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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

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    • Ranjusha J P, Anjana R, K E George / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1922-1926 Effect Of Moulding Temperature On The Properties Of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene/Clay/Glass Fibre Composites Ranjusha J P1, Anjana R1 and K E George2 1. Dept. of Chemical Engg., Govt. Engg. College, Thrissur 2. Dept. of Polymer Science and Rubber Technology, CUSATAbstract Polymer nanocomposite(PNC) is a polymer or Polymer nanocomposites have emerged copolymer having dispersed in its nanoparticles.as a high-tech engineering material for a variety These may be of different shape (e.g., platelets,of applications. The present paper emphasis on fibres, spheroids), but at least one dimension mustthe comparison of polymer nanocompositessynthesized under different moulding be in the range of 1 to 80 nm. These PNCs belongtemperature and the effects of moulding to the category of multi-phase systems (blends,temperature on the preparation of polymer composites, and foams) that consume nearly 95% ofnanocomposites by different characterization plastics production. These systems requiretechniques. Also aims to investigate the enhanced controlled mixing/compounding, stabilization of thephysical and mechanical properties of polymer achieved dispersion, orientation of the dispersednanocomposites with different nanofillers. phase, and the compounding strategies for allPolymer hybrid nanocomposites based on poly multiphase systems, including PNC, are similar [6-propylene(PP) (80% of blend)and high density 8].poly ethylene(HDPE)(20% of blend) blend isselected for the present study. Nanofillers such as Synthesis of polymer nanocompositesnano kaolin clay (2%) and/or glass include mixing /addition of nanofillers into thefibre(GF)(20%) is incorporated in the polymer polymer and moulding the graft obtained intomatrix. desired shapes [9]. Polymer–clay nanocomposites The properties of processed goods, can be synthesized via four mixing approachesparticularly based on polymer blends, are highly depending on the starting materials and thedepend on the processing variables and the effect processing techniques; they are in–Situof moulding temperature. The study shows that Polymerization, emulsion polymerization, solutionthere is an optimum moulding temperature at exfoliation and melt intercalation [10]. Moulding orwhich maximum mechanical properties are moulding is the process of manufacturing byobtained [1,2]. shaping pliable raw material using a rigid frame or Similarly, the actual surface model called a pattern. Injection moulding is atemperature of the mould cores and cavities are manufacturing process for producing parts fromrelated to, but not necessarily the same as, the both thermoplastic and thermosetting plastictemperature of the fluid passing through the materials [11,12]. Material is fed into a heatedchannels in the mould. It is generally understood barrel, mixed, and forced into a mould cavity wherethat melt temperature has an effect on viscosity. it cools and hardens to the configuration of theBut melt temperature also has an influence on cavity[13].the final molecular weight of the polymer in the In injection moulding, moulding conditionsmoulded part[3,4]. have a significant influence on the final propertiesKeywords: Polymer nanocomposites, nano kaolin of the material regardless of the part design. Two ofclay, injection moulding, moulding temperature. the process conditions that have a substantial influence on the behaviour of the polymer are the1. Introduction melt temperature and mould temperature. Melt A nanocomposite is as a multiphase solid temperature is the actual temperature of the polymermaterial where one of the phases is a nanomaterial as it exits the nozzle and enters the mould.which has one, two or three dimensions of less than Similarly, the actual surface temperature of the100 nanometers (nm), or structures having nano- mould cores and cavities are related to, but notscale repeat distances between the different phases necessarily the same as, the temperature of the fluidthat make up the material. In the broadest sense this passing through the channels in the mould. It isdefinition can include porous media, colloids, gels generally understood that melt temperature has anand copolymers, but is more usually taken to mean effect on viscosity. But melt temperature also has anthe solid combination of a bulk matrix and nano- influence on the final molecular weight of thedimensional phase(s) differing in properties due to polymer in the moulded part. Mould temperaturedissimilarities in structure and chemistry [5]. has perhaps a less obvious but often more profound 1922 | P a g e
