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PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTO–CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF  RAKTADUSHTIHAR YOGA
 

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTO–CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF RAKTADUSHTIHAR YOGA

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The Rakta has vital role in the maintenance of health. If Rakta is in proper quantity and having desirable ...

The Rakta has vital role in the maintenance of health. If Rakta is in proper quantity and having desirable
qualities too, it promotes health, improves complexion, strength and vigor. Raktadushtihara Yoga was
formulated to assess its role in the management of Raktadushti. The present study deals with the
standardization of Raktadushtihara Yoga through the Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical standards.
Organoleptic features of coarse powder were within normal range. The pH value was 6.5, water soluble
extract 46.9% w/w, methanol soluble extract 25.9%, ash value 8.73%, loss on drying 9.63% and average
weight was 512 mg. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 2
spots were distinguished at 254 nm.

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    PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTO–CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF  RAKTADUSHTIHAR YOGA PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTO–CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF RAKTADUSHTIHAR YOGA Document Transcript

    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTO–CHEMICAL EVALUATION OF RAKTADUSHTIHAR YOGA Anil D. Avhad*, Vyas HA, Dwivedi RR, Harisha CR, Shukla VJ *PhD scholar, Dept. of Basic Principles, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar Assi. Prof., Dept. of Basic Principles, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar Prof. & Head, Dept. of Basic Principles, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar Head, Pharmacognosy Lab, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar Head, Pharmaceutical chemistry Lab, Institute for post graduate teaching and research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurveda University, Jamnagar ABSTRACT The Rakta has vital role in the maintenance of health. If Rakta is in proper quantity and having desirable qualities too, it promotes health, improves complexion, strength and vigor. Raktadushtihara Yoga was formulated to assess its role in the management of Raktadushti. The present study deals with the standardization of Raktadushtihara Yoga through the Pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical standards. Organoleptic features of coarse powder were within normal range. The pH value was 6.5, water soluble extract 46.9% w/w, methanol soluble extract 25.9%, ash value 8.73%, loss on drying 9.63% and average weight was 512 mg. HPTLC was carried out after organizing appropriate solvent system in which maximum 2 spots were distinguished at 254 nm. Keywords:Rakta, Raktadushtihara Yoga, Pharmacognosy, Physico-chemical analysis, HPTLC. IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 382
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 INTRODUCTION The Rakta (blood) has vital role in the maintenance of health. If Rakta is in proper quantity and having desirable qualities too, it promotes health, improves complexion, strength and vigor. It conducts most vital functions with harmony.1Rakta is a medium to transport and supply nourishment substances. AcharyaVagbhata has stated the function of RaktaDhatu is to provide ‘Jivanam’ means life. 2 AcharyaCharaka has described the symptoms of Raktadushti (vitiation of blood) as Shirashula (headache), Aruchi (anorexia), Daurbalya (Weakness), Krodhaprachurata (excessive anger), Tamodarshana (fainting) etc.3 The formulation Raktadushtihara Yoga (tablet) contains Sariva (Decalepishemiltoni), Musta (Cyperusrotundus), Katuki (Picrorhizakurroa), Patha (Cycleapeltata) and Patola (Trichosanthescucumaria) which is mentioned by AcharyaCharaka in the context of Raktagata Jwara. 4 Among the individual drugs Sariva is Raktaprasadaka (improves quality of blood) and Raktashodhaka (blood purifier), Musta is Raktakopahara (alleviate blood vitiation)), Patola is Virechaka (purgative) and acts in Raktavikara (blood disorder), Patha is Raktashodhaka while Katuki is Virechaka and Raktadoshahara (acts in blood disorders). 