A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering         Research and Applications...
A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering         Research and Applications...
A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering         Research and Applications...
A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering         Research and Applications...
A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering         Research and Applications...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ke3118821886

181 views
135 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
181
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ke3118821886

  1. 1. A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1882-1886 Application of Ergonomics to the Safety, Health Quality and Productivity in Industry A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma Integral University, Lucknow, IndiaAbstract— The present paper deals with the  Eye exposure to welding arcimportant aspects of concern to every industry i.e. light(UV rays)the safety, health quality and productivity.  Foreign objects in eyesErgonomics is a system concerned with the  Burnsrelationship between the human beings machines  Noiseand the work environment. The objective is to Fig. 1 shows the effect of poor postures on theobtain an optimum balance between the human different parts of human body while Fig. 2 showscharacteristics. Capabilities and limitations with the nature of injury on the welders.demands of the task i.e. to fit the task to theperson, This paper relates ergonomics withquality, productivity, safety, health in modernindustrial setting and discusses ergonomic risks ofinjuries, work related limb disorders and workenvironment.Keywords: Ergonomics, safety, health, efficiency,quality, productivity, work environment. I. INTRODUCTION Ergonomic design is the application ofknowledge about human capabilities limitations andcharacteristics to the design of machines, tools task,systems and environment for safe comfortable and Fig.1effective human use. Ergonomics when effectivelyused saving the human (individual) frommusculoskeletal disorder (MSD) effecting thereputation of employers and social cost to the society.This paper highlights such problems by:  Identify and qualifying workplace risk factors for MSDs.  Identifying how these risks relate to production strategies and  Developing an approach to integrating ergonomic into a company’s regular development workIt has found that low back MSDs were stronglyassociated with working trunk postures. Operatorswith high exposure operators, similarly high peakextension velocity increased risk by 3 times [1] II. ERGONOMICS IN WELDING Welding includes following musculoskeletal Fig.2disorder (WMSD) hazards: III. QUALITY PRODUCTIVITY AND SAFETY  Awkward body postures  Lifting heavy equipment or materials A. Ergonomics and quality  Static postures for prolonged periods There are many theoretical reasons for  Awkward postures of the wrist relationships between quality and ergonomics. First,Welding introduces some severe ergonomic hazards. the definitions reveal overlaps. Jurans ―Fitness forCommon hazards found in welding include: use‖ is related to the concept of usability. If quality is  Inhaling metals fumes defined quality as ―the ability of a product or a 1882 | P a g e
  2. 2. A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1882-1886service to satisfy the Expectations of the customers‖.The workforce of the organisation was regarded asinternal customers. When this definition of internal customersis considered, this aspect of Quality becomes close tothe definition of ergonomics. New areas such asparticipatory Ergonomics have developed, whichemphasize similarities with the field of quality. TheQuality approach emphasizes both managementsupport and employee participation, whileErgonomics has focused the needs of the ergonomicsexpert and employee participation. In the work place reaching down into tubes and B. Ergonomics, Productivity, and Safety bins is a common source of back injuries. Possible Manufacturers are moving ahead by solutions include a hydraulic tilter as illustrated herepromoting comfortable work areas and ergonomicallydesigned tools. These results in happy workers, better Fig.4safety, and improved productivity.Good ergonomics can give rise to hidden gains that Many companies have experienced the cost savingsare not immediately visible in the productivity associated with preventing musculoskeletal disordersstatistics. Efforts to improve productivity that result (MSDs) in the work place. The savings thesein poorer ergonomics may not reach their anticipated companies have made have been due to their focus onprofits gains. reduced workers compensation claims, lowerBecause of the increasing number of injuries caused insurance premiums, high employee retention, andby repetitive motion, excessive force, awkward possibly avoiding regulatory fines. What somepostures, and the use of tools, ergonomics has companies havent realised is that improvingbecome a critical factor in workplace safety. ergonomics almost always can improve a companys productivity.Therefore, ergonomics is the science that seeks toadapt tasks and tools to fit the physiology and Any ergonomics intervention must bepsychology of the person. Its a way of looking at the viewed in light of its effect on productivity, and theoverall system of the design of tasks, tools, best ergonomics solutions will most often improveequipment, and workplace layouts, to fit the job to the productivity. Simply put, reducing unnecessary orworker, rather than the worker to the job. awkward postures and exertions almost necessarily Injuries from poor ergonomic conditions reduces the time it takes to complete a given task,typically involve