Effects of endosulfan and fenvalerate on pyruvate of the freshwater fish, labeo rohita (hamilton)
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Effects of endosulfan and fenvalerate on pyruvate of the freshwater fish, labeo rohita (hamilton)

  • 799 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
799
On Slideshare
799
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. K. Suneetha et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (5), 498-501 ISSN:2249-5347 IJSID International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries An International peer Review Journal for Science Research Article Available online through www.ijsidonline.info EFFECTS OF ENDOSULFAN AND FENVALERATE ON PYRUVATE OF THE FRESHWATER FISH, LABEO ROHITA (HAMILTON) Department of Biochemistry, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India Dr. K. Suneetha*, A. Suneel kumar and B. Naga RajuReceived: 14-04-2012 ABSTRACT Freshwater fish Labeo rohita was exposed to two pesticides i.e.,Accepted: 18-10-2012 endosulfan an organchlorine and fenvalerate a synthetic pyrethroid. The LC50 values determined for endosulfan and fenvalerate at 24 hrs were*Corresponding Author 0.6876, 0.4749 µgL-1 respectively. The 1/10th of 24 hrs, LC50 value of both the pesticides was selected as sublethal concentrations. The fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations for 24 hrs and 15 days and the changes in the levels of pyruvate were reported in vital organs such as brain, gill, kidney, liver and muscle. Key words: Endosulfan, Fenvalerate, Pyruvate.Address: INTRODUCTIONName:Dr.K.SuneethaPlace:Department of Biochemistry,A.N.U, GunturE-mail:suneetha_karyamsetty INTRODUCTION @ Yahoo.co.in 498 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2012
  • 2. K. Suneetha et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (5), 498-501 Pollution of aquatic environment by pesticides, bring changes in the metabolic activities and alters physiological state INTRODUCTIONthereby changing the biochemical constituents of aquatic organisms. It is important to examine the toxic effect of pesticides onfish, as they constitute an important link in food chain and their contamination by pesticide imbalances the aquatic ecosystem,Fish also form an important part of human food. Endosulfan (C9H9Cl6O3S) is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide used to control pests in more than 60 countriesaround the world in agriculture1. India is one of the major producers of endosulfan. In India alone, the agriculturalconsumption of endosulfan was estimated to be 5,200 metric tons in 1994-19952. Synthetic pyrethriods are another type of pesticides; these are also toxic to aquatic organisms. Pyrethroid insecticideshave been used in agriculture for more than 30 years to control insect pests in a range of crops. Fenvalerate is one of thepyrethroid insecticide and most widely used in agricultural crops such as cotton, paddy, jowar,maize, soyabean, tomato, lady’sfinger, cauliflower, tobacco and tea. But the use of this insecticide also tend to affect the biology of non-target species alongwith pests3,4. The freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton) is an edible and commercially valuable fish. Live fish of size 6-7 ±1cm and MATERIAL AND METHODS6-8 g weight were brought from a local fish farm and acclimatized at 28 ± 2 0C in the laboratory for one week. The stocksolutions for Endosulfan 35% Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC) and Fenvalerate 20% Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC) wereprepared in 95% acetone to yield a concentration of 100mg/100ml which were further diluted with distilled water to get aworking solution. The water used for acclimatization and conducting experiments was clear unchlorinated ground water. Ineach test ten fish were introduced in toxicant glass chambers with a capacity of ten liters. The data on the mortality rate of fishwas recorded. The dead fish were removed immediately. The toxic tests were conducted to choose the mortality range fromten percent to ninety percent for 24 hrs in static tests. The concentration that produced fifty percent mortality in test speciesnoted. LC50 values were calculated by Finney’s Probit analysis5. Pyruvate level was measured according to Friedemann and Haugen6.Estimation of PyruvateTissue homogenate (50 mg.ml, w/v) was prepared in 10% TCA. Sodium pyruvate was taken as standard. The results indicated that the tissues of fish brain, gill, kidney, liver and muscle tested at sublethal concentrations of RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONboth endosulfan and fenvalerate for 24h and 15 days, a decrease in pyruvate level