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Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various extract of plants and spices
 

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various extract of plants and spices

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    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various extract of plants and spices Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using various extract of plants and spices Document Transcript

    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 ISSN:2249-5347 IJSID International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries An International peer Review Journal for Science Research Article Available online through www.ijsidonline.info GREEN SYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES USING VARIOUS EXTRACT OF PLANTS AND SPICES Sumit.S.Lal and P.L.Nayak P.L.Nayak Research Foundation and Centre for Excellence in Nano Science and Technology, Synergy Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India. ABSTRACTReceived: 13.03.2012 In this work green synthesis of gold nano particle using various plant extracts and spices extracts was done, in which extracts reduces aqueous HAuCl4.3H2O to Au°Accepted: 10.06.2012 and stabilized by itself at certain crystalline phase. Synthesized nano particle is confirmed by the change of color of Auric chloride which is yellow in color, and growth*Corresponding Author of nano paricle was monitored by surface plasmon behavior using UV-Vis Spectroscopy and concerned pH was determined. Furthermore, this green synthesis approach is rapid and better alternative to chemical synthesis and also effective for the large scale synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Key words: Green synthesis, Gold nano particle (AuNPs), plant extract, spices extract.Address: INTRODUCTIONName:PL NayakPlace:Synergy Institute of Technology,Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.E-mail:plnayak@rediffmail.com INTRODUCTION International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 325
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Various properties of Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) like optical, thermal, catalytic and physical depend up on their size INTRODUCTIONand shape had attracted attention toward the synthesis of AuNPs. Attention has been made towards the use of biologicalsynthesis processes without use of toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in biomedicalapplications for the synthesis of biocompatible metal. Metallic nanoparticles are presently applied in different fields such aselectronics, biotechnology, chemical and biological sensors, DNA labeling, drug delivery, cosmetics, coatings and packaging.[1-2]. Use of biological organisms such as microorganisms, plant extract or plant biomass could be an alternative to chemicaland physical methods for the production of nanoparticles in an eco-friendly manner [3–5]. Synthesis methods using organisms, both unicellular and multicellular like yeast, fungi and bacteria came into theexist, which were able to synthesize inorganic materials either extracellularly (6) or intracellularly [7]. Some plants can absorband accumulate metals from water and soil in which they are grown. These are named as ‘hyperaccumulators’ [8]. Alfalfa canaccumulate gold and store it in its leaf and stem biomass as discrete nanoparticles of pure metal [9]. In recent years, severalplants have been successfully used and reported for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of silver, copper and goldnanoparticles such as broth extracts of neem [10], Aloe vera [11], tamarind [12], Avena sativa [13], wheat [14], alfalfa [15],geranium [16], lemongrass [17] and tamarind [18]. Gold in nanoscale display novel properties and have diverse activities thatmake it appropriate for therapeutic use and broad applications in nanobiotechnology [19, 20]. Phytochemical constituents inthe plants and spices extract like essential oils (terpenes, eugenols, etc), polyphenols and carbohydrates these compoundscontain active functional groups, such as hydroxyl, aldehyde and carboxyl units which may play important role for reduction ofHAuCl4 to AuNPs. Gold nanoparticles produced by using phytochemicals or other extract components remain stable for certaintime [21,22]. Furthe plants and spices mediated stabilized or capped AuNPs may cross the barrier of cytotoxicity which is aprior requirement for biomedical application of AuNPs [57]. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of biomoleculespresent in the plants and spices extract have facilitated excellent stability of the nanoparticles [18]. Green gold nanoparticlesderived from phytochemicals can be show excellent biocompatibility, such biogenic gold nanoparticle with highbiocompatibility may be clinically useful as contrast enhancement molecular imaging agents for cancer diagnosis [22]. Here in the present work we have reported for the first time synthesis of green gold nanoparticles using twenty-fiveplants (Fig. 1) and four spices (Fig. 2). In the subsequent sections we have described the use of different extract of plants andspices in the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles based upon the change in colour, change in pH and change in surfacePlasmon resonance (SPR) behavior for various purposes. Ashoka or Asoko (Saraca asoca): It is a non Linn plant, belongs to family Fabaceae (Fig. 1. a) used for treatingPlants:-stomach alagia. The bark is useful in dyspepsia, fever, dipsia, visceromegaly, colic, ulcers, menorrhagia, metropathy,leucorrhoea and pimples. The floweres are considered to be uterine tonic and syphilis, cervical adinitis, hyperdipsia,haemorrhoids, dysentery, scabies in children and inflammation. Chemical investigation showed the presence of catechols,sterols, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, leucopelargonodin and leucocyanidin in bark [23-24]. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 326
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Arogbati or Poi (Basella alba): Belongs to the family Basellaceae (Fig. 1. b). Study of isolates from basella shows Fig. 1. (a)saponins A, B, C, and D, oleanane-type triterpenes oligoglycosides, together with betavulgaroside 1, spinacoside C, andmomordins , from fresh aerial parts. Leaves yield saponin, vitamin A and B and fruit yields mucilage and iron. Medicinallyarogbati leaf shows, anthocyanins, antifungal, antimicrobial. The major components from the volatile oil are: 1methoxypropane, (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol, 3-methoxyphenyl acetate, acetophenone, 4-vinylguaiacol, isophytol, and phytol [25]. Indian plum or Bara koli (Ziziphus mauritiana): Ziziphus mauritiana, also known as Jujube, Chinese Apple, Indian Fig. 1. (b)plum, and permseret (Anguilla) (Fig. 1. c). is a tropical fruit tree species belonging to the family Rhamnaceae. It is quitenutritious and rich in vitamin C, It contains 20 to 30% sugar, up to 2.5% protein and 12.8% carbohydrates. Fruits are appliedon cuts and ulcers; are employed in pulmonary ailments and fevers. Leaves are applied as poultices and are helpful in livertroubles, asthma and fever and, together with catechu, are administered when an astringent is needed, as on wounds. Seedsare sedative and are taken, sometimes with buttermilk, to halt nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pains in pregnancy [25]. Curry leaves or Kadipatta (Murraya koenigii): Small strong smelling perennial shrub or small tree belongs to Fig. 1. (c)Rutaceae family (Fig. 1. d) Leaves are bitter, acrid, astringent, cooling, demulcent, depurative, antihelmintic, febrifuge,stomachic, appetising, carminative, antiinflammatory and antiseptic. The major constituents responsible for the aroma and International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 327
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350flavour have been reported as pinene, sabinene, caryophyllene, cadinol and cadinene. Leaves are rich in carbazole alkaloids-these include members with- (i) C13 - skeleton -murrayanin, mukoeic acid, mukonine and Mukonidine. (ii) C18 - skeletonincluding gerinimbine, koenimbine, murrayacine, koenigine and koenigicine (koenidine). (iii) C23- skeleton containingmahanimbine, mahanimbicine, isomahanimbicine, mahanine, mahanimbinine, murrayayazoline, murrayazolinine,murrayazolidine, cyclomahanimbine and bicyclomahanimbicine [26]. Coriander or Dhania (Coriandrum sativum): It is a small herb belongs to family Apiaceae (Fig. 1. e). Major active Fig. 1. (d)constituents of coriandrum sativum are essential oils and fatty oil. The essential oil content of the weight of ripe and a driedfruit of coriander varies between 0.03 and 2.6%, and the content of fatty oil varies between 9.9 and 27.7%. The juice ofcoriander is use for treating nausea, and morning sickness. It is also used in the treatment of colitis and some of the liverdisorders. Coriander seeds also help to reduce acid peptic disease and it is also used as ayurvedic medicine in the treatment ofDysentery [25]. Aloe or Ghee-kunari (Aloe vera): Aloe vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant (Fig. 1. f). Aloe Fig. 1. (e)contains two classes of Aloins : (1) nataloins, which yield picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, and (2) barbaloins, whichyield aloetic acid (C7H2N3O5), chrysammic acid (C7H2N2O6), picric and oxalic acids with nitric acid, being reddened by the acid.This second group may be divided into, 1) barbaloins, obtained from Barbadoes aloes, and reddened in the cold, and 2)-barbaloins, obtained from Socotrine and Zanzibar aloes. Aloe is used as important Ayurvedic medicines. It is used in Jaundice,Liver disorders, during difficulty in urination, in wounds, as a cosmetic. Medicinally for antiseptic and antibiotic properties,anti-inflammatory, protector of human immune system [25]. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 328