the bones, muscles, joints, tendons, thus improving productivity.and nerves. Even with many of the newly developed Body motions, visibility, workload, andand ergonomically designed hand/power tools, some other important ergonomic parameters will also affectchronic or cumulative trauma injuries are still being the quality of work, and the quality of work product.caused necessitating redesigning. When a task is matched with the ability of the people that will perform it, they will make fewer errors and produce less waste. Ergonomic design considerations have also been found to influence employee recruitment and retention. C. Improved productivity. It is common for ergonomic improvements to increase productivity 10 – 15%. In fact, one of the more rigorous studies showed a 25% increase in output at computer workstations when using ergonomic furniture, while concurrently improving Equipment such as tote pans or trays is often employee well-being. The book ondesigned without adequate grips this requires that which this summary is based contains an examplestressful pinch grips be used a solution as simple as from a printing facility where productivity increasedproviding totes with good handles can reduces 300%, simultaneously with reducing physicalneedless exertion demands on employees. Fig.3 1883 | P a g e
  3. 3. A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1882-1886 object at all, you may need to stop productive work and fetch a step stool or take time to remove an obstruction. If the inappropriate height or the long reach causes you to work in an awkward posture,[8] Fig.5 D. Improved efficiency with better working posture.Working in awkward postures can directly reduceefficiency in three ways that ergonomics can help Fig.7remedy:  Reduced strength — Think of bending at the F. Re-designing system time saving at awaist and reaching out across a large object and distribution centerthen trying to exert. You have little or no Fig.8 shows how a standard pallet lift reduced cyclestrength in an outstretched position like this. time by 14 – 20%,Consequently it takes you longer to complete a Plus reduced the load on the spine by 66%task than it would be if you were working in a Fig.9 compares lifting a series of eight boxes ontoproper position. the conveyor, first with the pallet on the  Less accuracy in your motions — Again, thinkof reaching out across a large object and tryingto do something intricate. You make a lot ofmistakes and it takes a lot longer time, if indeedyou can do it at all.  Faster fatigue — When you work in anawkward posture, you tire much more easily,which slows you down. You end up losingproductivity for that reason[8] Fig.8 floor and then with the pallet lift. The only difference was the height. The results are superimposed to help highlight the differences. The horizontal axis of the graph is time and the vertical axis is strain on the back (specifically, Compression force on the discs in Kg.) Each peak represents one lift. Lower the peak and the less area in the peak, the less strain on the back. The less horizontal distance at the base of each peak, the less time needed to complete the task. Fig.6 E. Improved efficiency with better heights and reaches.Poor heights and reaches can affect productivity in a Fig.9couple of different ways. If you can’t reach an 1884 | P a g e
  4. 4. A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1882-1886IV. ERGONOMICS EFFORTS, development of this method. Despite theseADMINISTRATIVE AND ENGINEERING TO shortcomings, tools still offer a standard method ofCONTROL DISORDER analysis for a reasonable assessment of risk. There are a numbers of methods of carryingout risk assessments. One method, known as The VI. ECONOMY ASPECTS OF BACK INJURIESRule of TEN [croner’s health and safety briefing, Healthcare has recognized the potential risk1997], provides an illustrative example of how such for injuries caused by lifting since the data on thisassessments can be applied to prevent work related aspect is available from US only.it has been used forlimb disorders.[3] the present example, The National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) tracks the economic aspects of back injuries and the associated medical, worker compensation and lost time associated with them: • Back-related injuries cost about $52 billion in Fig.10 direct medical and lost time expenses.Each stage is further sub divided as follows: • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) result in 16Target Evaluate Negate Million lost workdays ($50 billion) per year. • 30% of all workers’ compensation claims areUnderstanding Position Ergonomics related MSD costing $18 billion per year.Observations Lay outs Regulate • The average MSD claim is over $18,000.Consultations Task cycles Monitor • Carpal Tunnel surgery is now among the most Task frequency Educate frequently performed procedures in the US — Task rotations Encourage average cost Rest and Involve recovery Respond $50,000 per wrist. Sources: US Bureau of Labor Statistics & NIOSH the untapped potential for Work ergonomics in healthcare is addressing organisation musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) that affect activities Suitability of beyond patient transport. Improperly or employees inappropriately adjusted and configured workplaces V. QUANTIFICATION OF ERGONOMIC RISK contributeCONDITIONS to MSDs such as those associated with computer use (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome) and constrained Once the presence of risk factors is postures (neck, shoulder, leg and back problems).established, the degree of risk associated with those Ergonomics can reduce the incidence and costsfactors is evaluated. This is done through the associated with these health and safety issues.application of analytical ergonomic tools