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Strong6 ppt ch05-07-23-09-13-44


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    • 1. Chapter 5Gender and Gender Roles
    • 2. Sex, Gender, and GenderRoles Sex: whether one is biologically female, male, or intersex – Genetic sex: chromosomal and hormonal sex characteristics – Anatomical sex: our physical sex; gonads, uterus, vulva, vagina, or penis Gender: social and cultural characteristics associated with being male or female Gender identity: gender one believes self to be
    • 3. Sex and Gender Identity Assigned gender – Based on anatomical appearance Gender variations – Fafafine, GID Gender identity – Internalized feeling of femaleness or maleness Gender role – The attitudes, behaviors, rights, and responsibilities that society associates with each sex – Influenced by culture, age, ethnicity, other factors
    • 4. Gender-Roles Gender-role stereotype: – A rigidly-held oversimplified belief concerning all males or all females Gender-role attitude: – The belief one has for self and others concerning what’s appropriate for male or female traits Gender-role behavior: – Activities or behaviors a person engages in as a female or male
    • 5. Masculinity and Femininity Sexes seen as polar opposites in traditional Western view, e.g. “opposite sex” Different qualities associated with different genders Sexism Some qualities are biologically based, some culturally based (biopsychosocial) – Arapesh of New Guinea
    • 6. Gender and SexualOrientation Gender, gender identity, and gender role are conceptually independent of sexual orientation – However, many assume they are closely related – Heterosexuality has been assumed to be part of masculinity and femininity  Therefore, some believe that gay men can’t be masculine and lesbian women can’t be feminine.
    • 7. Gender and SexualOrientation Studies show a link between individuals’ – Negative attitudes towards gay and lesbian people – And those individuals’ adherence to traditional gender roles
    • 8. Gender Theory What is our relationship between our biological sex as male or female and our gender role as masculine or feminine? Do we act the way we act because our gender role is bred in us or because of socialization? Gender Theory developed as a field in the ’80s and ’90s to explore the role of gender in society
    • 9. Gender Theory inPsychology In psychology, gender theory focuses on: – How gender is created and what its purposes are – How specific traits, behaviors, and roles are defined as male or female – How gender creates advantages and disadvantages Gender theory rejects the idea that gender differences are primarily biologically-driven Operates from a social-constructivist framework
    • 10. Theories of Socialization Social learning theory Cognitive development theory
    • 11. Cognitive Social Learning Theory Emphasizes consequences as shaping gender related behavior Cognition: Mental processes such as evaluation and reflection – Includes ability to use language – Anticipate consequences – Make observations – Modeling
    • 12. Cognitive DevelopmentTheory Focuses on children’s active interpretation of gender messages at various developmental stages After age 6 or 7, motivation to act like one’s gender is primarily internal or intrinsic Gender is used to understand social situations and interact
    • 13. Social Construction Theory Queer Theories and Feminism Gender expression is an outcome of – Power – Language – Meaning Relationship to sexual orientation – Women – Men
    • 14. Gender-Role Learning:Childhood andAdolescence Parents as socializing agents – Manipulation – Channeling – Verbal appellation – Activity exposure – Connections between sons and mothers – Ethnic groups
    • 15. Gender-Role Learning:Childhood andAdolescence Teachers as Socializing agents – Females are more common – Bias in presentation of topics – Conventional Peers as socializing agents – Play – Approval – Perceptions Media
    • 16. Gender Schemas:Exaggerating Differences Interrelated ideas which help information processing Cognitive organization of world by gender Emphasize dichotomy Minimize valuing of the individual – labels
    • 17. Contemporary GenderRoles Women’s roles have changed Men’s roles have changed Must include diverse groups Egalitarian approach to gender roles
    • 18. Traditional Male GenderRole Aggressiveness  Power orientation Emotional  Competitiveness toughness  Dominance Independence  Violence Feelings of superiority Decisiveness
    • 19. Traditional Male SexualScripts: Zilbergeld –Men should not have or express certain feelings –Performance is the only thing that counts –The man is in charge –A man always wants sex and is ready for it –All physical contact leads to sex –Sex equals intercourse –Sexual intercourse leads to orgasm SEPARATION OF SEX, LOVE, ATTACHMENT