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Ginger or Sonth (Zingiber Officinale): The scraped or unscraped rhizome of Zingiber Officinale belongs to Fig. 1. (f)Zingiberaceae family (Fig. 1. g). Ginger is used as a calminative and stimulant, antihistamines, ameliorate the effects of motionsickness in the gastrointestinal tract itself, provide cheap antiemetic adjunct to cancer therapy. Ginger contains about l-2% ofvolatile oil and 5-8% of resinous matter, starch and mucilage [27, 28]. Garlic or Rasuna (Allium sativum): It belongs to Amaryllidaceae family (Fig. 1. h). The main phytochemicals in garlic Fig. 1. (g)are alliin, methiin and S-allylcysteine. Medicinally garlic shows hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and procirculatory effects,detoxification and general tonic, hepatoprotective, antioxidative, immune-enhancing, anticancer and chemopreventiveactivities [28]. Chinese rose or Mandara (Hibiscus rosasynesus): Belongs to the family Malvaceae (Fig. 1. i), the flowers and leaves Fig. 1. (h)contain substantial quantities of flavonoids which are associated with antioxidant, fever-reducing (antipyretic), pain-relieving(analgesic) and spasm-inhibiting (spasmolytic) activities. The wound-healing activity of the ethanol extract of flower wasdetermined in rats, using excision, incision, and dead space wound models. Aqueous extract of leaves is to be aphrodisiac, International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 329
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350hypoglycemic, and antiimplantation. Extract exerts a protective effect against the tumor promotion stage of cancerdevelopment [29, 30]. Jamun leaf or Jammu (Syzygium cumini): An evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant belongs to family Fig. 1. (i)Myrtaceae (Fig. 1. j). It has a high source in vitamin A and vitamin C. vitamin-A, thiamine (vit-B1) 1%, riboflavin (vit- B2) 1%,Niacin (vit-B3) 2%, plantothenic acid (B5), Vit-B6 3%, ascorbic acid (vit-C) 17%. Medicinally all parts of plant seeds, leaf, barkare used. Properties like antidiabetes, antibacterial, astringent, digestive, diuretic, anthelmintic and is considered useful forthroat problems, stomachic, carminative, antiscorbutic and diuretic are being reported [31]. Kamkamawlaw or Dhatura (Datura metel): Belongs to the family solanaceae (Fig. 1. k), consists of annual and Fig. 1. (j)perennial herbs, shrubs and trees. The alkaloids hyoscyamine and hyoscine (scopolamine) and meteloidine are found in allparts of the plant. The total alkaloid content is 0.26 - 0.42 %. Fruit contains daturaolone and daturadiol while roots containadditionally ditigloyloxy tropane derivatives, tigloidine, apohyoscine, norhyoscine, norhyocyamine, cusiohygrine and tropine.Medicinally it has intoxicating and narcotic. The plant and fruit are spasmolytic, anticancerous and anthelmintic. Leaf isantitumour, antirheumatic and vermicide. Flower is antiasthamatic, anaesthetic and is employed in swellings and eruptions onface [32]. Fig. 1. (k) International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 330
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Lemon or Lembu (Citrus limonium): Belongs to citrus family Rutaceae (Fig. 1. l). Along with ascorbic acid, flavonoids(hesperidoside, limocitrin), Caffeine, essential oils like isopulegol, alpha-bergamotene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alph-thujene, beta-bisolobene, beta-bergamotene, beta-phelandrene, citral, limonene and sabinene are the main components,.Because of high ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) content, it shows antibacterial and astringent properties, used in herbal medicine tobuild immunity against colds, influenza, and other viral infections; Lemon shows antiescorbutic, antimigraine,anticancerigenous [34]. Margosa or Nimba (Azadirachta indica): Belongs to Meliaceae family (Fig. 1. m), it is a moderate sized to fairly large Fig. 1. (l)evergreen tree, a medicinal plant widely used as phytomedicine. Neem leaves contain carbohydrates 47-51%, crude protein14-19%, crude fiber 11-24%, fat 2-7%, ash 7-9%, Ca 0.8-2.5% and P 0.1-0.2%. Leaves are bitter, astringent, acrid, depurative,antiseptic, ophthalmic, anthelmintic, alexeteric, appetizer, insecticidal, demulcent and refrigerant [29, 33]. Mango or Amba (Mangifera indica): Mango is huge and ever green tree belongs to family Anacardiaceae (Fig. 1. n). Fig. 1. (m)Main active component are mangiferin and chinonin. Mangoes are rich in antioxidants such as beta-carotene, Vitamin A, alsocontain Vitamin B6. Leaves, bark, stem and unripe mangoes are believed to possess antibacterial properties, used in thetreatment of diarrohoea, chronic dysentery [35]. Fig. 1. (n) International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 331
