INTEGRATED SCIENCEQuarter 2: Force, Motion and EnergyModule 4: Energy TransferYou will study the following topics in this module:Lesson 1: EnergyLesson 2: Temperature and HeatLesson 3: Work, Power and Efficiency EXPLORE Your UnderstandingYou will be given an overview of how energy is transferred. Your knowledge on transferof energy and other related concepts gained from elementary will be diagnosed by thefollowing pre-test.Pre-Assessment Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answers on a separatesheet.1. Energy is changed from one form to another with no net loss or gain. a. Always true b. Sometimes true c. Always false d. Sometimes false2. Potential energy is the energy an object has because of its a. speed b. location c. size d. temperature3. Kinetic energy is the energy an object has because of his a. speed b. location c. size d. temperature4. Temperature is a measure of a. the total energy in a substance. b. the total kinetic energy in a substance. c. the average energy in a substance. d. the average kinetic energy of an object.5. Heat is the a. total amount of energy contained in an object. b. average amount of energy-per-molecule contained in an object. c. amount of energy all the molecules have. d. All of the above.
6. Work is defined as a. force times time. c. force times distance. b. force divided by time. d. force divided by distance.7. The amount of potential energy possessed by an elevated object is equal to a. the force needed to lift it. c. the power used to lift it. b. the distance it is lifted. d. the work done in lifting it.8. Which of the following is a conversion from chemical energy to mechanical energy? a. a dark light bulb starting to glow c. a ball rolling down a hill b. food being heated in an oven d. a person lifting a weight9. Power is defined as the a. force on an object times the distance the object moves. b. force on an object divided by the time the force acts. c. work done on an object divided by the time taken to do the work. d. work done times the time it takes to do the work.10. A job is done slowly, and an identical job is done quickly. Both jobs require the same amount of work but different amounts of a. energy. b. power. c. Both of the above. d. Neither of the above. KWL ChartBefore you begin with the next part of this module, fill in the first two columns. Fill in thelast column after completing the module. Energy Transfer What I learn What I know What I will learn
Your understanding on energy transfer will be increased as you study the lessons andperform the activities in the FIRM UP phase. FIRM UP Your UnderstandingIn this phase, varied learning experiences shall be introduced to help you understandenergy transfer and equip you with skills and knowledge for you to be successfulthroughout the topic.FIRM UP Your UnderstandingLesson 1. EnergyA. Energy exists in different forms. Activity: How can you demonstrate energy? Materials: large plastic bowl, sand, pebble, rock Procedure: 1. Fill the bowl halfway with sand. Place bowl the on the floor as shown. Make sure the sand is level. 2. Place a pebble and a rock near the edge of a table above the bowl of sand. 3. Gently push the pebble off the table into the sand. Record your observations. 4. Remove pebble, and make sure the sand is level. Gently push the rock off the table into the sand. Record your observations. What do you think? 1. What happened to the sand when you dropped the pebble? When you dropped the rock? 2. How can you explain any difference you observed?
Energy takes many different forms and has many different effects. Just about everything you see happening around you involves energy. Lamps and other appliances in your home operate on electrical energy. Plants use energy from the sun to grow. You use energy provided by the food you eat to carry out all of your everyday activities – eating, exercising, reading, and even sitting and thinking.B. Energy can change forms but never gets lost. Activity: How does energy change its form? Material: match Procedure: Try striking a match stick against its match box until it lights. Explain your observations. Potential energy is stored in the chemicals on the head of a matchstick. The flame of the burning match stick releases that energy as light and heat. Where does the energy to strike the match come from in the first place? A match may not appear to have any energy by itself, but it does contain potential energy that can be released. The chemical energy stored in a match can be changed into light and heat. Before the chemical energy in the match changes forms, however, other energy conversions must take place. Plants convert energy from the sun into chemical energy, which is stored in the form of sugars in their cells. When a person eats food that comes from plants – or from animals that have eaten plants – the person’s cells can release this chemical energy. Some of this chemical energy is converted into kinetic energy that a person uses to rub the match over a rough surface to light it. The friction between the match and the striking surface produces heat. The heat provides the energy needed to start the chemical change that produce the flame. From the sun to the flame, at least five energy conversions have taken place. Think about this. How is a person’s chemical energy changed into another form of energy in the lighting of a match? Lesson 2. Temperature and Heat A. Moving colors Activity: Materials: plastic cup, food coloring, hot and cold water
