written in DNA language. 3. Learners may conduct a DNA Bingo Bonanza in their class to practice the genetic code chart. Refer to the attached suggested activity G 6.) 14. determine causes of mutation (Main Ideas: Spontaneous mutation can arise from replication errors, spontaneous chemical changes and from the movement of transposons. Mutations can be induced by various agents, including some classes of chemical and various types of radiation.) (Suggested Strategies: library work, brainstorming, modified lectures, forum, use of ICT materials, etc.) (Suggested Activities: Learners demonstrate the difference between frameshift and point mutations by performing attached suggested activity G 7. They should explain how mutation affects the production of protein.)15. describe what happens when mutation occurs (Main Ideas: Mutations can be (a) a neutral mutation which has no harmful or beneficial effect on the organism, (b) a deleterious mutation which has a negative effect on the phenotype, and thus decreases the fitness of the organism, (c) an advantageous mutation which has a positive effect on the phenotype, and thus increases the fitness of the organism.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials, library work, brainstorming, simulation, reflection, document analysis, etc.) (Suggested Activities: Provide a short recap of the previous lesson highlighting the different causes of mutations. Ask learners to cite examples how mutations affect an organism. Learners may perform the attached suggested activity G 8 to better understand how mutations affect an organism.)
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology16. revisit prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI on molecular genetics, if any (Suggested Activity: The teacher may ask each group of learners to discuss those prior knowledge, alternative conceptions and/or TI which the group previously chose for investigation. This group shall be asked to reason out for assessing, confirming or rejecting these respectively in the light of the activities conducted and analyses made.)IV. Usefulness of Genetics (Main Idea: DNA Technology gives rise to biochemical products such as vaccines hormones and enzymes, genetically recombined microbes, plants and animals; medicines for gene therapy and methods for genomic analysis [DNA fingerprinting].)A. Genetics and Promotion of Good Health 17. explain what Genetically Modified Organisms or Foods are (Main Ideas: When a gene from one organism is purposely moved to improve or change another organism in a laboratory, the result is a genetically modified organism (GMO). Genetically modified foods are foods derived from genetically modified organisms.) (Suggested Strategies: forum, seminar, panel discussion, use of internet, interview, debate, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Conduct a forum/seminar/panel discussion about the GMO/GMF. From there, learners will assess the merits of GMO/GMF. Ask learners to submit a one-page personal essay which includes their insights, opinions and/or perceptions on the use of GMO/GMF.) 18. discuss the medical importance of genetics (Main idea: Recombinant DNA technology is used by pharmaceutical companies to manufacture medications that cannot be manufactured by any other means. It enables large-scale manufacture of life-saving hormones and enzymes of human origin. Another application of genetics is gene therapy, or the potential for using genes to treat diseases.) (Suggested Strategies: concept mapping, brainstorming, use of internet, interview, etc) (Suggested Activity: Divide the class into two groups. Assign the groups to focus on a certain task- Group 1[Biochemical Products of Recombinant Technology, e.g., hormones, vaccines, Immune treatment, enzymes] Group 2 [Genetic Treatment]. Ask learners to present their output to the whole class.)
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyB. Genetics and Improvement of Livelihood 19. analyze how genetics is used in agriculture and other areas that promote and improve livelihood (Main Idea: Genetics has made valuable contributions in the improvement of crops and domestic animals by applying selective breeding. Increase in yield of crop like corn and rice, other agronomic traits to increase yield like pest- and disease-resistant crops, healthier and more nutritious food as well as production of seedless varieties of fruits and advances in milk, egg and meat production of cattle, chickens and swine, respectively, have markedly benefited man.) (Suggested Strategies: use of ICT materials forum, use of resource person [plant and animal breeder], Interview, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Ask learners to use internet search or available published researches to analyze how genetics is used in agriculture and other areas that promote and improve livelihood. Ask learners to present their output to the whole class.)C. Genetics and the Use of DNA Technology 20. describe how genetics is used in applying certain technologies like genetic engineering (Main Idea: There are many different technologies associated with genetics as a science. These include genetic fingerprinting, cloning, recombinant DNA technology and DNA profiling.) (Suggested Strategies: panel discussion, forum, concept mapping, workshop, reflection, use of resource person, use of internet, brainstorming, etc.) (Suggested Activity: Using any of the strategies mentioned, learners will be asked to identify and discuss different genetics technologies.) D. Genetics and Making Sound Choices 21. analyze how genetics can help make sound decisions (e.g., observing proper diet and nutrition to prevent a possible disease, choosing a future partner in life, etc.) (Main Ideas: Areas where knowledge of genetics is helpful include observing proper diet and nutrition to prevent possible disease, for choosing a future partner in life, etc.) (Suggested Strategies: brainstorming, focus group discussion, interview, panel discussion, reflection, etc.)
