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  • 1. INTEGRATED SCIENCEQuarter 1 The Scientific Method and MatterModule 2 Matter, Its Properties and ChangesYou will study the following topics in this module:Lesson 1 – Properties, Changes and Classification of MatterLesson 2 - Beneficial Effects of Physical and Chemical Changes on Health andEnvironment EXPLORE Your UnderstandingIn this phase, you will be given an overview of matter, its properties and changes.You will be assessed based on your understanding of matter gained from elementaryscience.Pre-AssessmentChoose the letter of the correct answer. Write your answer in your notebook.1. Which of the following is an example of matter? a) energy b) fire c) heat d) sound2. Which is a chemical change? a) boiling water b) chopping of wood c) melting of ice cream d) souring of milk 1
  • 2. 3. Jeff placed some mothballs inside the cabinet. After some days the mothballs disappeared. What happened to the mothballs? a) It dissolved in the presence of air. b) It evaporated. c) It was replaced with air inside the cabinet. d) It sublimed.4. Iron bar is a solid material. This is due to: a) The particles are far from each other. b) The particles are very close to each other. c) The particles have a definite shape. d) The particles have mass.5. The following are all properties of matter. Which one determines the phase of matter? a) arrangement of the particles b) density of particles c) mass of the particles d) all of the aboveFor items 6-10, classify if physical change or chemical change. 6. melting of ice 7. rusting of iron 8. spoiling of foods 9. making of leather shoes 10. dyeing of hair 2
  • 3. KWL Chart Before you begin with the next part of this module, fill in the first two columns. Fill in the last column after completing the module. Write the answers in you notebook. MatterWhat I know What I want to know What I learnedYou have just finished the first phase of this module. As you proceed to the nextactivities, think of a product output that will enable you to show your understandingon matter. This product will be presented in the last part of this module which will beassessed based on the following criteria:(a) innovativeness,(b) marketability,(c) replicability, (d) cost effectiveness,(d) manifestation of changes in matter, and(e) benefits to one’s health and the environmentAs you proceed with the rest of the activities, always have this question in your mind,“How can my understanding of the changes in properties of matter becomebeneficial?”Your understanding of changes in properties of matter will be increased as you studythe lessons and perform the activities in the FIRM UP phase. 3
  • 4. FIRM UP Your UnderstandingIn this phase, varied learning experiences shall be introduced to help you understandmatter and equip you with skills and knowledge for you to be successful throughoutthe topic. This involves acquiring scientific knowledge through varied source ofinformation focusing on matter, its properties and changes. This also involvesunderstanding or making meanings out of the scientific knowledge obtained.Lesson I: Properties, Changes and Classification of MatterMatter Matter is a term used to describe anything that has mass and takes up space.States of MatterThere are three states of matter (four, if youcount plasma).Solids - fixed shape and volumeLiquids - fairly fixed volume, but shapevaries with containerGases - both volume and shape are variablePlasma - ionized gas - both volume andshape are variable Change of phases of matter Solid Liquid Gas Plasma 4
  • 5. Activity 1.1Provide the following materials:  corn kernels  match box1. Fill the match box with corn kernels. Shake the box. Describe the movement of the kernels in the box._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Of the phases of matter, which arrangement of particles does it resemble?_____________________________________________________________2. Empty the box. Then put 20 corn kernels in it. Shake the box.Describe the movement of the kernels in the box._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Of the phases of matter, which arrangement of particles does it resemble?_____________________________________________________________3. This time, just place three corn kernels in the box and then shake.Describe the movement of the kernels in the box._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Of the phases of matter, which arrangement of particles does it resemble?___________________________________________________________________4. What conclusion can you make from the results of the activity ?______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Activity 1.21. Classify the following as solid, liquid or gas. a. stone b. oxygen c. tree d. mayonnaise e. mango juice 5
  • 6. 2. How will you explain the differences in the motion of particles of the phases of matter?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. Can you explain why solids and liquids have high densities while gases have low densities?_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Matter can be divided into two categories:  Substances  MixturesSubstances (or pure substances)Substances cannot be separated into different types of matter by any physicalmeans. Atoms in a pure substance can be separated only by chemical changes. Elements are pure substances that are made of only one type of matter. The smallest possible particle of an element is called an atom. Examples: Silver, copper, oxygen, carbon (as diamond orgraphite), sulfur, etc.Compounds are composed of more than one type of matter. The differentsubstances cannot be separated without changing thesubstance.The smallest possible particle of a compound thatretains the properties of a compound is called amolecule.Examples:Pure water (H2O).Pure sucrose or sugar (C6H12O6).Quartz (SiO2). 6