were noticed during the exposure periods(Tables – I-II).Table –I: Changes in the Pyruvate (µ moles of pyruvate/g wet weight of tissue) in different tissues of Labeo rohita on exposure to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan and fenvalerate for 24h Endosulfan Fenvalerate Brain 6.15 ± 0.02 4.94 ± 0.03 19.67 4.75 22.76 Organs control Sub-Lethal % Change Sub-Lethal % Change Gill 5.51 ±0.02 4.53 ± 0.02 17.78 4.33 21.41 Kidney 11.01 ± 0.01 8.65 ± 0.01 21.43 8.32 24.43 Liver 14.60 ± 0.002 10.26 ± 0.004 29.72 8.13 44.31 Muscle 12.24 ±0.01 9.28 ± 0.002 24.18 8.38 31.53 Values are the means of five observations: (±) indicates the standard deviation values are significant at P > 0.05 499 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2012
  • 3. K. Suneetha et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (5), 498-501 16 14 Brain 12 10 Gill 8 Kidney 6 Liver 4 2 Muscle 0 Control S.L.E S.L.F. Figure –I: Changes in the Pyruvate (µ moles of pyruvate/g wet weight of tissue) in different tissues of Labeo rohita on exposure to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan and fenvalerate for 24hTable –II: Changes in the Pyruvate(µ moles of pyruvate/g wet weight of tissue) in different tissues of Labeo rohita onexposure to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan and fenvalerate for 15 days Endosulfan Fenvalerate Brain 4.05± 0.5 3.80 ± 0.005 6.17 3.12 ± 0.01 22.96 Organs control Sub-Lethal % Change Sub- Lethal % Change Gill 3.03± 0.03 2.85± 0.005 5.94 2.52 ± 0.005 16.83 Kidney 9.23± 0.005 7.84± 0.005 15.05 7.04 ± 0.05 23.72 Liver 10.04± 0.02 8.23± 0.005 18.02 6.26 ± 0.003 37.64 Muscle 9.43± 0.01 7.98± 0.005 15.37 7.03 ± 0.005 25.45 Values are the means of five observations: (±) indicates the standard deviation values are significant at P > 0.05 12 10 Brain 8 Gill 6 Kidney 4 Liver 2 Muscle 0 Control S.L.E S.L.F. Figure –II: Changes in the Pyruvate (µ moles of pyruvate/g wet weight of tissue) in different tissues of Labeo rohita on exposure to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan and fenvalerate for 15 days Pyruvate is the resultant product of glycolysis,which undergoes oxidation and enters Krebs cycle. This is fallowed bymobilization of reduced co-enzymes to synthesise through electron transport system coupled by oxidative phosphorylation.Decrease in pyruvate levels were observed in Labeo rohita under Cypermethrin toxicity. Significant decrease in pyruvatelevels were observed under sublethal concentration of freshwater fish Channa punctatus after exposure to 24h and 96h of 500 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2012
  • 4. K. Suneetha et al., IJSID, 2012, 2 (5), 498-501dimethoate.7Decrement in levels of pyruvate were observed under methanolic extract of Euphorbia royleana latex Channapunctatus8 The decrease in pyruvate level suggests the possibility of a shift towards anaerobic dependence due to a remarkabledrop in aerobic segment. The decrease in pyruvate could be due to its conversion to lactate, or due to its mobilization to formamino acids, lipids, triglycerides and glycogen synthesis in addition to its role as a detoxification factor in ammonia toxicity9. The present work indicates that both endosulfan and fenvalerate caused alterations in the pyruvate levels of fish CONCLUSIONLabeo rohita, but comparatively fenvalerate treated fish tissues showed more decrement in pyruvate values this may be due tomore pesticidal stress. Due to lipophilc nature of pyrethroids, biological membranes and tissues redily take up pyrethroids.Pyrethroids are several orders of magnitude more toxic to fish than the other pesticides 10.1. Vidal, M.L.J., Frias, M.M., Frenich, A.G., Olea-Serrano, F. and Olea, N: Rapid Commun.mass spectrum., 14, 939-946, 2000. REFERENCES2. Shafiq-ur-Rehman: Journal of toxicology., 3(1): 345-351,20063. Babu Velmurugan, Mariadoss Selvanayagam, Elif Ipek Cengiz and Erhan Unlu: Journal of Environmental science and Health., partB, 2(2) : 157-163,2007.4. Majumdar, T.N. and A. Gupta: J. Environ. Biol., 30, 469-470, 2009.5. Finney, D.J.: Probit Analysis. (3rd Edition), Cambridge University Press, London, 330 1971.6. Friedemann, T.E. and G.F. Haugen. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 144:67-77, 1943.7. P.K. Tripathi, V.K. Srivastava and A. Singh : Asian Fisheries Science., 16: 349-359,2003.8. S. Tiwari and A. Singh: Asian Fisheries Science. 16:147-155,2003. Sambasiva Rao, K.R.S: Pesticide impact on fish metabolism. 129-149, 1999.10. Oros, D.R., D. Hoover, F. Rodigari, D. Crane and J. Sericano. (2005): Environ. Sci. Tech., 39: 33-41.9. 501 International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 5, September-October 2012