    • Ranjusha J P, Anjana R, K E George / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1922-1926effect on final properties. In semi-crystalline moulding temperature whereas for fibre reinforcedmaterials the mould temperature is an important composites it is 1900C. The flexural strength orfactor in determining the degree of crystallinity in three point bending of composites with differentthe polymer [14, 15]. moulding temperatures are shown in Figure 3. Similar trend as tensile strength is obtained for2. Experimental flexural strength also. The addition of glass fibre2.1 Materials and nanoclay increases the flexural strength and Polypropylene homo polymer (PP): modulus.(REPOLH110MA) and high density polyethylene 42 Pure Tensile strength N/mm2(HDPE) (REPOL H110MA) were supplied by M/s 40 P+GFReliance Industries Ltd., Hazira, Gujarat 38 P+A-CLAYNanoclay: Nanocaliber-100 both modified and 36 P+A-CLAY+GFunmodified clay with ion exchange ,supplied by 34 P+U-Clay+GFEnglish Indian Clays Limited ,Veli, 32 P +U-clayThiruvananthapuram, Kerala,India. The clay is one 30dimensionally nano sized, ion exchanged with 180°C 190°C 200°Ccationic amino salts and spray dried. Glass Fibre Moulding Temperature 0Csupplied by SHARON ENTERPRISES INDIA Fig.1 Tensile Strength of composites moulded atLIMITED, Kochi, Kerala, was used in the study. different temperatures2.2 Methods 3200 Pure Preparation of hybrid composites: All Tensile modulus 2700 P+GFcomposites were prepared in an internal mixer N/mm2Torque Rheometer (Thermo Haake Rheocord 600). 2200 P +U-clayThe rotor speed was set at 50 rpm. The components 1700 P+A-CLAYof 40 g were loaded to the mixing chamber through 1200 P+A-CLAY+GFthe hopper and compounded at 1600C temperature P+U-Clay+GF 700for 8 minutes , with rotor speed of 50 rpm. Nano 180°C 190°C 200°Cclay used was preheated to about 750C for 45 Moulding Temperature 0Cminutes to remove moisture content and polymers Fig.2 Tensile Modulus of composites moulded attaken in the 80% PP and 20%HDPE by weight are different temperaturesmelt compounded in the Haake melt mixer. The For polymer/clay composites the optimumcomposites so prepared were hot pressed in a moulding temperature for high flexural strength ishydraulic press, cut into pieces and moulded using a 1800C whereas for fibre reinforced composites it issemi-automatic plunger type injection moulding 1900C. This is because the fibre loading increasesmachine. viscosity and hence reduce proper flow and orientation of molecules during moulding. Testing of hybrid composites: Thespecimens obtained after moulding were tested for 49 Flexural Strength N/mm2tensile and flexural properties in a Shimadzu 47 PureAutograph Universal Testing Machine (UTM)), 45 P+GFimpact strength in Resil Impact Testing Machine 43 P+U-clayaccording to ASTM standards. Thermal 41characterization is done by differential scanning 39 P+A-claycalorimetry(DSC) and TAӨ600 model is used for 37 P+A-caly+GFthermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM images 35 P +U-Clay +GFwere taken with JSM 6390 with an accelerator 180°C 190°C 200°Cvoltage20 kV on a vacuum atmosphere. X-ray Moulding Temperature 0Cdiffraction (XRD) is also used for morphological Fig.3 Flexural Strength of composites moulded atstudy and is done using broken advanced X-ray different temperaturesdiffractometer. 3950 P+GF 3450 Flexural Modulus P +U-clay3. Results and discussion 2950 P+A-CLAY N/mm23.1 Mechanical Properties 2450 P+A-CLAY+GF The tensile strength and modulus of 1950 P+U-Clay+GFnanocomposites moulded at three different 1450 Puretemperatures are shown in Figure.1 and 2. The 950addition of clay to the fibre reinforced composites 450affects its strength very much. For polymer clay 180°C 190°C 200°Ccomposites higher strength is obtained for 1800C Moulding Temperature 0C 1923 | P a g e