    • 20. TraditionalFemale Gender Role There are striking ethnic differences in female role – American middle-class Whites: women as wives and mothers. Recently includes work outside the home – African Americans: more egalitarian roles for men and women – Latinas: women subordinate to men out of respect; Gender role affected by age
    • 21. Traditional Female SexualScripts: Barbach Sex is good and bad It’s not okay to touch yourself “down there” Sex is for men Men should know what women want Women shouldn’t talk about sex Women should look like models Women are nurturers: they give, men receive There is only one right way to have an orgasm
    • 22. Changing Gender Roles – Egalitarian position – Androgyny: flexibility in gender roles, combining elements of each traditional role
    • 23. Contemporary Sexual Scripts Sexual expression is positive Sexual activities involve a mutual exchange of erotic pleasure Sexuality is equally involving, and both partners are equally responsible Legitimate sexual activities are not limited to intercourse but also include masturbation and oral-genital sex Sexual activities may be initiated by either partner Both partners have a right to experience orgasm, whether through intercourse, oral- genital sex, or manual stimulation Non-marital sex is acceptable within a relationship context
    • 24. Androgyny Unique combination Combination or instrumental and expressive traits Difficulties with expression and expectation
    • 25. When Sex is Ambiguous Intersexuality – born with not typical Male or Female anatomy – Chromosomal, Hormonal, Unknown Origin Transexuality – related to GID or body not the same as internal gender Transgenderism- cross dressing as other gender
    • 26. Intersexuality Describes people who possess mixtures of male and female genitalia or reproductive physiology Prevalence ranges from .0128% to 1.7% of population. Known until recently as “hermaphrodites” Shrouded in secrecy by families and medical establishments in the past
    • 27. Intersexuality Hermaphrodites: Old terminology Ambiguous genitals: 1/2000 births Blended gonads or both gonads One ovary and one testis, or testes containing ovarian tissue – Known until recently as “hermaphrodites”
    • 28. Chromosomal Anomalies: TurnerSyndrome Females who lack a chromosome: XO rather than XX Occurs in 1/1666 live births Female external appearance No ovaries Hormonal therapy Assisted fertility
    • 29. Chromosomal Anomalies:Klinefelter Syndrome Males who have extra X chromosomes: XXY, XXXY, or XXXXY rather than XY Occurs in 1/1000 live births Variable effects; many men never diagnosed. Small firm testes; some female physical traits Lower testosterone levels
    • 30. Hormonal Disorders:Androgen-InsensitivitySyndrome Inherited condition occurring in 1/13,000 individuals Genetic males whose tissues to not respond to testosterone Female genitals, no female internal organs At puberty, develops hips and breasts, no pubic hair and no menstruation Many experience female gender identity
    • 31. Hormonal Disorders: CongenitalAdrenal Hyperplasia A genetic female with ovaries and a vagina develops externally as a male Due to malfunctioning of adrenal gland Occurs in 1/13,000 live births – At birth, child has ambiguous genitalia – In the past, doctors and families choose to assign female gender at birth
    • 32. Hormonal Disorders: DHTDeficiency Internal male organs Clitoris-like penis at birth Undescended testes at birth Testes descend at puberty and penis grows Socialization
    • 33. A Related Condition:Hypospadias Urethral opening located at non traditional location Urethra exists on underside of glans midway through the underside of the shaft or at the base of the scrotum Occurs in 1/770 male births Repair is possible
    • 34. Gender IdentityDisorder Defined by the APA as a strong and persistent cross-gender identification and persistent discomfort about one’s assigned sex (2000) Diagnosis not associated as hormonal or physiological Requires experience of distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning
    • 35. Gender Identity Disorder– The goal of treatment for people with GID is “lasting personal comfort with the gendered self”– Treatment is individual and multifaceted; can affirm cross-gender identification through:  Psychotherapy  Real-life experience living externally as desired gender  Hormonal therapy  Sex-reassignment surgery
    • 36. Transsexuality Gender identity and sexual anatomy are not congruent Prevalence of transsexuality unknown: estimated 1/50,000 people over 15 yrs May occur with heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual orientations Gender reassignment
    • 37. Transsexual Phenomenon Transgender community embraces possibility of numerous genders and multiple social identities Other cultures recognize more than 2 genders Paradigm shift of gender dichotomy Employment protection