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  1. 1. Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2228-2231Scenario Based Performance Evaluation Of Dsr Routing Protocol For Vbr Traffic In Manets Gurpreet Singh #1, Atinderpal Singh # # Department of CSE & IT, BBSBEC, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, IndiaAbstract: Mobile Ad hoc network (MANETs) are MANET has few challenges and limitations thatrapidly growing as an important area of wireless have to be addressed [4].Limited radio transmissioncommunication with the technological range, routing overhead, battery constraints,advancements in the mobile devices. Efficient security, etc. are some of inefficiencies in arouting protocols make MANETs reliable. MANET environment.Despite the considerable simulation works, still This paper is organized as follows: The nextmore investigation is required in the section presents the main Ad hoc routing protocolperformance evaluation of routing protocols for DSR that is used in the performance evaluationmultimedia traffic especially Variable Bit Rate process. Section III presents the simulation set up(VBR).In this paper, we will conduct a number and the performance evaluation metrics. In sectionof simulations for the performance evaluation of IV, we present the simulation results andpopular routing protocols of MANET, named performance comparison. And finally, we concludeDSR, for VBR multimedia traffic using Real the paper and present the plans for the future workTime Protocol (RTP) by changing the terrain in section V.size, connection rate and data send rate for 50nodes. We will investigate the performance DSR II. MOBILE ADHOC ROUTINGand DSR after scenario change i.e. Enhanced PROTOCOLSDSR using three metrics- packet delivery ratio, There are many different ways to classifyaverage end to end delay and optimal path the routing protocols of MANETs depending uponlength. their network structure, communication model, routing strategy and state information [5] [6].Keywords: MANETs; DSR; VBR; RTP. Depending upon the routing strategy, there are two types of routing protocols: Table Driven and I. INTRODUCTION Source Initiated (On Demand). A Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) [1] The first type is a proactive approach i.e.[2] is an autonomous collection of mobile routers table driven. Routing information in the networkor nodes communicating over radio links. MANET maintained up to date. Table driven protocols haveis a temporary network without infrastructure. The lower latency but have high routing overhead. Thewireless routers or nodes moves randomly and routing overhead is high due to periodic updationsorganize themselves arbitrarily. The nodes directly of routing tables. Some of main proactive protocolscommunicate via wireless links within each other’s of MANET are DSDV, FSR and range, while that are distant apart use other The second type is source initiated. It is alsonodes as relay in a multihop routing function. As known as On Demand or Reactive. Route idthe nodes are mobile, the structure of the network created only when demanded by the source node.changes dynamically and unpredictably over When a node wants to communicate in thetime.Adhoc networks are self-configuring and self- network, it initiates a route discovery processorganizing, so to maintain communication between within the network. So, there is no need of periodicnodes in the network, each node behaves as a updates. Hence, the routing overhead is low but thetransmitter, a host and a router. latency is high. Some of main reactive protocols of Due to growing usage of the portable devices MANET are AODV, DSR and TORA. The mobileand progress in the wireless communication, Ad hoc routing protocols considered in this studyMobile Ad hoc networks are gaining importance are described below.due to its wide range of applications [3].Mobile Adhoc networks are used in military communication A. DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTINGand operations, home appliances, emergency (DSR)services, educational applications and DSR [7] [8] is an On Demand routingentertainment. protocol. DSR is based on the theory of source based routing and is a very simple and efficient routing protocol. DSR is designed for use in 2228 | P a g e