    • Ranjusha J P, Anjana R, K E George / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1922-1926Fig.4 Flexural modulus of composites moulded at 2 P+A-Clay+GFdifferent temperatures 180C P+GF 180C Weight Derivative %/0C 1.5 0.4 P+A-clay+GF Pure Impact Strength N/mm2 190C 0.35 P+GF 1 P+U-clay 0.3 0.5 P+A-CLAY 0.25 P+U-clay+GF 0 0.2 P+A-clay+GF -0.5 0 200 400 600 800 0.15 180°C 190°C 200°C Temperature 0C Moulding temperature 0C Fig.7 Temperature Dependence of WeightFig.5. Impact strength of composites moulded at Derivative for Composites.different temperatures Table. 2 Results of TGA of different composites From figure.5 it is found that the impact Temperaturestrength is high for composites moulded at 1900C. Temperature of onset ofFurther temperature of moulding will cause of complete Composites thermaldegradation of polymers which reduces the strength. degradation, degradation, °C °C3.2 Thermal Properties P+GF In order to investigate the effect of 345.89 470.25 (180°C)different nanofillers on the degree of crystallinity, P+A-Clay+DSC curves of compounds were analysed. 350.99 470 GF (180°C)Table.1 Crystallization Temperature of composites P+A-Clay+ Composite Crystallization 331.06 474.64 GF (190°C) Temperature 0C PP/HDPE/GF 113.81 These results indicate that as moulding PP/HDPE/A-clay 119.08 temperature increases, thermal stability of PP/HDPE/A-clay/GF 119.98 composites decreases. Thermal stability of hybrid The results show that the crystallinity composites is higher than that of the compositeincreases in the presence of nanoclay and it’s not without nanoclay (PP/HDPE/20%GF). At the sameaffected by the processing conditions used. The time, the hybrid composite moulded at 1800C givespresence of nanoclay platelets dispersed in the better performance than that moulded at 1900C.hybrid matrix promotes heterogeneous nucleation,thus increases the crystallization rate and increases 3.3 Morphological Studythe degree of crystallinity. The pictures do however give a much Thermal stability of the hybrid composite better feel of the particles in 3D space. Several SEMwas studied using TGA. The thermogravimetric images were taken at various magnifications tocurves are plotted in figures 6 and 7. The addition characterize the hybrid composite. SEM results forof clay increases the decomposition temperature of fractured surface of moulded samples are givenhybrid composites. below. SEM micrograph of fracture surface of 80PP/20HDPE pure blend is given in the figure.8 120 100 P+GF 180C 80 Weight % P+A-clay+GF 180C 60 P+A-Clay+GF 190C 40 20 0 0 200 400 600 800 Temperature 0C Fig.8 SEM image of fracture surface of 80PP/20HDPE pure blend.Fig.6 Temperature Dependence of Weight Loss forComposites 1924 | P a g e
    • Ranjusha J P, Anjana R, K E George / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1922-1926Figure.9 shows the tensile fracture surface nanoclay is there along with the short fibres in themicrograph of PP/HDPE/20%GF. In this case the polymer matrix and better interaction between theglass fibres are evenly distributed in the polymer nanoclay and fibres can be seen. Matrix is morematrix. homogeneous and more adhesion between fibre and matrix is seen in the presence of nanoclay As the result, PP/HDPE/2%Amino-clay/20%GF hybrid composite gives better strength as compared to that of the composite with fibre alone.Fig.9 SEM image of fracture surface ofPP/HDPE/GF composite. Fig.12 SEM images of Hybrid composite moulded at 1800CFig.10 SEM Image of Fracture Surface ofPP/HDPE/A-clay CompositeFigure.10 shows the tensile fracture surface ofPP/HDPE/2% Amino-clay, in this case nanoclay isdispersed in the polymer matrix. In these figures, Fig.13 SEM image of PP/HDPE/2% Amino-we can see the maximum exfoliation. clay/20%GF Figure.12 and figure.13 represents the SEM images of PP/HDPE/A-clay/GF hybrid composites moulded at 1800C and 1900C respectively. There is not much variation found in the dispersion of clay particles in the polymer matrix. These results show that the moulding conditions do not affect the morphological features of the composites. X-ray diffraction is used to