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Marigold or Gendu (Calendula officinalis): Belongs to family Ranunculaceae (Fig. 1. o),It is an herb with yellowflowers. They are a considerable source of flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin C, proteins and resins, among others. Marigoldflowers contain a bitter compound, volatile oil. They have healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and soothing effects. Theycontained bio-flavonoids reduce the fragility of the capillary blood vessels. Marigold infusion are used to treat hyperacidgastritis, duodenal ulcer, infected icterus, cancerous ulcerations, inflammations and liver failures. The plant shows excellent,anti-septic and wound healing properties and hence medicinally important [36]. Night-flowering Jasmine or Gangasiveli (Nyctanthes arbor-tristis): Belongs to family Oleaceae (Fig. 1. p), Fig. 1. (o)commonly known as Night Jasmine. Active components present in leaves are D-mannitol, β-sitosterole, Flavanol glycosides-Astragaline, Nicotiflorin, Oleanolic acid, Nyctanthic acid, tannic acid, ascorbic acid, methyl salicylate, trace of volatile oil,carotene, friedeline, lupeol, mannitol, Glucose and fructose, iridoid glycosides, benzoic acid. Extensively used by Ayurvedicphysicians for analgesics, antipyretic along with ulcerogenic potency have also been observed. This plant has also been foundto possess anti-allergic, antimalarial , leishmanicidal, amoebicidal and anthelminthic activities [37]. Peepal or Bara (Ficus benghalensis): It belongs to Moraceae family (Fig. 1. q). It is used in the treatment of Fig. 1. (p)gonorrhoea, diarrhoea, dysentery, haemorrhoids and gastrohelcosis. Leaves and tender shoots use for wounds and skindiseases. Fruits are laxative and digestive; leaves are used in the treatment of mumps. They are also useful in arrestingsecretion or bleeding [38]. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 332
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Pudina mint or Podina (Mentha arvensis): Belongs to Lamiaceae family (Fig. 1. r), it yields an essential oil and Fig. 1. (q)mentho., Mint is rich in many chemicals, vitamins and minerals such as Niacin, Carotene, Folic Acid, Thiamine, Riboflavin,Magnesium, Protein, Fat, Minerals, Carbohydrates, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Magnesium, Copper, Manganese, Zinc,Chromium, Oxalic Acid, Menthol and Phytin Phosphorus. The plant possesses carminative, antibacterial, antifibrile,stimulative, stomachic, diaphoretic and antispasmodic properties that enhance the medicinal value of pudina to a large extent[39]. Pineapple or Sapuri (Ananas comosus): Belongs to Bromeliaceae family (Fig. 1. s), Pineapple is rich in citric and Fig. 1. (r)malic acis; citric acid concentration is about 8%, fruit also contain moderate amount of ascorbic acid, two slices of pineapplecontain ascorbic acid 100mg. A steroidal component of the leaves possesses estrogenic activity and variety of aromaticcompounds is found in the essential oil. Bromelain an active component in residue of plant shows anti-inflammatory, anti-edematous, also anti-carcinogenic and anti-proliferative activity in cancer [40]. Papaya or Amrutabhanda (Carica papaya): The papaya is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya (Fig. 1. t). Papaya fruit Fig. 1. (s)is a rich source of nutrients such as provitamin-A, carotenoids, vitamin C, B vitamins, dietary minerals and dietary fibre.Papaya skin, pulp and seeds also contain a variety of phytochemicals, including polyphenols. It provides the required daily International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 333
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350levels of A, C, E-vitamins, providing antioxidant protection. The fibre-rich papaya helps keep your cholesterol levels down.Enzymes like papain and chemopapain in papaya are believed to have anti-inflammatory effects [41]. Stone apple or Bale (Aegle marmelos): Belongs to the citrus family Rutaceae (Fig. 1. u). Bael or Bengal quince is a Fig. 1. (t)deciduous sacred tree, associated with Gods, Leaves contain an alkaloid rutacin which is hypoglycaemic, have a rich source ofcarbohydrate, protein, fat, fibre, minerals and vitamin B and C. It is reported to contain a number of coumarins, alkaloids,sterols and essential oils. Roots and fruits contain coumarins such as scoparone, scopoletin, umbelliferone, marmesin andskimming. It is having useful medicinal propertie, leaves and fruits are useful in controlling diarrhoea and dysentery. Leaf isanti-inflammatory, expectorant, anticatarrhal, antiasthamatic, antiulcerous and ophthalmic [42]. Sadabahar or Sadabihari (Catharanthus roseus): Belongs to the family Apocynaceae (Fig. 1. v). More than 100 Fig. 1. (u)alkaloids and related compounds have so far been isolated and characterised from the plant. Mainly dry leaves containvinblastine and vincristine (leurocristine or LC) which have anticancerous activity. The anticancer drugs vincristine andvinblastine are synthesized from alkaloids of Catharanthus roseus. Plant is also known for its antihypertensive andantispasmodic properties. It also posses antidiabetic, diuretic, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antidysenteric, haemorrhagic,antifibrillic, tonic, stomachic, sedative, tranquillising activities and Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma [43]. Fig. 1. (v) International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 334