  2. 2. Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2228-2231multihop wireless Ad hoc networks of mobile the number of data packets sent by all the sources.nodes. The DSR protocol works into two main It is calculated by dividing the number of packetmechanisms called Route Discovery and Route received by destination through the number ofMaintenance. Route Discovery is the mechanism in packet originated from the source.which a source node tending to send a packet to a PDR = (Pr / Ps) * 100destination obtains a source route to destination. It Where, Pr is total packet received and Ps is totalis initiated only when a source node wants to send packet sent.packet to a destination and doesn’t already knowthe route to it. And, then it maintains that route in End to End Delay [14]: This includes all possiblethe cache of the nodes. Route Maintenance is the delays caused by buffering during route discovery,mechanism in which source node is able to detect latency, and retransmission by intermediate nodes,the link failures to the destination. It then repairs processing delay and propagation delay. It isthe route or finds an alternate route. It is used only calculated aswhen source is sending packets to a destination D = (Tr - Ts) Where, Tr is receive time and Ts is sent time of the III. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT packet. To evaluate and compare the performance Optimal Path Length [15]: Path Optimality is theof this routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network, ratio between the numbers of hops of the shortestwe performed extensive simulations using NS-2.34 path to the number of hops in the actual path takensimulator [10]-[13]. Each simulator is carried out by the packets. It is the total number of forwardingunder the constant mobility. packets of the total number of received packets.TABLE 1 IV. SIMULATION RESULTS ANDTHE SIMULATION PARAMETERS PERFORMANCE COMPARISON Performance of DSR and Enhanced DSRExperiment Experiment Description routing protocol is evaluated under Variable BitParameter Value Rate multimedia traffic.Simulation 200 S SimulationTime Duration RESULT TABLE Parameter DSR 50 Node DSR 50 Node(Terrain 1000*1000 m, X,Y (1000*1000m) 1500*1500m)Dimension 1500*1500 Dimension of Conn. Rate – Conn. Rate – Motion 25 pkt/sec 35 pkt/secNo. of Mobile 50 No. of nodes in Send rate – 256 Send rate –Nodes a network Kb 512kbNode Random Change PDR Ratio 0.12 0.82Placement waypoint Direction Avg. End to 3.02 3.66 Randomly end delayMobility Speed 0-50 mps Mobility of Optimal Path 8.62 4.01 Nodes LengthMobility Random Mobility 1) PDR RatioModel Direction PDR is better for Enhanced DSR protocolRouting DSR Path-finding than existing DSR protocol.ProtocolsMAC protocol 802.11g Wireless DSR 50 Node DSR 50 Node(Traffic VBR (1000*1000m) 1500*1500m)Traffic rate 25 pkt/sec, 35 Conn. Rate – 25 Conn. Rate – 35 pkt/sec pkt/sec pkt/secPacket Send 256kb, 512kb Send rate – 256 Kb Send rate – 512kbrate 0.12 0.82Packet Size 1 kbPause Time 100 secPerformance MetricsPacket delivery Ratio (PDR) [14]: It is the ratioof all the received data packets at the destination to 2229 | P a g e
  3. 3. Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2228-2231 0.9 It is observed from the figure above; in which existing DSR present the slightly less Average end 0.8 to end delay measurements than Enhanced DSR for VBR traffic. 0.7 0.6 3) Optimal Path Length Optimal Path Length is high for existingPDR Ratio 0.5 DSR protocol than Enhanced DSR protocol. 0.4 DSR 50 Node DSR 50 Node( 0.3 (1000*1000m) 1500*1500m) Conn. Rate – 25 Conn. Rate – 35 0.2 pkt/sec pkt/sec 0.1 Send rate – 256 Kb Send rate – 512kb 8.62 4.01 0 DSR Enhanced DSR Series1 0.12 0.82 10 9 Figure 2: PDR of DSR and Enhanced DSR for 50 nodes 8 Optimla Path Length 7 From above figure, it is observed that the Enhanced DSR protocol outperforms the existing 6 DSR protocol in terms of Packet delivery ratio 5 when the number of nodes is 50. 