Procedure: 1. Fill a clear plastic cup halfway with cold water. 2. Fill another cup halfway with hot water. 3. Using an eyedropper, place a drop of food coloring at the very bottom of each cup. Observe. Observe and think. What happened to the drop of food coloring in cold water? In hot water? Explain what happened? B. Which substances change temperature faster? Activity: Substances that can change temperature faster Materials: graduated cylinder, balance, tap water 1- Peso coins, aluminum foil, hot water, 100 mL beaker, 3 plastic cups, thermometer, stopwatch Procedure: 1. Using the graduated cylinder and the balance, separately measure 20 g of tap water, 20 g of 1-peso coins, and 20 g of aluminum foil. 2. Using the graduated cylinder, pour 50 ml of hot water into each of the cups. Record the water temperature in each cup. 3. Pour the tap water into one cup. Place the 1-peso coins in the second cup and the foil in the third. After 5 minutes, record the temperature of the water in each cups. What do you think? 1. What is the difference in temperature in the three cups? 2. What might account for the differences you observed? 3. Why do items such as pots and pans be made of materials like copper, stainless steel, or iron?C. How can you observe a flow of energy? Activity: Observing the Flow of Energy Materials: 500 ml beaker, hot tap water 200 ml beaker, cold water 2 thermometers, stopwatch Procedure: 1. Fill the large beaker halfway with hot tap water. Fill the small beaker halfway with cold water. Place a thermometer in each beaker. Record the temperature of the water in each beaker.
2. Without removing the water in either beaker, place the small beaker inside the large beaker. Record the temperature in each beaker every 30 seconds for 2 minutes. What do you think? 1. How did the water temperature in each beaker change? 2. In which direction did energy flow? How do you know? Activity: Transfer of Energy Hold a cup of hot coffee. Predict what happens in terms of particle movement when energy is conducted from the hot coffee through the mug to a person’s hands. Energy moves as heat in three ways. Think about what you do to keep warm on a cold day. You may wear several layers of clothing, sit next to a heater, or avoid drafty windows. On a hot day, you may wear light clothing and sit in the shade of a tree. In all these situations, you are trying to control the transfer of energy between yourself and your surroundings. Recall that heat is always a transfer of energy from objects at a higher temperature to objects at a lower temperature. How does energy get transferred from a warmer object to a cooler one? There are three different ways in which this transfer of energy can occur – by conduction, convection, and radiation. So, in trying to control heat, it is necessary to control conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the process that moves energy from one object to another when they are touching physically. Convection is the process that transfers energy by the movement of large numbers of particles in the same direction within a liquid or gas. Radiation is energy that travels as electromagnetic waves, which include visible light, microwaves, and infrared light.Lesson 3. Work, Power and Efficiency Are powerful persons efficient? Activity: Power
Climb the stairs at home; estimate its height and get the time of climb. Solve for power after reading the text below. Assume the force as equivalent to the weight of the climber. Work = Force x distance Work is force times distance in the direction of the force. Only the part of the force in the direction of the motion does work in the physics sense. Non-spontaneous or deliberate transfers of energy are what the physicist measures through the operational definition of work. Power = Work / time = (Force x distance)/time Power is how long the work is done. Twice the power means that for example, the car engine can do twice the work in the same amount of time – or it can do the same amount of work in half the time. Energy radiated Energy from by light lamp is transferred to Internal energy of bulb and wires radiated by heat Look at the sankey diagram above for energy transfer in a light bulb or the sample provided by DTI about comparison of CFLs over incandescent bulb focusing on the amount of energy inputted and outputted by both lamps. We can see in the diagram the idea that energy ‘spreads out’; with friction as a mechanism that transfers energy in unwanted ways; and to have data if not to measure the efficiencies of a range of electrical devices. In the case of vehicle engines, only 13% of the energy released by burning gasoline is converted to work done moving the car. The rest of the energy becomes heat, wears away engine parts, moves air around the car, and is spent in other ways that do not result in work done by the wheels. Efficiency is a measure of how successful we are at transferring the energy deliberately the way we want to transfer it. Efficiency is a measure of machine’s energy effectiveness: the ratio of the amount of energy used by a machine to the amount of work done by it. For example, the measurement of the amount of heat produced per unit of fuel when all the fuel has been burned is a measure of a heating unit’s efficiency.After firming up your understanding on energy transfer, you have to deepen yourunderstanding by doing the following activities.