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology (Suggested Activity: Learners will submit a one-page personal essay which includes their insights, opinions and/or perceptions on the topic.)DEEPEN Here, learners shall be engaged in understanding scientific knowledge which includes the processing and making meanings out of the information. Learners need to reflect, revisit, revise and rethink their ideas; express their understandings and engage in meaningful self-evaluation; and undergo in-depth study of Mendelian and Non-Mendelian laws of heredity, sex-related inheritance, molecular genetics and usefulness of genetics using multiple sources of information and various modalities of manifesting learning.Learners shall: 1. make a karyotype analysis of different genetic disorders (Main Idea: Karyotype analysis is a technique where chromosomes are analyzed under a microscope. It is used to detect chromosomal abnormalities important for prenatal diagnosis, detection of carrier status, and for general diagnostic purposes.) (Suggested Strategies: simulation) (Suggested Activities: Learners will perform a simulation of human karyotyping using digital images of chromosomes from actual human genetic studies. http://www.biology.arizona.edu/human_bio/activities/karyotyping/karyotyping.html. In the absence of the internet, learners may do human karyotyping using paper models; see the attached suggested activity 16) 2. apply the knowledge of genetics given a situation (Suggested Strategy: simulation) (Suggested Activity: Learners will conduct the activity entitled “Be a Detective for a Day”, using blood test to identify babies. See the attached suggested activity G17.) 3. relate their present understanding of concepts learned to future a career;
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyAt the level of understanding, learners shall: 4. synthesize how genetics can be used to determine the characteristics of an organism 5. make sense of the importance of how genetics controls the characteristics of organisms 6. propose how genetics technology can be applied in addressing certain situations or solving some problems (e.g. crimes) 7. infer on the cost-effectiveness of applying genetics in improving industries 8. assume the role of a geneticist who applies genetics in studies or experiments while upholding respect for life and high ethical standards 9. be aware that one is capable of making his/her life better by making good use of inherited traits or potentials based on understanding of geneticsTo draw out the essential understanding, learners shall: 10. contemplate on the essential question “When does genetics become valuable?” through the following tasks: • reexamine their revised TI • justify their previous answers based on the understanding(s) gainedTRANSFER There is a need to encourage learners to organize their learning experiences so that they can move from teacher-guided and concrete activities to independent applications where they create or produce new knowledge in science. This is to challenge learners to transfer their learning in new settings and use this creatively to generate new ideas, view things differently and reengineer processes. Learners shall be involved in planning.Learners shall: 1. make informed decisions to promote good health, improve livelihood, use technology and make sound choices
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative Biology 2. evaluate their product/performance using the details of the cited criteria: a. informed decision b. involving matters pertaining to: • promotion of good health • improvement of livelihood • use of technology • making sound future choicesResources (Web sites, Software, etc.) • http://www.deped.gov.ph/iSchool Web Board/Science Web Board • http://www.deped.gov.ph/skoool.ph • http://www.deped.gov.ph/e-turo • http://www.deped.gov.ph/BSE/iDEP • http://www.pjoedu.wordpress/Philippine Studies/FREE TEXTBOOKS • http://www.teacherplanet.com • http://www.pil.ph • http://www.alcob.com/ICT Model School Network • http://www.APEC Cyber Academy.com • http://www.globalclassroom.net • http://www.think.com • Teaching Reading in Science by Mary Lee Barton and Deborah L. Jordan pp. 74 & 92 • Biology by Kenneth R. Miller and Joseph Levine
  • 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum Integrative BiologyMaterials/Equipment Needed: • Manila paper • Marking pens • Colored papers • Cutouts • Computer • Computer presentations • LCD Projector • Educational film