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IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com

IJERA (International journal of Engineering Research and Applications) is International online, ... peer reviewed journal. For more detail or submit your article, please visit www.ijera.com


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  • 1. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796 An Improvement Of Transient Current Response Of Load Transformers For The Series Voltage Sag Compensator SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V(M.TECH II YEAR) *, DR.M.SRIDHARPh.d(HOD)** *( Department of Electrical Engineering , GIET ,JNTUK,Rajahmundry, A. P,INDIA) **(Department of Electrical Engineering ,GIET, JNTUK, Rajahmundry, A. P,INDIA)ABSTRACT Power quality is one of major concerns A voltage sag as defined by IEEE Standard 1159-in the present era. According to Survey results it 1995,IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoringshows that 92% of interruptionat industrial Electric Power Quality, is a decrease in RMSfacilities are caused due to voltage sag voltage at the power frequency for durations fromrelated.The DVR( Dynamic voltage restorer) is a 0.5 cycles to 1 minute, reported as the remainingseries connected device whose function is to voltage.The measurement of a voltage sag is statedprotect a sensitive industrial load from voltage as a percentage of the nominal voltage, it is asags.The voltage sag compensator, based on a measurement of the remaining voltage and is statedtransformer-coupled is connected in series to as a sag to a percentage value. Thus a voltage sag tovoltage source inverter, is among the most cost- 60% is equivalent to 60% of nominal voltage, oreffective solution against voltage sags. To 288 volts for a nominal 480 Volt system[2][3].mitigate the problems caused by poor quality of Voltage sag are caused due toShort circuits, startingpower supply, series compensators are used. large motors, sudden changes of load, andTransformers are often installed in front of energization of transformers are the main causes ofcritical loads for electrical isolation purposes. voltage sags [4].. Voltage sags often interruptWhen voltage sags happen, the transformers are critical loads and results in substantial productivityexposed to the disfigured voltages and a DC losses. The DVR is a voltage sag compensator basedoffset will occur in its flux linkage. When the on a voltage source inverter (VSI). The voltage sagcompensator restores the load voltage, the flux compensators have been one of the most cost-linkage will be driven to the level of magnetic effective voltage sag ride-through solutions.saturation and severe inrush current occurs. Thecompensator is likely to be interrupted because Several closed-loop control techniquesof its own over-current protection, and have been proposed for voltage source inverter-eventually the compensation fails, and the critical based sag compensators [5-7].Transients can beloads are interrupted by the voltage sag. This currents or voltages which occur momentarily andpaper proposes an improvement of transient fleetingly in response to a stimulus or change in thecurrent response using inrush current mitigation equilibrium of a circuit. Transients frequently occurtechnique of load transformer together with a when power is applied to or removed from a circuit,state feedback controller for the voltage sag because of expanding or collapsing magnetic fieldscompensator. The operation principles of the in inductors or the charging or discharging ofproposed method are specifically presented, and capacitors. In this paper, the inrush issue of loadexperiments are provided validate the proposed transformers under the operation of the sagapproach. compensator is presented. An improvement of transient current response along with inrushKeywords: DVR, Flux Linkage, inrush current, mitigation technique is proposed and implementedload transformer, power quality, series in a synchronous reference frame with a sagcompensator, voltagesag compensator controller. The proposed technique can be integrated with the conventional closed-loopI. INTRODUCTION control on load voltages. Power quality and reliability are essentialfor operation of industrial process which involve in The new integrated control cancritical sensitive loads. The Power quality in the successfully reduce inrush current of loaddistribution system can be improved by using a transformersand improve the disturbance rejectioncustom power device DVR for voltage disturbances capability and the robustness of the sag compensatorsuch as voltage sags, ,harmonics, and unbalanced system. Laboratory test results are presented tovoltage.[1] The DVR( Dynamic voltage restorer) is validate the proposed technique.a series connected device whose function is toprotect sensitive industrial load from voltage sags. 1788 | P a g e
  • 2. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796 harmonic filter, a voltage source converter (VSC), DC charging circuit and a control and protection system as shown in Fig. 2. In most sag correction techniques, the DVR is required to inject active power into the distribution line during the period of compensation. Hence, the capacity of the energy storage unitcan become a limiting factor in the disturbance compensation process especially for sags of long duration.Fig. 1.Simplified one-line diagram of the offlineseries voltage sag compensator. As shown in Fig. 1, the voltage sagcompensator consists of a three phase voltage sourceinverter (VSI) and a coupling transformer for serialconnection [8-10]. When the grid is normal, thecompensator is bypassed by the thyristors for highoperating efficiency. When voltage sags occur, thevoltage sag compensator injects the requiredcompensation voltage through the coupling Fig.2 Principle of DVRtransformer to protect sensitive loads from beinginterrupted by sags. However, certain detection time(typically within 4ms) is required by the sag III. