Top-down process refers to using schemata to derive meaning from and interpret the message. It refers to the attribution of meaning, drawn from one’s own knowledge to language input. It requires the prediction of meaning by using context clues and combining them with background knowledge. Bottom-up process refers to deriving the meaning of the text based on the incoming language data, from sounds, words, grammatical relationships, to meaning.
Listening is a spoken discourse and spokendiscourse has very different characteristicsfrom written discourse, and thesedifferences can add a number of dimensionsto our understanding of how we processspeech. For example, spoken discourse isusually instantaneous. The listener mustprocess it “online” and there is often nochance to listen to it again (Richard,2008)
Listening is vital in the language classroombecause it provides input for the learner.Without understanding input at the rightlevel, any learning simply cannot begin.Listening is thus fundamental to speaking(Nunan,1997)
They are trying to understand every word They get left behind trying to work out what a previous word meant They just dont know the most important words They dont recognize the words that they know They have problems with different accents They lack listening stamina/ they get tired They are distracted by background noise They cant cope with not having images They have hearing problems
Question and Answers by LG Alexander Practice and Progress by LG Alexander Listen In by David Nunan Listening by Adrian Doff www.esl-lab.com
Inspectur Robert Jones is a detective. He lives near a library. Inspectur Jones is in the library now. He is talking to Miss Green. Miss Green is the Librarian.Inspectur Jones : Good Morning, Miss GreenMiss Green : Good Morning, Inspector. Can I help you?Inspector Jones : Yes you can. I am looking for a good book.Miss Green : This is a good book, Inspector.Inspector Jones : What is it?Miss Green : It’s a detective storyInspector Jones : Good! I like detective stories. What’s the murderer’s name?Miss Green : I can’t tell you that, Inspector. I am a librarian. I am not detective
Last week I went to the theatre. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting. I did not enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were talking loudly. I could not hear the actors. I turned round. I looked at the man and the woman angrily. They did not pay any attention. In the end, I could not bear it. I turned round again. I can’t hear a word! I said angrily.It’s none of your business, the young man said rudely. This a private conversation.
You will hear a piece of music. What images come into your mind as you listen to it? Write down the word that represent what you see in your mind.
Um.. an old man is __________ at the table and on the table and on the table there are five or six __________ and er… there’s a small boy at the far side on the table, um, who is p_________ s_________, not __________, but __________ and looking up __________ the table but we can only see __________ of his face and he’s looking at the old man, um. The old man is __________ a __________ and he’s __________ himself to some rice which is in a __________ which he is __________ and in the __________ on the table there is also some rice. The old man is, is er .. is __________ a hat, r_________ l_________ hat, black, um, and, er, a __________, of some sort. I think this is in __________, Chine, __________, um, _________ _ or somewhere like that.
Give me freedom, give me fire, give me reason, take me higher See the champions, take the field now, you define us, make us feel proud In the streets are, exaliftin , as we lose our inhabition, Celebration its around us, every nation, all around us When I get older I will be stronger They’ll call me freedom Just like a wavin’ flag And then it goes back And then it goes back