4 2) Average End to End Delay 3 Average end to end delay is higher in case 2 of Enhanced DSR than existing DSR. 1 DSR 50 Node DSR 50 Node( 0 (1000*1000m) 1500*1500m) DSR Enhanced DSR Conn. Rate – 25 Conn. Rate – 35 pkt/sec pkt/sec Series1 8.62 4.01 Send rate – 256 Kb Send rate – 512kb Figure 4: Optimal path length for DSR and 3.02 3.66 Enhanced DSR for 50 nodes 4 As shown in the above figure that existing DSR has higher Path Optimality than Enhanced 3.5 DSR which is almost 2 times the Enhanced DSR protocol 3 Average End Delay V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE 2.5 WORK 2 Network simulator NS-2.34 is used to evaluate and compare the performance of DSR 1.5 protocol under VBR traffic. The performance is compared in terms of PDR, Average end to end 1 delay and optimal path length when number of nodes is constant 50 but creating different scenario 0.5 by increasing the terrain size, connection rate and data send rate. Simulation results show that in case 0 DSR Enhanced DSR of Average end to end delay, existing DSR outperforms Enhanced DSR. This shows that Series1 3.02 3.66 existing DSR has suitable for delay sensitive applications. High packet delivery ratio and low Figure 3: Average end to end delay for DSR and optimal path length of Enhanced DSR is an Enhanced DSR for 50 nodes advantage to the protocol. This makes the 2230 | P a g e
  4. 4. Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.2228-2231Enhanced DSR more reliable than existing DSR. [9] C. Perkins E. Belding-Royer, and S.Das,Thus from above investigations we conclude that “Ad hoc On- Demand Distance VectorEnhanced DSR is a better option for VBR (AODV) Routing”, RFC 3561, July2003.multimedia traffic when the network size, [10] “The Network Simulator version 2”, theconnection rate and data rates are large. source code of ns-allinone-2.34 can be In our future work, we will intend to do more downloaded fromsimulations to evaluate DSR for more media metrics. [11] Kevin Fall, Kannan Varadhan, and the VINT project (May, 2010), available atREFERENCES [1] Vasudha Arora and C. Rama Krishna, documentation.html “Performance Evaluation of Routing [12] Marc Gresis, “Tutorial for the network protocols for MANETs under Different simulator (ns- 2)”, available at Traffic Conditions”, 2nd IEEE International Conference on Computer x.html Engineering and Information Technology, [13] NS by example available at 2010. [2] Vikas Singla and Parveen Kakkar, [14] G.Rajkumar, R.Kasiram and “Traffic Pattern based performance D.Parthiban,” Optimizing Throughput comparison of Reactive and Proactive with Reduction in Power Consumption Protocols of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, and Performance Comparison of DSR and International Journal of Computer AODV Routing Protocols”, [ICCEET], Applications, Volume 5-No. 10, August 2012. 2010. 15] Satveer Kaur, “Performance Comparison [3] Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: “An of DSR and AODV Routing Protocols Essential Technology for Pervasive with Efficient Mobility Model in Mobile Computing”, Jun-Zhao Sun Media Team, Ad-Hoc Network”, IJCST Vol. 2, Issue 2, Machine Vision and Media Processing June 2011. Unit. [4] Krishna Moorthy Sivalingam, “Tutorial on Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, 2003. [5] George Adam, Vaggelis Kapoulas, Chhristos Bouras, Georgios Kioumourtzis, Apostolos Gkamas and Nikos Tavoularis, “Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for multimedia transmission over mobile Ad hoc networks”,IFIP WMNC’2011. [6] Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki, and Eryk Dutkiewicz, “A review of routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks”, Technical report, Telecommunication and Information Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522; Motorola Australia Research Centre, 12 Lord St., Botany, NSW 2525, Australia,2003. [7] Georgios Kiou Mourtzis, “Simulation and Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks”, Master thesis in Computer Science and Engineering, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey California, September, 2005. [8] D.B Johnson, D.A Maltz, and Yih-Chun Hu., “The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR)”, Internet draft (draft-ietf-manet- dsr- 10.txt), 19 July 2004. 2231 | P a g e