  • 7. Activity 1.3Reminder: Please read the procedure carefully before starting with the activity.Don’t forget to answer the guide questions in your notebook.Materials needed: water table salt two glasses spoon casseroleWhat to do:1. Pour water into the glasses.2. Label the glasses as glass A and glass B.3. Put a pinch of salt in glass A and then stir.4. Put one tablespoon of salt in glass B. Compare the appearance of glass A and glass B. Are their appearances the same?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________5. Pour the contents of glass A into the casserole and then heat. Continue heating until the mixture dries up. (Note: Remove the casserole from the flame before the mixture dries up completely!) Observe.Describe the substance that is left on the casserole._______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________If you are going to heat the contents of glass B, will you be able to recover the samesubstance that you have recovered from glass A? Can you name the substance?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________6. Clean the casserole, then put a little amount of water in it. Heat the water. Observe.Caution: Be careful when heating substances. Do not heat substances not includedin the procedure. Do not leave the casserole while it is being heated. 7
  • 8. Guide Questions: 1. What do you think is happening to the water while you are heating it? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 2. Upon mixing salt and water through stirring, can you still see the particles of salt? Why or why not? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________MixturesA mixture is a material made up of two or more substances. Mixtures are composedof more than one kind of matter, or more than one pure substance. Composition canvary between different samples. Pure substances in the mixture can be physicallyseparated from each other by physical changes.There are two types of mixtures:Homogeneous mixtures - A homogeneous mixture has two or more substances in it, but you cannot see them. They appear to be the same throughout. They may not look like mixtures but, if tested, they can be found to be composed of more than one type of substance. Examples: Cake batter (which is a mixture of butter, eggs, sugar, and flour), soft drinks, salt water, sugar water, tap water, and brass (which is a mixture of copper and zinc). Salt water (or sugar water) would be a homogeneous mixture since you cannot actually see the salt in the water. A homogeneousmixture is sometimes called a solution.Heterogeneous mixtures - A heterogeneous mixture has two or more substancesin it, and you can see what is inside of it. Different samplesare not necessarily the same. These are easy to spotbecause they look like mixtures. They are clearly composedof more than one type of matter, and contain regions withdifferent properties.Mixtures can be separated into different types of matter bysome physical means, such as  sorting,  filtering,  heating,  cooling,  freezing, 8
  • 9.  melting,  evaporation,  settling, etc.Examples: Trail mix (which is a mixture of raisins, peanuts, and chocolate candy m &ms), crunchy peanut butter, chocolate chip cookies, vegetable soup, spaghettisauce, concrete, granite, raisin bran.Heterogeneous mixtures that are liquid can be subdivided into two types: colloidsand suspensions.A colloid consists of solid particles in a liquid. These particles are usually very small,often less than 0.01 mm in diameter. A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture in whichthe contents do not settle over a long time. They tend to stay combined together.Paint, orange juice, ketchup, and most salad dressings are colloids.A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which the contents settle over a shortperiod of time. Some examples of this may be muddy water or Italian salad dressing.Activity 1.4Match the following with their proper classification by writing the letter of the correctmatch in your notebook._______ 1. Orange Juice A. Element_______ 2. Apple Juice B. Compound_______ 3. Granite Rock C. Homogeneous Mixture_______ 4. Milk D. Heterogeneous Mixture_______ 5. Salt Water_______ 6. Carbon Dioxide_______ 7. Oxygen_______ 8. Air_______ 9. Water 9
  • 10. Questions 1. Differentiate element from a compound. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. How do you separate salt from saltwater? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 3. Is chocolate chip cookie an example of homogenous mixture? Why or why not? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________Physical and Chemical Properties of MatterPhysical properties: Properties that describe the look or feel of a substance.Examples:  Color  Hardness  Density  Texture  Shape  Size  Phase (solid, liquid, gas)Chemical properties: Properties that relate to the ability of a substance to react withother substances, or to transform from one substance to another. The chemicalproperties of a substance relate to its chemical composition and the way the atomsin the molecules are chemically bonded together.Examples:  Iron will rust.  Methane in natural gas will react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and heat energy.  Baking soda will react with vinegar to produce carbon dioxide and water. 10