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Tea leaf or (Camellia sinensis): A green tea extract is a herbal derivative from green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis)(Fig.1. w). Containing antioxidant ingredients–mainly green tea catechins (GTC). The cardinal antioxidative ingredient in thegreen tea extract is green tea catechins (GTC), which comprise four major epicatechin derivatives; namely, epicatechin (EC),epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Other components include three kindsof flavonoids, known as kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. Green tea extract is 20 times more antioxidant-active thanVitamin C. Medicinally green tea shows antioxidant, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammatory, and anti-radiation [44]. Tamarind or Emli (Tamarindus indica): It is a medium-sized tree belonging to the Caesalpinaceae family (Fig. 1. x). Fig. 1. (w)Leaves, were reported, a total of 13 essential oils in which benzyl benzoate and limonene are the major compounds, followedby hexadecanol and pentadecanol. Leaves also contain good levels of protein, fat, fiber, and some vitamins such as thiamine,riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene. Flavonoid and other polyphenols are metabolites that have been also found intamarind leaves. The leaves have a proven hepatoprotective activity associated with the presence of polyhydroxylatedcompounds, with many of them of a flavonolic nature. The seeds and the bark also have medicinal properties. Due to theirantimicrobial, antifungal and antiseptic effects, tamarind leave have an extensive ethnobotanical uses [45, 46]. Orange or Kandhia/ Karuna (Citrus sinensis): It is the most commonly grown tree fruit in the world. It belongs to Fig. 1. (x)Rutaceae family (Fig. 1. y). They are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, acids and volatile oils. They also contain coumarins such asbergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight. Bergapten is sometimes added to tanning preparations since it promotespigmentation in the skin. The fruit is appetizer and blood purifier. It is used to allay thirst in people with fevers and also treatscatarrh. The fruit juice is useful in the treatment of bilious affections and bilious diarrhea. The fruit rind is carminative andtonic. The fresh rind is rubbed on the face as a cure for acne. The dried peel is used in the treatment of anorexia, colds, coughsetc [47]. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 335
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Fig. 1. (y) Cinnamon or Dal chini (Cinnamomum verum): Cinnamon is a small evergreen tree, belongs to family LauraceaeSpices:-(Fig. 2. a), native to Sri Lanka and Southern India. The major active components of aqueous cinnamon extract appear to bedoubly-linked procyanidin type-A polymers, cinnamaldehyde and esters such as ethyl cinnamate [46]. In an experimentaqueous extract of cinnamon bark improved insulin resistance and prevented lipid abnormalities in rats. Cinnamon has beensuggested to have many pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity and antimicrobial effects [49, 50]. Cardamon or Elaichi (Elettaria cardamomum): It is a perennial herb (Fig. 2. b) indigenous to the Indian Fig. 2. (a)subcontinent, contains a wide variety of compounds, including α-terpineol, myrcene, subinene, limonene, cineol, α & β-pineneα-phellandrene, menthone, cis/trans-linalol oxides, trans-nerolidol, β-sitostenone, Y-sitosterol, phytol, eugenyl acetate,bisabolene, borneol, citronellol, p-cymene, geraniol, geranyl acetate, stigmasterol and terpinene. Studies showed thatcardamom inhibited platelet aggregation, when induced with agents such as ADP. Epinephrine, collagen and calciumionophore. Cardamon reduced blood pressure in rats, probably by acting through cholinergic and calcium antagonistmechanisms [51-54]. Black pepper or Golamaricha (Piper nigrum): It is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae (Fig. 2. c). Major Fig. 2. (b)content in Black pepper is piperine which is between 4.6% and 9.7% by mass. Pepper contains small amounts of safrole, a International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 336
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350mildly carcinogenic compound extracts from black pepper have been found to have antioxidant properties and anticarcinogenic effects. Medicinally used for constipation, diarrhea, earache, gangrene, heart disease, hernia, hoarseness,indigestion, insect bites, insomnia, joint pain, liver problems, lung disease, oral abscesses, sunburn, tooth decay, andtoothaches [55]. Cloves or Lavang (Syzygium Aromaticum): Cloves are the dried flower buds, belongs to family Lauraceae (Fig. 2. d), Fig. 2. (c)indigenous to the Molucca or Clove Islands. Cloves contain about 14-21% of volatile oil which contains l0-13% of tannin, 81-95% of phenols (eugenol with about 3% of acetyleugenol), sesquiterpenes (α- and β-calyophyllenes) and small quantities ofesters, ketones and alcohols. Various triterpene acids and esters and glycoside are also present. The sesquiterpenes of clovehave been cited as potential anti-carcinogenic compounds. Medicinally cloves show Anti-oxidant, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, anesthetic, pain reliving and insect repellent, anti-platelet, anti-stress, anti-pyretic [55-56]. Fig. 2. (d) MATERIAL AND METHOD Tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4·XH2O) was obtained from Sigma Aldrich. Freshly prepared triple distilled water wasReagents and Chemicalsused throughout the experimental work. Twenty-five medicinal herbs, such as Ghee-kunari, Jammu, Asoko, Poi, Barakoli, Bhursango, Dhania, Ada, Rasuna,Boiling/Collection of extractsMandara, Dhatura, Lembu, Nimba, Amba, Gendu, Gangasiuli, Tea, Bara, Podina, Sapuri, Amrutabhanda, Bale, Sadabihari,Tentuli, Kandhia/karuna and four spices Alleicha, Golamarcha, Dalchini, Labanga [Table.1 & 2] which was included in thisstudy were collected. Primarily their selective parts were washed and the cleaned and dried with water absorbent paper (wetfilter paper). Then it was cut into small pieces and crushed with mortar and pastle dispensed in 10 ml of sterile distilled water International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 337