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION OF THEcompensator controller to identify the sag event PROPORSEDCOMPENSATOR[11]. And the load transformer is exposed to the The leakage inductor of couplingdeformed voltage from the sag occurrence to the transformer Lf and capacitor Cf is recognized as themoment when the compensator restores the load low pass filter to suppress Pulse widthvoltage. Albeit its short duration, the deformed modulation[PWM ] ripples of the inverter outputvoltage causes magnetic flux linkage deviation voltage vm. Figure 3 shows the equivalent circuit ofinside the load transformer, and magnetic saturation series voltage sag compensator and its dynamicmay easily occur when the compensator restores the equation can be expressed as (1) and (2).load voltage, thus results in inrush current. Theinrush current could trigger the over-currentprotection of the compensator and lead tocompensation failure. Thus this paper proposesinrush mitigation technique by correcting the fluxlinkage offsets of the load transformer. And thistechnique can be seamlessly integrated with the statefeedback controller of the compensator. Fig. 3Per- phase equivalent circuit of series voltage sag compensatorII. DYNAMIC VOLTAGE RESTORER Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is arecently proposed seriesconnected solid state devicethat injects voltage into the system in order toregulate the load-side voltage. The DVR was firstinstalled in 1966 [12]. It is normally installed in adistribution system between the supply and thecritical load feeder [13]. Its primary function is toboost up the load-side voltage in the event of adisturbance in order to avoid any power disruptionto that load [14,15]. There are various circuittopologies and control schemes that can be used to Where [vmavmbvmc]T is the inverter outputimplement a DVR. In addition to voltage sags and voltage, [vcavcbvcc]Tis thecompensation voltage,swells compensation, a DVR can also perform other [imaimbimc]Tis the filter inductor current, andtasks such as: line voltage harmonics compensation, [iLaiLbiLc]T is the loadcurrent. Equation (1) and (2)reduction of transients in voltage and fault current are transferred into the synchronous reference framelimitations. The general configuration of a DVR as (3) and (4).consists of an injection / booster transformer, a 1789 | P a g e
  • 3. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796 current control. The voltage control isimplemented by a proportional regulator with voltage command ve*cq respectively produced by the voltage sag scheme.Fig. 4. Block diagram of the proposed inrush currentmitigation technique with the state feedback control. 4.1.2 Feed -forward control To improve the dynamic response of theWhere superscript “e” indicates the synchronous voltage sag compensator, the feed forward control isreference frame representation of this variable and ω added to the voltage control loop to compensate theis the angular frequency of the utility grid. Equation load voltage immediately when voltage sag occurs.(3) and (4) show the cross-coupling terms between The feed-forward voltage command can becompensation voltage and filter inductor current. calculated by combining the compensation voltage and the voltage drop across the filter inductor whichIV. THE PROPOSED CONTROL is produced by the filter capacitor current.METHOD The block diagram of the proposed control 4.1.3 Decoupling controlmethod is shown in the Figure 4. Note that the d- Since cross coupling terms derived fromaxis controller is not shown for simplicity. The thesynchronous reference frame transformation andblock diagram consists of the full state feedback the external disturbances exists in the physicalcontroller [16] and the proposed inrush current model of voltage sag compensator, the control blockmitigation technique. Detailed explanations are utilizes the decoupling control to improve thegiven in the following sections. accuracy and the disturbance rejection ability. Figure 4 shows the decoupling terms is produced by4.1 The full state feedback scheme measuring the load current, filter capacitor voltage The state feedback scheme includes and the filter inductor current. The cross couplingfeedback control, feedforward control and terms in physical model can be eliminateddecoupling control. completely.4.1.1 Feedback control 4.2. Inrush Current Mitigation Technique The feedback control is utilized to improvethe preciseness of compensation voltage, the 4.2.1 Flux linkage DC offsetdisturbance rejection capability and the robustness The flux linkage is estimated by theagainst parameter variations. As in Fig. 4, the measured line voltage. Figure 5 shows a singlecapacitor voltage vecq is the voltage control in the winding of the delta/wye three-phase loadouter loop and the inductor current iemqis the inner transformer which is installed in downstream of 1790 | P a g e
  • 4. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796voltage sag compensator. The fluxlinkage of thephase a-b winding is expressed as WhereVˆ*Lab is the magnitudeis the magnitude ofλLab(t)=∫vLab(t)dt(5) load voltage, ω is thegrid frequency, and Φ*Lab is the phase angle. Thus, afterthe voltage compensation is completed, the flux linkage can be expressed as WhereFig. 5.Connection diagram of the proposed systemand delta/wye load transformer. Equation (9) states that the sagged voltages cause the flux linkage DC offset ∆λLab on the transformer windings, and its magnitude is dependent on the depth and the duration of sags. Severe voltage sag event can drive the DC offset exceeding the magnetic saturation knee and causes high inrush current. In practical saturation, the magnetic saturation knee is usually put on 1.10-1.15 p.u. of state-study flux linkage. 