5,6 Ayurveda cannot remain confined to the use of conventional, conservative norms of medication. It has to accept the new challenges and be prepared to answer the queries of the modern man who would have to right to know about the drug he is consuming. To meet this new thrust of inquisitiveness, standardization of drugs of Indian System of Medicine is mandatory. To evaluate the quality of finished products it becomes necessary to subject the drug for different chemical studies in the prospect of science. The drugs which are manufactured should be well understood in the light of modern chemistry to provide proper scientific background. In the present study ‘Raktadushtihara Yoga’ was prepared by using appropriate drugs and the sample was analyzed for the first time pharmacognostically and physico-chemically. MATERIALS AND METHODS Procurement of raw material: All the herbal parts of the formulation were procured from the Pharmacy, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The ingredients and part used are mentioned in table1. Pharmacognostical evaluation7: Raw drugs were identified and authenticated by the Pharmacognosy Laboratory, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. The identification was carried out based on the morphological, organoleptic and powder microscopy of the individual drug. Pharmacognostical evaluation of the tablet was also carried out. Tablet was dissolved in small quantity of distilled water and filtered through filter paper. The filtrate was studied under the Corlzeiss microscope attached with camera, with stain and without stain. The microphotographs were taken under the microscope. IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 383
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 Method of preparation of Raktadushtihara Yoga: The ingredients mentioned in table 1 were cleaned, dried, powdered and pass through sieve number 85. The powder was mixed properly and 5% gum acacia was mixed as a binding agent. The mixture was converted in to granules with the help of granular machine and finally punched as tablets (500 mg) by tablet making machine. Drug Botanical name Part used Quantity Sariva DecalepishemiltoniR. Br. Root 5 part Musta CyperusrotundusLinn. Tuber 4 part Katuka PicrorhizakurroaRoyle ex Benth Rhizome 3 part Patha CycleapeltataLinn. Whole drug 2 part Patola TrichosanthescucumariaRoxb. Leaf 1 part Table 1: Ingredients of Raktadushtihar yoga Pharmaceutical Evaluation: Physico-chemical parameters: Raktadushtihara Yoga was analyzed by using standard qualitative and quantitative parameters at the pharmaceutical chemistry Laboratory, I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Parameters were selected on the basis of common parameters mentioned for compressed tablets in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India8 and CCRAS guidelines.9The formulation was assessed for ash value, loss on drying, pH, water and alcohol soluble extracts. High performance Thin Layer Chromatography study (HPTLC) 10: Methanol extract of Raktadushtihara Yoga was spotted on pre coated silica gel GF 254 aluminium plate as 5 mm bands, 5 mm apart and 1 cm from the edge of the plates, by means of a CamagLinomate V sample applicator fitted with a 100 μL Hamilton syringe. Tolune (8ml), Ethyl acetate (2ml) was used as the mobile phase. After development, Densitometric scanning was performed with a Camag TLC scanner III in reflectance absorbance mode at 254nm and 366 nm under control of win CATS software. The slit dimensions were 6 mm×0.45 mm and the scanning speed was 20 mm per second. All HPTLC plates were scanned with filter fraction Savitsy-goloy 7, minimum slope 5, minimum height 10 AU, minimum area 50 AU, maximum height 990 AU with absorption unit. IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 384
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Pharmacognostical study: Organoleptic evaluation: Raktadushtihara Yoga was light brown in color, light astringent in smell, bitter-astringent in taste and solid consistency with rough surface. Details are tabulated in Table 2. Characters Observed Texture Rough Colour Light brown Odour Light astringent Taste Bitter, astringent Consistency Solid Table 2: Organoleptic characters of Raktadushtihar yoga Microscopic evaluation: The formulation showed the characters of all the five drugs present in it. Diagnostic characters of Raktadushtihara Yoga were as - Latex cell, pitted scleroid with wide lumen, oil globules, rhomboidal crystal (Sariva), irregular starch grains, annular vessels,parenchyma cells with starch grains, oleoresin content (Musta), diamond shaped prismatic crystals,simple fibres with wide lumen, border pitted vessels (Patha)), tannin content, oil globules, annular and sclelariform vessels (Katuki), cystolith, septatefibres, pitted vessels, pear shaped starch grains (Patola).Microphotographs are shown in Figure 1. Oil globules of Sariva Latex cell of Sariva Pitted scleroid with wide lumen of Sariva IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 385