determine crystal morphology of the nanoparticles in the composite. Nanoclay is in the form of layers or stacks of platelets. This leads to isomorphic substitution within layers and generates a negative charge exchange capacity. During melt mixing, polymer precursor or preformed polymer penetrated in to the gallery space between the layers. In the composite, the gap between the single sheets (d- spacing value) should be widened to get enhanced properties. In this study the XRD analysis is performed for pure Amino-clay, PP/HDPE/A-clay composite and PP/HDPE/A-clay/Glass Fibre composites. The results obtained are plotted in theFig.11 SEM images of PP/HDPE/2% Amino- figure 12. It is shown that the d-spacing value of theclay/20%GF. PP/HDPE/A-clay composite is higher than that ofFigure.11 shows the tensile fracture surface of amino-clay.PP/HDPE/2% Amino-clay/20%GF, in this case 1925 | P a g e
    • Ranjusha J P, Anjana R, K E George / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1922-1926 d-spacing value 0A 8 A-clay [5]. Hasmukh A Patel, Rajesh S Somani, Hari C Bajaj And Raksh V Jasra, “Nanoclays P+A-Clay 6 for polymer nanocomposites”, Bull. Mater. P+A-clay+ GF Sci., Vol. 29, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 133– 145. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 4 [6]. Clays, Nanoclays, and Montmorillonite Minerals By FAHEEM UDDIN, 2 Metallurgical And Materials Transactions, Volume 39a, December 2008. 17 12 22 Angle 2θ° [7]. P.M. Ajayan, L.S. Schadler, P.V. BraunFig.14 Results of XRD- Comparison of d-spacing (2003). Nanocomposite science andvalue of composites. technology. Wiley. ISBN 3527303596. [8]. D.Y.Godovsky(2000) Applications of In hybrid composite the d-spacing value is Polymer-Nanocomposites. Advances infurther increased, which indicate the complete Polymer science vol. 153:165-205.dispersion of nanoclay and glass fibres in the [9]. J.K. William, H.H. James, A.M. Jefferey,polymer matrix. This increased d-spacing value “Handbook of Polypropylene andexplains the enhanced properties of hybrid Polypropylene Composites”, Edited bycomposites compared to others. Haruhun G. Karian, Mercel Dekker Inc, New York, 1999.Table.3 Results of XRD showing d-spacing values [10]. E. Manias, A. Touny, L. Wu, K.of Amino clay and composites Strawhecker, B. Lu, and T. C. Chung, Angle d-spacing value, °A Chem. Mater., 2θ° Polypropylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposites. Review of the Synthetic PP/HDPE/A- Routes and Materials Properties, Vol. 13, Amino PP/HDPE/ 3516–3523, 2001. clay/Glass Clay A-clay [11]. H. Ishida, S. Campbell, and J. Blackwell, Fibre Chem. Mater, General Approach to 12.28 7.204 7.29 7.351 Nanocomposite Preparation, Vol. 12, 19.89 4.459 4.582 4.654 1260–1267, 2000. 21.13 4.201 4.317 4.397 [12]. Robert H. Todd, Dell K. Allen, Leo Alting. 24.74 3.595 3.634 3.697 Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide Industrial Press Inc., 1994. pg. 243.4. Conclusions [13]. Mora, JC; Polymers Product The effect of moulding temperature on the Manufacturing; Part Design, Mold Design,properties of composite based on PP/HDPE (80/20) Process, Production Controls, & Facilities.was studied in this work. The study shows that the [14]. Douglas M. Bryce. Plastic Injectionmoulding temperature has significant effect on the Molding: Manufacturing Processmechanical and thermal properties of the composite. Fundamentals. SME, 1996.The optimum moulding temperature depends on the [15]. “The Importance of Melt & Molddesired mechanical/thermal properties of the Temperature” By Michael Sepe fromcomposite for its application. The incorporation of Michael P. Sepe LLC From: Plasticsnano clay and glass fibres improves the properties of Technology Issue: December 2011.PP/HDPE blends. The enhancement in physicalproperties is well explained by morphologicalcharacterization.References [1]. Tony Whelan, Injection Molding Handbook 2nd Ed pg 13 [2]. Mora, JC; Polymers Product Manufacturing; Part Design, Mold Design, Process, Production Controls, & Facilities. [3]. “The Importance of Melt & Mold Temperature” By Michael Sepe from Michael P. Sepe LLC From: Plastics Technology Issue: December 2011. [4]. HI *Whelan, Tony. Polymer Technology Dictionary Springer, 1994. 1926 | P a g e