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350and boiled for 10 minutes at 70-80°C. Then the plants and spices extract were filtered and centrifuge for 10 minutes at 5000r.p.m now extracts were collected in separate conical flasks by standard sterilized filtration method and were stored at 4°C. In a typical experiment, 1 ml of 1 mM Aqueous chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution was added to 5 ml of extract withSynthesis of Gold nanoparticlesratio of 1;5. Within a particular time change in colour from light yellow to various different color obtained by nanoparticlesynthesis, which is depends upon the extracts of plants and spices. The gold nanoparticles so prepared were stabilized byadding 1% of chitosan and 1% of PVA.The reduction of pure Au3+ ions to Au0 was monitored by measuring the UV-Vis spectrum by sampling of aliquots (0.3 ml) ofUV-Vis Spectra analysisAuNPs solution diluting the sample in 3 ml distilled water. UV-Vis spectral analysis was done by using UV-Visspectrophotometer Systronics 118 at the range of 300-600 nm and observed the absorption peaks at 530-550 nm regions dueto the excitation of surface plasmon vibrations in the AuNPs solution, which are identical to the characteristics UV-visiblespectrum of metallic gold and it was recorded. 1 mM aqueous chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) solution shows 2.95 pH, there is concerned change in pH was determined ofpH analysisgold nanoparticle synthesis using extracts of plant and spices, which was determined using Digital pH meter Systronics. Twenty-five plants extracts and five spices extracts were used to produce gold nanoparticles (Table. 1 and 2), the Results and Discussionreduction of gold ions into gold particles during exposure to the plant and spices extract is followed by colour change fromyellow to different color and change in pH of auric acid, extract and gold nanoparticle solution, depends on the plant and spicesextract. It is well known that auric acid exhibit yellowish colors in distilled water. As the plant extract was mixed in theaqueous solution of the gold ion complex, it started to change the color from yellowish to various different colors due toreduction of gold ion, which may be the indication of formation gold nanoparticles (Table. 3). In this work almost all exceptfew green gold nano solutions after incubation at room temperature, were showed the color change from light to dark colorand pH change from high acidic to low acidic. Table.1. Different Plant used for Gold nanoparticles synthesis 1. Ashoka Asoko Leaf Sr. No Latin name Common name Local name Family name Part use 2. Arogbati Poi Leaf Saraca asoca Fabaceae 3 Indian plum Barakoli Leaf Basella alba Basellaceae 4. Curry leaf Bhursanga Leaf Ziziphus mauritiana Rhamnaceae 5. Coriander Dhania Leaf Murraya Koenigi Rutaceae 6. Ghi kunaver/Aloe Ghee-kunari Leaf Coriandrum sativum Apiaceae 7. Ginger Ada Root Aloe vera Liliaceae 8. Garlic Rasun Leaf Zingiber officinalis Zingiberaceae 9. Hibiscus rosasynesus Chinese rose Mandara Leaf Allium sativum Lilliaceae 10. Jambul Jammu Leaf Malvaceae 11. Kamkam-awlaw Dhatura Leaf Syzygium cumini Myrtaceae 12. Limonero Lembu Fruit Datura metel Solanaceae 13. Margosa Nimba Leaf Citrus limonium Rutaceae 14. Mango Amba Leaf Azadirachta indica Meliaceae 15. Marigold Gendu Ranunculaceae Leaf Mangifera indica Anacardiaceae 16. Night-flowering Gangaseuli Leaf Calendula officinalis Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Oleaceae International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 338
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Jasmine 17. Peepal Bara Leaf 18. Pudina mint Podina Leaf Ficus benghalensis Moraceae 19. Pineapple Sapuri Fruit Mentha arvensis Lamiaceae 20. Papaya Amruta-bhanda Leaf Ananas comosus Bromeliaceae 21. Stone apple Bale Leaf Carica papaya Cariacaceae 22. Sadabahar Sadabihari Leaf Aegle marmelos Rutaceae 23. Tea --- Leaf Catharanthus roseus Apocynaceae 24. Tamarind Tentuli Leaf Camellia sinensis Theaceae 25. Orange Kandhia/ Fruit Tamarindus indica Caesalpinaceae Karuna Citrus sinensis Rutaceae Table. 2. Different Spices use for Gold nanoparticle synthesis 1. Elaichi Alleicha Seed pod Sr. No Latin name Common name Local name Family Part use 2. Kalimirchi Golamaricha Fruit Elettaria cardamomum Zingiberaceae 3. Dalchini Dalchini Bark Piper nigrum Piperaceae 4. Lavanga Labanga Flower bud Cinnamomum verum Lauraceae Syzygium aromaticum Lauraceae Table. 