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 Rhomboidal crystals of Sariva Irregular starch grains of Musta Oleoresin content of Musta Annular vessels of Musta Parenchyma cells with starch Oil globules of Katuki grains of musta Annular and scalariform vessels Tannin content of Katuki of Katuki Diamond shaped prismatic crystals of patha Simple fibres with wide lumen of Border pitted vessels of Patha Pitted vessels of Patola Patha IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 386
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 Pear shaped starch grains of Cystolith of Patola Septatefibres of Patola Patola Figure 1: Microphotographs of Raktadushtihar yoga Physico-chemical parameters: Physico-chemical characters are shown in Table 3 which was within the normal range. The water soluble extract and methanol soluble extracts were found to be 46.9% w/w and 25.9 % w/w respectively. Hardness may be modified using some gumming material. Instructions were given about the storage of the drug. Ash value reflects the inorganic load i.e. 8.73% w/w. Water soluble extract reflects higher water soluble compound load. It indicates load of carbohydrate, acetic acid and glycosidic compound load. pH is within normal limit. Test Result Uniformity of tablets Average Weight 512 mg Highest Weight 527 mg Lowest Weight 490 mg Total Hardness 1.33 kg/cm2 Loss on Drying at 1100 C 9.63 %w/w Ash Value 8.73 %w/w Water soluble extract 46.9 %w/w Methanol soluble extract 25.9 %w/w pH (5% aqueous solution) 6.5 Table 3:Physico-chemical characters of Raktadushtihar yoga High Performance Thin Layer Chromatogrphy: Densitometric scanning of the HPTLC pattern showed 2 spots corresponding to hR f values 0.08 IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 387
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 and 0.92 in short wave UV 254 nm. (Table 4) (Fig. 2) Conditions No. of Spots Max. Rf Area Short UV (254 nm) 02 0.08, 0.92 14.30%, 85.70% Long UV (366 nm) Nil Nil - Table 4:Showing consolidated data of HPTLC profile of Ratadushtihar Yoga Figure 2:Densitogram of Raktadushtihara Yoga at 254 nm The compound shows high affinity towards Tolune: ethyl acetate (8:2) v/v i.e. around 10.72 polarity of solvent. Hence, poor separation was observed in HPTLC. No response was observed under long UV light (366 nm) CONCLUSION Pharmacognostical findings confirm the ingredients present in Raktadushtihara Yoga. Raw drugs were cross verified with API and no major change was observed. When the finished product was analyzed under the microscope, all the ingredients were found present which were in the formulation. It is inferred that the formulation meets the minimum qualitative standards as reported in the API at a preliminary level. The results of this study may be used as the reference standard in further research undertakings of its kind. IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 388
    • Anil D. Avhad -et al., IJSIT, 2013, 2(5),382-389 REFERENCES 1. Agnivesha, CharakaSamhita (Ayurveda Deepika commentary by Chakrapanidatta), edited by YadavajiTrikramji, 5th edition, Varanasi: ChaukhambaSansritSansthana, 2001, Sutrasthana 24/23; 125. 2. Vagbhata, AshtangaHriday (Sarvangasundara commentary of Arunadatta and Ayurvedarasayana commentary of Hemadri), edited by pt. HariSadashivaShashtri, Reprint edition, Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Praashana, 2007, Sutrasthana 11/4; 183. 3. Agnivesha, CharakaSamhita (Ayurveda Deepika commentary by Chakrapanidatta), edited by YadavajiTrikramji, 5th edition, Varanasi: ChaukhambaSansritSansthana, 2001, Sutrasthana 24/11-16; 124. 4. Ibid. Chiitsasthana 3/201; 417. 5. K.C. Chunekar, BhavaprakashNighantu, edited by G.S. Pandey, Varanasi: ChaukhambaBharati Academy, Revised edition 2010, pg 413, 232, 673, and 67. 6. Anonymous, The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1, Vol.1, New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Department of AYUSH, Govt. of India, 2001. 7. Anonymous, Indian Pharmacopoeia. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Appendix -8.1: A-95. New Delhi, Controller of publications, 1996; 2. 8. Anonymous, protocol for testing of Ayurveda, Siddha &Unani medicines, Pharmacopoeial laboratory for Indian medicines, Department of AYUSH, ministry of health & family welfare, Government of India. 9. Anonymous, Parameters for qualitative assessment of Ayurvedic and Siddha drugs, Part A, CCRAS, New Delhi, 2005, page 31. 10. Gurdeep R. Chatwal, Sham K. Anand, Industrial Method of Chemical analysis, 5 th revised and enlarged ed. Himalaya publishing house, 2.272-2.503, 2.599-2.616, 2.673-2.700. IJSIT (www.ijsit.com), Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2013 389