  • 11. Physical and Chemical Changes in MatterPhysical change is a change in form of asubstance without a change in its identity. Asubstance may change in phase (solid, liquid,or gas), or it may change in some otherphysical property, but its chemical compositiondoes not change.Examples:  Boiling of water (liquid water, ice and steam are just the liquid, solid and gas forms of H2O)  Freezing of water to form ice  Chewing of food  Sharpening of a pencil  Crystallization of sugar from a sugar solution  Melting of goldActivity 1.5Materials needed:  ice  two glasses  sugar  old newspaper  clayA. Crumple the old newspaper and then cut it into small pieces. Is the crumpled paper still the old newspaper? ______________________ Did you change the composition of the newspaper when you cut it into pieces? ____________________________________________________B. Get some clay. Mold it into different shapes. Did you change the composition of the clay when you molded it into different shapes? _____________________________________________C. Put some ice in a clean glass. Examine it every 3 minutes for half an hour. Describe what happens to the ice. __________________________________D. Place a pinch of salt in a glass of water. What happens to the salt? ________________________________________ 11
  • 12. As you have noticed, the following changes have happened in the different parts ofthe activity:(A) There was a change in the size and shape of the old newspaper.(B) There was a change in the size and shape of the clay.(C) There was a change in the phase of matter. From solid, it turned into liquid.(D) There was change in the phase of salt. From solid, it dissolved into a liquid solution.Thus, the observations suggest that changes in matter described in the activity areall physical changes.Remember also that all phase changes are just physical changes. It thereforefollows that the processes of evaporation, condensation, melting, sublimation,freezing and deposition are just physical changes.On the other hand, chemical change involves a change or alteration in thecomposition of matter thus it is further characterized by the formation of a newsubstance.Chemical change is a change in the identity or chemical makeup of a substance. Achange that involves a rearrangement of the way atoms are bonded is a chemicalchange.Examples:  Digestion of food  Combustibility = The ability to react with oxygen (e.g., burning a candle or a match, burning of fuel). Methane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water  Electrolysis of water (breaking up water into hydrogen and oxygen)  Reactivity = The ability to be changed chemically because of a reaction with another chemical substance, such as the development of a gas (e.g., from the reaction of vinegar and baking soda)  Formation of a precipitate (e.g., silver nitrate and salt water, or cooling a solution of sodium nitrate and water)  Change in color (such as burning toast, or reaction of bleaching agent to colored cloth, or cooking of an egg)  Oxidation (or rusting) of steel wool in water 12
  • 13. Activity 1.6Materials needed:  vinegar  baking soda  match  piece of paper (a small one!)  glass  spoonA. Half fill the glass with vinegar. Then, place one tablespoon of baking soda.Describe what happens when vinegar was mixed with baking soda._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________B. Burn the small piece of paper. Note: Do this outside your house and in an open space.Describe what happens to the paper._________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Let us discuss the results of the activity.In Part A, vinegar did not dissolve the baking soda. There was actually a chemicalchange that happened between the two that resulted to the formation of some newsubstances. One of the substances is carbon dioxide gas. Notice that thecomposition of carbon dioxide is not the same as vinegar and baking soda. Thisindicates that the change resulted to a change in the composition and, as such, itcould be identified as a chemical change.How do we know that carbon dioxide is produced? Did you observe the formation ofbubbles? The bubbles indicate that a gas is being evolved. Evolution of gas is one ofthe signs or evidences of a chemical change.Part B involves burning of paper. Notice that, after burning, you no longer have thepaper. What you have are ashes! Is the composition of ashes the same as paper?No, they are not the same! Thus, burning of paper is a chemical change. Otherevidences of chemical change include the production of heat and light, and theseare observed in the burning of paper. 13
  • 14. Activity 1.7Identify whether the given processes have undergone physical or chemical change.Give a reason for your answer. Physical or Processes Chemical Reason Changebreaking a boneslicing potatoes for friesfrying chickenpaper rippingfood molding (rotting)souring of milkcharcoal heating a grillautumn leaves changingcolora hot glass cracking whenplaced in cold watermelting copper metal 14
  • 15. Activity 1.8A. Directions: Identify whether the given process indicates physical property orchemical property. Write the letter of your answer inside the ray of the star.Note: The answers for each star may not always be in equivalent with the number ofrays. Answers can be more or less than five. Analyze your answers carefully. Physical Chemical Property Property a) Water boils at 100 degrees e) Vinegar will react with baking Celsius. soda. b) Diamonds can be used for f) Yeast acts on sugar to form cutting glass. carbon dioxide and ethanol. c) Water can be separated by g) Wood is flammable. electrolysis into hydrogen and h) Aluminum has a low density. oxygen. i) Ammonia is a gas at room d) Sugar is capable of dissolving in temperature. water. j) Bromine has a red color.Lesson 2 - Beneficial Effects of Physical and Chemical Changes onHealth and EnvironmentAfter firming up your understanding on scientific method, you have to deepen yourunderstanding by doing the following activities.Now that you have learned the important concepts on physical and chemical changeof matter, you may be wondering about their importance in your life. Read the tablebelow and study the health and environmental benefits of changes in matter. 15