3. Indication of color change in green gold nano particles solutionSr. Name of green gold Color change Ph change Color Time Lamda ResultNo nanoparticle intensity max solution1. Ghee-kunari White Cherry red 5.27 5.20 ++ 1.30 hr 540 Local name Before After Before After2. Jamun Light yellow Black 4.83 4.74 ++ 15min 5403. Asoko Light brown Green Brown 4.74 4.50 +++ 2 hr 540 +4. Poi Pale yellow Red brown 5.75 4.77 ++ 1 hr 540 +5. Bara koli Pale yellow Pale yellow 6.29 6.29 ++ 5 hr _ _6. Bhursanga Dark brown Cherr-y red 6.24 6.07 +++ 1.30 540 +7. Dhania Dark green Dark green 6.37 6.34 +++ 5 hr _ _8. Ada Yellow Black 6.16 4.66 +++ 1.30hr 540 + brown 9. Rasuna White White 6.70 6.43 ++ 5 hr _ _10. Mandara Pale yellow Dark violet 6.65 5.76 +++ 2 hr 540 +11. Dhatura Light green Blue green 5.69 5.04 ++ 2hr 530 +12. Lembu White Light violet 3.24 3.27 ++ 1hr 540 +13. Nimba Light green Light green 5.50 4.20 ++ 5 hr _ _14. Amba Red pink Red pink 4.61 4.54 +++ 5hr _ _15. Gendu Light brown Light green 6.55 5.97 ++ 1 hr 530 +16. Gangaseuli Pale yellow Green brown 6.55 6.03 +++ 20min 530 +17. Bara Dark brown Light brown 6.62 6.43 +++ 1hr _ _18. Podina Dark green Dark brown 6.01 7.03 +++ 1hr 540 +19. Sapuri Yellow Dark violet 4.35 3.99 +++ 20min 540 +20. Amrutbhanda Light green Light green 6.35 6.23 ++ 5 hr _ _21. Bale Dark brown Dark red 6.0.6 6.06 +++ 2 hr 540 +22. Sadabihari Light green Black 6.20 5.68 ++ 10min 530 +23. Tea Dark brown Green brown 5.00 4.56 ++ 1 hr 53024. Tentuli Pale yellow Light grey 3.66 3.55 ++ 1 hr 530 +25. Kandia/ Light brown Light brown 4.50 4.50 + 5 hr _ _ Karune26. Alleicha White Light violet 5.97 4.99 ++ 1hr 540 + International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 339
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 27. Golamircha Dark brown Cherr-y red 7.59 5.11 +++ 1hr 530 + 28. Dalchini Light brown Cherr-y red 5.04 4.13 +++ 1 hr 530 + 29. Labanga Dark brown Greenbrown 6.08 6.40 +++ 1hr 540 + Color intensity: - += Light color, ++= Dark color, +++= Very dark color.; Result: - += Positive, -= Negative. The UV visible spectroscopy of the synthesized nano particles were in the range of 435-545 nm. Among 25 plantsUV visible spectroscopy and color change for the Green synthesized gold nano particles.extracts, 17 were showed to synthesize the gold nanoparticles by the indication of suitable surface Plasmon resonance (SPR)with high band intensities and peaks under visible spectrum. Plants, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) behavior ofnanoparticle synthesize by plant extract, were showed by absorption at various wavelength, the wavelength of somesynthesized nano particle are Ghee-kunari at 540 nm with change in colour (Fig. 1), Jamun at 540 nm (Fig. 2), along with theseAsoko, Poi, Bhursanga, Ada, Mandara, Lembu, Podhina, Sapuri, Bale were shown absorbance around 540 nm and Dhatura,Gendu, Gangaseuli, Sadabihari, Tea, Tentuli shown absorbance around 530 nm, with concerned change in color where as 8plants extract Bara koli, Dhania, Rasuna, Nimba, Amba, Bara, Amrutbhanda, Kandia/Karune did not shown any change in colorbut small change in pH was observed. And almost all 4 spices extract shown synthesize of nano particle, surface plasmonresonance (SPR) behavior of nano particle synthesize by spices extract at various wave length are Alleicha at 540 nm withchange in color (Fig. 26), Golamircha at 530 nm (Fig. 27), and Dalchini shown absorbance around 530 nm, Labanga shownabsorbance around 540 nm. Ghee-kunari: Fig.1 a) Ghee-kunari gold nanoparticle SPR at 540 nm, b) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B-Extract, Tube C- Ghee-kunari gold a) b) nanoparticle solution. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 340
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350Jamun : Fig.2 a) Jamun gold nanoparticle SPR at 530 nm, b) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Extract, Tube C- Jamun gold nanoparticle a) b) solution Asoko: Fig.3 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Extract, Tube C- Asoko gold nanoparticle solution. a) Poi: Fig 4. a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Extract, Tube C- Poi gold nanoparticle solution a) International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 341
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Bara koli: Fig 5. a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Bara koli leaf extract, Tube C- Barakoli gold nanoparticle solution. Bhursanga:Fig 6. a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Bhursanga leaf extract, Tube C- Bhursanga gold nanoparticle solution. a) Dhania: Fig 7. a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Dhania leaf extract, Tube C- Dhania gold nanoparticle solution. a) Ada: Fig. 8 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Ada leaf extract, Tube C- Ada gold nanoparticle solution a) International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 342
