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Strong6 ppt ch02 Strong6 ppt ch02 Presentation Transcript

  • Studying Human Sexuality
  •  The sex information/advice genre seeks to:  Inform—transmit information that is factual and accurate  Entertain—attract audiences through hosts’ personalities as well as high-interest or bizarre material Often includes moral judgments Use social science and psychiatry to give authority
  •  Popular media may summarize social science research in an oversimplified or distorted manner  Sensationalize findings  Over generalize results of research  Report statistics that agree with widely-held preconceptions Popular media may not emphasize the importance of replication
  •  Basic scientific principles require a commitment to objectivity  observation of reality while excluding researchers’ feelings or beliefs Subjectivity is to be avoided  Difficult to achieve especially in the area of sexuality  Sexuality can bring out powerful emotions and moral ambivalence
  •  Do not tell us what motivates people Do not tell us how frequently people behave in a given way Do not tell us how people feel Only tell us how we ourselves feel Value judgments cannot be empirically evaluated Value judgments imply how a person ought to behave Value judgments only reveal the thoughts or feelings of one person
  •  Objectivity describes reality Objective positions can be tested Cultural relativity requires that we examine appropriateness within the cultural norms where it exists Objective statements describe how people actually behave Objective statements can be empirically evaluated
  •  Opinions are unsubstantiated beliefs or conclusions according to an individual’s personal thoughts Biases are personal leanings or inclinations Stereotypes are sets of overgeneralized beliefs about an individual, a group, or an idea, etc.
  •  A schema is a way of organizing information which often underlies stereotypes Sexual stereotyping is often used to justify discrimination or social groups  Women  Poor people  African Americans, Latino/as, Asian Americans  Gay men, lesbians, bisexuals, transgender people
  •  Stereotypes structure our knowledge by shaping:  What we see  What we notice  What we remember  How we explain things
  •  Attitude: a predisposition a person has to act, think, or feel in certain ways Behavior: the way a person acts Behavior does not predict attitude and vice versa Frequent discrepancies exist between the two on individual and cultural levels which can result in confusion
  •  Often occur in our consideration of different ethnic groups Transmitted from one generation to another Prevent understanding from a culturally relative position Fallacy: an error in reasoning that affects our understanding of a subject  Egocentric fallacy: the belief that our own personal experience and values are generally held by others  Ethnocentric fallacy: the belief that one’s own ethnic group, nation, or culture’s values and customs are innately superior to others’
  •  Scientific Method: the method by which a hypothesis is formed from impartially gathered data and tested empirically.  Induction: drawing a general conclusion from specific facts  Seeks to describe the world rather than to evaluate or judge it
  •  Ethical  Concerns use of human beings as subjects of research Methodological  Concerns center on information-gathering techniques and accuracy  A representative sample of people is necessary to draw accurate conclusions
  •  Informed consent  Fulldisclosure of purpose, risk, benefits  Agreement to participate may be withdrawn Protection from harm  Emotional distress must be avoided  Identity of subjects must be confidential
  •  Sample: a portion of a larger group of people are observed or studied Inferences are made to the larger group Good samples are: Random Representative Unbiased
  •  Depend on volunteers or clients Takes place at universities or colleges with student volunteers Some ethnic groups are underrepresented Gay men, lesbian women, bisexual and transgendered people may not be publicly identified
  •  An in-depth examination of an individual or group that comes to a specialist for assistance with disorders and problems Limited by an emphasis on pathological behavior Shaped by cultural definitions of what is pathological
  •  Questionnaires  Administered quickly  Forced choice allows many formats Interviews  Allow more information to be gathered  Allow subjects to guide topics Sexual diaries  Collect richer information  May work well with some subjects but not all
  •  Subjects may report self behavior with bias Interviewers may collect information with a bias Subjects may be embarrassed in an interview Accuracy of subjects’ memory fades as time passes Difficult for subjects to accurately estimate factors such as how long sexual encounters last
  •  The researcher unobtrusively observes and makes notes about people’s behavior Serious ethical issues in observing sexual behavior without subjects’ knowledge or consent Known observation generally affects behavior
  •  The researcher participates in the behaviors which she or he is studying Used frequently by anthropologists Is sex research controversial because it compromises objectivity?
