Multicast routing algorithms for mobile ad-hoc networks have been extensively researched in the recent ...

Multicast routing algorithms for mobile ad-hoc networks have been extensively researched in the recent

past. In this paper, we present two algorithms for dealing with multicast routing problem using the notion

of virtual forces. We look at the effective force exerted on a packet and determine whether a node could be

considered as a Steiner node. The nodes' location information is used to generate virtual circuits

corresponding to the multicast route. QoS parameters are taken into consideration in the form of virtual

dampening force. The first algorithm produces relatively minimal multicast trees under the set of

constraints. We improve upon the first algorithm and present a second algorithm that provides

improvement in average residual energy in the network as well as effective cost per data packet

transmitted. In this paper, the virtual-force technique has been applied for multicast routing for the first

time in mobile ad-hoc networks.

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