  • 16. Changes in Matter Process Health Benefit Benefit to the EnvironmentPhysical change Freezing of water Ice can be used to Reservoir of fresh to form ice reduce swelling water for future (by decreasing consumption. blood flow) and pain by pressing it against affected area of the body.Chemical change Digestion of food Nutrients from Solid human food will be wastes can be absorbed by the used as organic body. fertilizer.Activity 2.1Copy the table below in your notebook and fill in the blank cells. Changes in Process Health Benefit Benefit to the matter EnvironmentPhysical change Boiling of water Making copper wire from copper ore Melting of metalChemical Combination ofchange sodium and chlorine to form table salt breaking up water into hydrogen and oxygen Drying of leavesGuide Questions: 1. How would you know if matter undergoes physical or chemical change? Give examples. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 16
  • 17. 2. Are changes in matter important? Why? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________After firming up your understanding on matter, you have to deepen yourunderstanding by doing the following activities. DEEPEN Your Understanding Now that you have gained a better understanding of matter, you are now ready for the next level. To enhance further your knowledge and skills for a more meaningful study, do thefollowing in your notebook.1. Make a short essay on changes in properties of matter that are beneficial or harmful in your community.2. Identify or classify which changes in matter are beneficial or harmful in society as a whole.3. Write how you feel about the effects of commercially available products (organic and inorganic fertilizers used in farming, cyanide used in fishing) on health and environment.4. Connect/relate your present understanding of concepts learned on changes in properties of matter to your future career.Summative Test:Answer each item in your notebook. Do not write anything on the module. Choosethe letter of the best answer to the question.1. The following are all matter except one; which one? a) Radio b) Television set c) Sound d) Fire 17
  • 18. 2. Burning wood is a chemical change. Breaking bone is a physical change. a) Both statements are true. b) Both statements are false. c) The first statement is true while the second is false. d) The second statement is true while the first is false.3. Evaporation is a phase change from a) gas  liquid b) liquid  solid c) liquid  gas d) solid  gas4. Which is an example of chemical change? a) dissolving salt in water b) fermentation of fish c) melting of ice cream d) mixing coffee powder and hot water5. Dynamite fishing is prohibited by law because a) It harms the fisherman. b) It poisons the people who will eat the fish. c) It pollutes the water and living organisms. d) All of the aboveFor items 6-10, classify if physical change or chemical change. 6. Crystallization of sugar from a sugar solution 7. Digestion of food 8. Formation of a precipitate 9. Melting of gold 10. Oxidation (or rusting) of steel wool in waterNow that you have gained a better understanding of scientific processes andmethods, you are now ready for the next level- transferring what you have learned. 18
  • 19. TRANSFER Your Understanding This part will let you transfer your learning in new settings and use this creatively to generate new ideas, view things differentlyand reengineer processes. You shall be involved in designing, constructing,planning, producing new knowledge and/or inventing product which can contribute tothe promotion of good health and protection of the environment. 1. You will develop a product based on your interest that is beneficial to health and the environment. For example, preparation of homemade stain removers which come from natural sources; preparation of nata de coco, fish sauce (patis), virgin coconut oil, bagoong, vinegar, catsup from banana/tomato, burger from banana peelings, etc. 2. Use the table below as your guide when you plan out the product that you will do. Present this project plan to your teacher and ask for feedback or suggestion.Name of Product:Product description: Health Benefits: a. b. c.Ingredients / Procedure:Materials used: Benefits to the Environment: a. b. c. 19
  • 20. Your product will be assessed based on the following criteria:(a) innovativeness, (d) manifestation of changes in matter,(b) marketability, and(c) replicability, (e) benefits to one’s health and the (d) cost effectiveness, environmentCongratulations!You have finished module # 2. And you are now ready to proceed to the nextmodule. 20
  • 21. Answer key:Pre-Assessment Summative Test 1. B 1. C 2. D 2. A 3. D 3. C 4. B 4. D 5. D 5. B 6. Physical change 6. Physical change 7. Chemical change 7. Chemical change 8. Chemical change 8. Chemical change 9. Physical change 9. Physical change 10. Chemical change 10. Chemical changeReferences/ Weblink:http://www.answers.com/topic/properties-of-matterhttp://www.buzzle.com/articles/physical-properties-of-matter.htmlhttp://www.chem1.com/acad/webtext/pre/matter.htmlhttp://www.clipartguide.com 21