and theutilization of specific guidelines. VII. THE WORK ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONSErgonomic Analytical Tools The work environment is characterized by the There are a great variety of analytical tools. interaction between the following elementsThe tools are frequently orientated to a specific type 1. The WORKER: With the attributes of width,of work (e.g., manual material handling) or a height, strength, intellect, range of motion,particular body part (e.g., wrist, low back). education, expectations and many other Analytical tools also vary greatly in their style physical and mental characteristics.of conclusions. They may provide job prioritizationfor intervention, quantification of activities associated 2. The WORKSTATION: Including furniture,with increased risk of injury, or recommendation for tools, display and control panels, and othera load weight limit for lifting. The examiner items required for work.determines which analytical tool is best for evaluation 3. The WORKING ENVIRONMENT: Includingof the identified risks based on an understanding of lighting, temperature, vibration, noise, andthe tools applications, strengths, and weaknesses. other atmospheric qualities An analytical tool can, at best, provide anapproximation of the degree of risk. Variation in Risk factors of workindividual physiology, history of injury, work There are certain characteristics of workplacemethods, and numerous other factors influence injuries that have been associated with some featureswhether a person will sustain an injury. Further, many that are called risk factors of work. They include:tools have not been tested adequately for reliability Physical characteristics of the task, which is theand validity. This status reflects the status of primary interaction between the worker and the workplace and includes: 1885 | P a g e
  5. 5. A. K. Pandey, M. I. Khan, K. M. Moeed, R. K. Verma /International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1882-1886  Positions nurses because of changes in management policies  or force over time. During the 1990s, health care  or repetitions organizations tried to adopt cost cutting strategies  or velocity / acceleration employed by many other industries, thereby taking  or duration the focus away from the quality of care to patients.  or recovery time This conflict ultimately left nurses feeling disengaged  or dynamic load and un-empowered in their roles in delivering patient  or vibration in segments. care and at odds with the financial performance initiatives of health care administrators [15]. Research has shown, as expected, that when employees are disengaged in their jobs they are more likely to leave because they feel unappreciated Further compounding this issue, surveys with nurses have indicated that they exhibit loyalty to patients but often do not feel the same level of loyalty to their employer because they feel hospital executives are not in touch with the demands of patient care. These findings highlight the importance of creating engaged employees and the important role of administrators and other leaders in this process. REFERENCES 1: Grandjean,E,Fitting, ―The task to the man an ergonomics approach.taylor and francis ,London‖ 2: MacLeod,D,‖The Ergonomics Edge:Improving Safety,Quality and productivity‖ 3: Khan M I, Serajul Haque ―Application of Ergonomics to control upper limb work related musculoskeletal disorder‖(proc. All India seminar on ergonomics to improve productivity, institute engg (India) (Nov 21-22 2009) Fig.11 4: Peltier Jimmy, andy Dahl, whitewater, frank mulhern ―The relationship between employee satisfaction and Environmental characteristics are also hospital patient experiences ― (april 2009) primary interaction between the worker and the 5: http://www.ergoweb.com Ergoweb Consulting and workplace that include: Training Services .  heat stress 6: Blair, E,―Behavioral Safety: Myths, Magic &  or cold stress Reality.‖ Professional Safety, Aug.99.  or vibration to the body 7: Waters TR.,Introduction to ergonomics for healthcare workers.  or lighting 8: Dan MacLeod, ―25 Ways Ergonomics Can Save  or noise YouMoney*‖ 9: De-Mello Elizabeth ,‖Ergonomics: ImprovingVIII. EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT & Health, Safety, Quality andEMPOWERMENT Productivity‖ [Hardcover] 10: Burns, T and Stalker,‖The Management of Managers in all industries have made Innovation‖, London: Tavistock. G. M.(1980),employee engagement a hot button issue because of 11: Geller, E. S. ―The Psychology of Safety: How togrowing evidence that engagement has a positive Improve Behaviors and Attitudes‖ Radnor PA:correlation with individual, group, and organizational Chilton Book Co.(1996),performance in areas such as productivity, retention, 12: Testa, M. R., Skaruppa, C. and Pietrzak, D., ―Linkingturnover, customer service, and loyalty [8]. The job satisfaction and customer satisfaction in thehealth care industry is no exception to this cruise industry: implications for hospitality and travelphenomenon in human resource management theory organizations, Journal of Hospitality and Tourismand practice. Nursing shortages in particular have Research (1998),‖ 13: Chong W. Kim Marjorie L. McInerney Robert P.helped make engagement an important topic in this Alexander ―Job satisfactions as related to safetyindustry. performance: a case for a manufacturing firm‖ With regard to health care specifically, 14: Tim Springer ‖Ergonomics for Healthcareresearch has frequently uncovered a lack of loyalty to Environments ‖the organization and the nursing profession [7]. 15: Spine .Bigoes , S ―Back Injuries in Industry: ABrown noted that nurse administrators face the Retrospective Study: Employee-Relatedchallenge of repairing ―broken‖ relationships with Factors.‖(1986), 1886 | P a g e

×