  •  The systematic manipulation variables to examine the effect on behavior  Independent variables: factors that can be manipulated and changed by the experimenter  Dependent variables: factors that are likely to be affected by changes in the independent variable
  •  Examine effect of various amounts of alcohol on sexual arousal  Alcohol—independentvariable  Plethysmograph measurement of arousal— dependent variable Causal effect demonstrated
  •  In 19th century, Western sexuality began to be studied from a scientific framework  Fascinated with “pathologies” of sex: fetishism, sadism, masturbation, homosexuality  Since that time, a liberalizing trend in our thinking about sexuality 20th century researchers viewed sexuality more positively Three themes evident in later 20th century sex researchers’ work:  Belief that sexual expression is essential to an individual’s well being  Desire to broaden the range of legitimate sexual activity, including homosexuality  Belief that female sexuality is equal to male sexuality
  •  Psychopathia Sexualis (1886):  A collection of the case histories of fetishists, sadists, masochists, and homosexuals  Invented term sado-masochism and transvestite  Attributed variations in Victorian sexuality to “hereditary taint,” “moral degeneracy,” and masturbation  Brought public attention to sexual behaviors that had never been documented
  •  Dramatically impacted Western ideas Sexuality begins at birth with five-stage development:  Oral stage (birth to 1 year)  Anal stage (age 1-3)  Phallic stage (age 3-5)  Latency stage (age 6-puberty)  Genital stage (puberty onward)
  •  Oedipal Complex: Boy develops sexual desires for mother and fears father Castration anxiety: Fears his father will cut off his penis: castration anxiety Electra complex: Girl develops sexual desire for father and fears mother Penis envy: Girls never acquire the “lost penis” and therefore fail to develop an independent character like that of boys By age 6, boys and girls resolve their complexes by relinquishing their desires for their parents and identifying with their same-sex parent
  •  Freud was pioneering in commitment to science and explorations of the unconscious Over the past generation, his influence among American sex researchers has dwindled  Lack of empiricism  Inadequate description of female development  Questions of relevance to contemporary society In the field of sex research, his work is now primarily of historical interest
  •  One of the first modern affirmers of sexuality Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1897-1910)  Pointed out the relativity of sexual values  Appealed to case studies as well as studies in animal behavior, anthropology, and history  Challenged view that masturbation was abnormal  Documented existence of women’s sexual desires  Reevaluated homosexuality as a congenital condition
  •  The Kinsey Reports  Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948)  Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)  Statistical documentation of American sexual behavior  Showed a significant discrepancy between public standards and actual standards of sexual behavior
  •  Sexual Diversity and Variation  Extraordinary diversity in behaviors of subjects  Many subjects (e.g. 50% of men 28% of women) had sexual experiences with members of the same-sex  1 male participant had an ejaculated 1 time in 30 years vs. another who had 30 ejaculation on average per week Reevaluation of Masturbation  Important for women  Harmless  Pleasurable
  •  Same sex behavior  Labels of “heterosexual” and “homosexual” were inadequate ways of understanding sexual behavior  Devised the “Kinsey Scale” Rejection of normal/abnormal dichotomy  Sexual differences are a matter of degree, not kind  Became an advocate of the tolerance Decline of society
  • Kinsey’s Scale from 0 to 6
  •  Statistical methodology: unrepresentative sampling Emphasis on quantification of sexual behavior Rejection of the psychological dimension (reducing behavior to genital activity)
  •  Human Sexual Response (1966) Detailed the sexual response cycles of hundreds of male and female research subjects Combined clinical observation with direct measurement of genital arousal using electronic devices
  •  Similarity of male and female sexual responses Women achieve orgasms via clitoral stimulation Legitimized female masturbation
  •  Human Sexual Inadequacy (1970)  Argued that sexual problems were not the result of neuroses or personality disorders  Rather, lack of information, poor communication, or relationship conflict contributed  Used behavioral therapy to treat sexual problems with great success
  •  Several large, national, or multi-site sexuality related studies have recently been conducted  The National Health and Social Life Survey (1994)  The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (biannual)  The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (annual)  The National Survey of Family Growth (periodic)  College Alcohol Study (every few years)  Community Intervention Trial for Youth Project
  •  Large scale national sexuality related studies Smaller scale studies Difficulties due to political and social climate Restricted funding
  •  Americans are largely monogamous On average, Americans have sex about once a week Adultery is the exception, not the rule Most Americans rank vaginal intercourse as most preferred activity followed by watching partner undress and then oral sex
  •  Homosexuality less prevalent than originally believed (2.8% males and 1.4% female) Orgasms appear to be the rule for men and the exception for women (29%) Forced sex and the misperception of it remain critical problems 22% of women reported feeling forced vs 3% of males who reported forcing acts 3% of Americans claim never to have had sex
  •  A majority of Americans report experiencing a great deal of diverse sexual activity A small percentage of Americans report experiencing homosexual activity American men report more partners then women A large group of Americans do not report using condoms in the last year
  •  Almost half report having had sexual intercourse Few report having had sexual intercourse with four or more partners Over half report using a condom during their last sexual intercourse One fourth report of sexually active students report using alcohol or drugs during most recent sexual experience
  •  Majority report a new sex partner in the last year Half report experiencing oral sex within the last month Half report experiencing vaginal sex within the last month 7% of men and 4.5% reported anal sex Students do not routinely use condoms Birth control pills and condoms are the most commonly used contraceptive  10.7 reported using the morning after pill
  •  Feminist scholarship  Focus on gender issues  Examines distribution of power in sexual relationships Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender  Focuson personal experience  Examines social and psychological components
  •  Gender is significant Female experience devalued Power is critical in relationships Different methodologies must be incorporated Ethnic diversity must be addressed
  •  Ulriches- born Urnings, feminine Kertbeny- created hetero-homosexual, “manly” Hirschfeld-result of hormones, popularized term homosexuality, 1st gay rights group Hooker- no difference in personality Foucault- society creates sexuality APA 1973 removal of homosexuality as disorder APA 1997 reparative therapy does not work
  •  Expanded definitions of sexuality Intervention based research Accepting and positive representation of sexuality
  •  Global perspective Inclusion of other fields of scientific study
  •  Researchers have begun to recognize differences among ethnic groups Related factors: socioeconomic status, environment, methodology, researcher’s stereotypes
  •  Sexual stereotypes Socioeconomic status Racism Black subcultures
  •  Sexual stereotypes Traditional cultures Catholicism Acculturation
  •  Increase in population Collectivist culture Immigration Sexual stereotypes