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Rasuna: Fig. 9 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Rasuna extract, Tube C- Rasuna gold nanoparticle solution. a) Mandara: Fig. 10 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Mandara extract, Tube C- Mandara gold nanoparticle solution. a) Dhatura:Fig. 11 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Dhatura leaf extract, Tube C- Dhatura gold nanoparticle solution. a) Lembu: Fig. 12 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Lembu leaf extract, Tube C- Lembu gold nanoparticle solution. a) Nimbu: International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 343
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Fig. 13 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Nimbu leaf extract, Tube C- Nimbu gold nanoparticle solution. a) Amba: Fig. 14 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Amba leaf extract, Tube C- Amba gold nanoparticle solution. a) Gendu: Fig. 15 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Gendu leaf extract, Tube C- Gendu gold nanoparticle solution. a) Gangaseuli:Fig. 16 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Gangaseuli extract, Tube C- Gangaseuli gold nanoparticle solution. a) Bara: International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 344
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Fig. 17 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Bara leaf extract, Tube C- Bara gold nanoparticle solution. a) Podina: Fig. 18 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Podina leaf extract, Tube C- Podina gold nanoparticle solution. a) Sapuri: Fig. 19 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Sapuri extract, Tube C- Sapuri gold nanoparticle solution. a) Amrutabhanda:Fig. 20 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Amrutabhanda extract, Tube C- Amrutabhanda gold nanoparticle solution. a) Bale: International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 345
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Fig. 21 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Bale leaf extract, Tube C- Bale gold nanoparticle solution. a) Sadabihari:Fig. 22 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Sadabihari leaf extract, Tube C- Sadabihari gold nanoparticle solution. a) Tea: Fig. 23 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Tea leaf extract, Tube C- Tea gold nanoparticle solution. a) Tentuli: Fig. 24 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Tentuli leaf extract, Tube C- Tentuli gold nanoparticle solution. Kandia/Karune: International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 346
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Fig. 25 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Kaudia/karuna extract, Tube C- Kaudia/karuna gold nanoparticle solution. Spices Alleicha:Fig.26 a)Alleicha gold nanoparticle SPR at 540 nm, b)Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Extract, Tube C- Alleicha gold nanoparticle a) b) solution. Golamircha Fig. 27 a) Golamircha gold nanoparticle SPR at 540 nm, b) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Extract, Tube C- Golamircha gold a) b) nanoparticle solution. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 347
    • Sumit S Lal et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (3), 325-350 Dalchini: Fig. 28 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Dalchini extract, Tube C- Dalchini gold nanoparticle solution. Labanga: Fig. 29 a) Tube A- Auric acid, Tube B- Labanga extract, Tube C- Labanga gold nanoparticle solution. In conclusion, it has been demonstrated that various extract of plants and spices are capable of producing gold nano CONCLUSIONparticles and the nano particles shows good stability in solution, under the UV-Visible wavelength nano particles shown quietgood surface plasmon resonance behavior and auric acid with reducing agent i.e plants and spices extract shown various colorchanges with concerned change in pH of solution. Success of such a rapid time scale for synthesis of metallic nanoparticles isan alternative to chemical synthesis protocols and low cost reductant for synthesizing gold nano particles. The authors are sincerely thankful to Head of the Department, University Department of Chemical Technology, NorthAcknowledgementMaharashtra University, Jalgaon, Maharashtra and to the Directorate of General CIPET, Bhubaneswar, India. The authors arealso thankful to Shri Binod Dash, Chairman, Synergy Institute of Technology for providing facilities to carry out this piece ofresearch work.1. Kohler, J.M., Csaki, A., Reichert, R., Straube, W. and Fritzche, W., Sens. ActB. (2001) 76,166-172. REFERANCES2. Schatz, G.C., Lazarides, A.A., Kelly, K.L. and Jensen T.R. J. Mol. Structure (Theochem), (2000) 529, 59-63.3. Sastry M, Ahmad A, Khan MI and Kumar R, Microbial nanoparticle production, in Nanobiotechnology, ed. by Niemeyer CM and Mirkin CA. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. (2004), 126–135.4. Bhattacharya D and Rajinder G, Nanotechnology and potential of microorganisms. Crit Rev Biotechnol (2005)25:199–204.5. Mohanpuria P, Rana NK and Yadav SK, Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological concepts and future applications. J Nanopart Res (2008)10:507–517. International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 3, May-June 2012 348
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