DEEPEN Your UnderstandingHere, you shall be engaged in understanding scientific knowledge which includes theprocessing and making meanings out of the information. You need to reflect, revisit,revise and rethink your ideas; express your understandings and engage in meaningfulself-evaluation; and undergo an in-depth exploration of energy and related concepts.Activity 1: Plan of Action or Designing an Energy Resource for the CommunityWrite a plan of action or design of an energy resource you for your community to have.Justify.Show how you will contribute to conserve energy.Activity 2: Guidelines for Efficient Use of Alternative Energy Resources and Standard Energy-Compliant Appliances/Vehicles.Assume the role of a policymaker, write five (5) policy guidelines for the efficient use ofalternative energy sources and standard energy-compliant appliances and/or vehicles.Summative EvaluationDirections: Choose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answers on a separate sheet.1. When energy is converted from one form to another, what is usually produced? a. chemical energy c. heat b. gravity d. potential energy2. Energy is always transferred through heat from a. an object with lower specific heat to one with a higher specific heat b. a cooler object to a warmer object c. an object with a higher specific heat to one with a lower specific heat d. a warmer object to a cooler object3. The average kinetic energy of particles in an object can be measured by its a. heat c. calories b. thermal energy d. temperature4. What is the zero point in the Celsius scale? a. the freezing point of pure water b. the boiling point of pure water
c. the freezing point of mercury d. the boiling point of alcohol5. How is energy transferred by convection? a. by direct contact between objects b. by electromagnetic waves c. by movements of groups of particles in gases or liquids d. by movements of groups of particles in solid objects6. The total kinetic energy of particles in an object is a. heat c. calories b. thermal energy d. temperature7. Water requires more energy than an equal mass of iron for its temperature to increase because water has a greater a. thermal energy c. temperature b. specific heat d. kinetic energy8. Energy from the sun travels to earth through which process? a. temperature c. radiation b. conduction d. convection9. An insulator keeps a home warm by a. slowing the transfer of cold particles from outside to inside. b. increasing the specific heat of air inside. c. slowing the transfer of energy from inside to outside. d. increasing the thermal energy of the walls.10. Conduction is the transfer of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object through a. a vacuum c. direct contact b. a gas d. empty spaceNow that you have gained a better understanding on energy transfer, you are nowready to for the next level- transferring what you have learned. TRANSFER Your UnderstandingThis part will let you transfer your learning in new settings and use this creatively togenerate new ideas, view things differently and reengineers processes. You shall beinvolved in designing, constructing, planning, producing new knowledge and/orinventing products which can contribute to the protection of the environment andsustainable use of resources.Activity: Wise Use of Energy and Energy Sources
Identify five (5) relevant, comprehensive, and creative or innovative activity on wise useof energy and its alternative sources; and evaluate their product/performance.Resources: (Web sites, Software, etc.) Hewitt, Paul G. et.al. 1994 Conceptual Physical Science. Harper Collins College Publishers: New York Littell, McDougal. 2005. Science. Integrated Course I. Houghton Mifflin CompanyAnswer KeyPre-Assessment: 1.a, 2.b, 3.a, 4.e, 5.e, 6.c, 7.d, 8.d, 9.c, 10.bSummative Evaluation: 1.a, 2.d, 3.d, 4.a, 5.c, 6.b, 7.b, 8.c, 9.c, 10.c
Alternate activity for -B. Which substance change temperature faster? Activity: What Substance Change Temperature Faster Materials: crayon cravings, 2 index cards, candle, match Procedure: 1. Light the candle with the match. 2. Hold the index card over the lighted candle. It will catch fire. (Keep a pail of water nearby to put out the fire.) 3. Get another index card and put crayon cravings over it. 4. Hold the index card over the lighted candle making sure the crayon cravings is on top of the flame of the candle. 5. Remove the card after the wax is melted. Observe and think. Why do you think the second card did not burn ahead of the crayon cravings?C. How can you observe a flow of energy? Activity: Flow of Energy Materials: copper rod, crayon cravings, candle, match Procedure: 1. Place a small amount of crayon cravings at various spots on the copper rod 2. Heat one end of the rod with the lighted candle. Observe and think. How does heat behave when the rod is heated on one end? Gr4-using the concept of 5 Rs--reduce recycle repair recover reuse