4.2.2 Design the flux linkage estimator The Figure 7 shows the model of a single transformer under no load, where R1 is the equivalent resistor of copper loss, Ll1 is the equivalent leakage inductance, Rc is the equivalentFig.6.Transformer voltage and corresponding resistor of core losses, and Lm is the magnetictransient flux linkage. inductance. As shown in Figure 6, the line-to-linevoltage across the transformer winding and theresulting flux linkage from the sag occurrence tocompletion of voltage compensation. When voltagesags occurs (t=tsag), the controller detects thesagged voltage and injects the requiredcompensation voltage at t=tdetect. The flux linkageduring the voltage compensation process can be Fig. 7. Equivalent per phase circuit model of theexpress as following: transformer This dynamics of the transformer equivalent circuit in Fig. 7 can be expressed asThis equation can be re-written as Note that the leakage inductances and the core losses are neglected for simplifications.Assume the pre-fault load voltage is This equation can be re-written as 1791 | P a g e
  • 5. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796 feedforwardcommand is added to the sag compensation voltage command ve*mq to establish the overall command voltage of the voltage sag compensator. Thus, the proposed control method leads the voltage sag compensator to perform an excellent load voltage tracking and prevent theWhere [λLaλLbλLc]T=Lm[iLaiLbiLc]T inrush current occurs on the load-side transformer.The dynamics of the transformer flux linkages canbe transformed into the synchronous reference V. LABORATORY TEST RESULTS A prototype voltage sag compensator withframe as inrush current mitigation technique is implemented in laboratory. The one-line diagram is as given in Fig. 1. The system parameters of testbench and controller are given as follows: where the damping ratio, ζ=R1/Lm, decides  Source: 220V, 60Hz;the transient of the flux linkage. Figure 8 shows theflux linkage estimator under the synchronous  Loads: non-linear load (R=140Ω,reference frame derived from the equation (12). L=2.0mH, C=3300uF);  Voltage sag compensator: a conventional three-phase inverter switching at 10kHz, the leakage inductance of the coupling transformer Lf=0.32mH, and filter capacitorCf=4.0µF.  Load transformer: 3kVA, 220V/220V (Delta/Wye connection) TABLE I The parameters of the control gains K K K K K pv pi pt pλ Iλ 0.2 3.2 167 304 200Fig. 8.The flux linkage estimator under thesynchronous reference frame. The Figure 9 shows that asymmetrical fault is introduced in utility line, and the experimental As shown in Fig. 8, the flux linkage results of voltage sag compensator without theestimatoris applied to the proposed inrushmitigation technique. The proposed inrush inrush current mitigation technique. The controllermitigation method includes feedback control and detects the voltage sag in 4.0ms after the faultfeedforward control. occurs, and injects the required compensation voltage immediately to maintain load voltage in In the feedback control loop, the flux normal value as shown in Fig. 9(b). The transformerlinkage λeLq is generated by integrating the load flux linkage DC offsets caused by the voltage sagvoltage veLq. The deviation of the flux linkage can be can be clearly observed in Fig. 9(c), which results incalculated by the difference between λe*Lq and the a significant inrush current of peak value 14A asflux linkage λeLq. The error is regulated by a shown in Fig. 9(d). Figure 9(e) shows theproportional-integral (PI) regulator. transformer flux linkage under the synchronous reference frame (λeLd). The voltage compensation To speed up the dynamics response of the process causes the flux linkage λeLd oscillate andinrush current mitigation, the error between the naturally decays to the normal state by core losses ofestimated flux linkage DC offset and the flux the transformer and the power consumption of thelinkage command(∆λeLq.=λe*Lq-λeLq) is utilized as a load.feedforward control term. The command ismultiplied by a proportional gainKpt (=1/∆T) to Under the same asymmetrical fault, Fig. 10accelerate the DC offset compensation during the shows the experimental waveforms when the inrushcompensator start transient. The control gain Kpt is current mitigation technique is utilized inselected according to the tolerant of inrush current compensation process. Figure 10(a) and (b) illustrateand the time requirement of flux linkage DC offset proposed inrush current mitigation technique cancompensation. achieve fast voltage compensation and without any flux linkage DC offset during the transientThe summation ve*λq of feedback and compared with Fig. 9(b) and (c). Therefore, the inrush current caused by the voltage sag can be 1792 | P a g e
  • 6. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796avoided completely compared to Fig. 9(d).Furthermore, Fig. 10(a) also shows that the inrushcurrent mitigation technique generates an extravoltage to correct the trace of transient flux linkagewhen the compensation is initiated compared to Fig.9(c). The magnitude of the extra voltage is usuallydependent on proportion gain Kλ. Figure 10(d)shows the tracking performance of proposed inrushcurrent mitigation technique. The P-I regulatorproposed method can be recognized as a virtualdamper. A large number of KPλ can accelerate theflux linkage λeLd to track the flux linkage command (d) Load current iLλe*Ld. However, it may cause a high current in thestart transient. (e)Flux linkage of d axis λeLd (a)Source voltage vs Fig. 9.Experimental waveforms without the inrush current mitigation technique(b).Load voltage vL-L (a). Load voltage vL-L.(c). Flux linkage of the load transformer λL-L (b). Flux linkage of the load transformer λL-L 1793 | P a g e
  • 7. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796 VI. THE DISTURBANCE REJECTION CAPABILITY The stationary referenced frame control design [17] causes a steady-state tracking error on the load voltage. Moreover, the control gain limitation constricts the compensator capability about disturbance rejection [7]. The synchronous reference frame implementation of the proposed state feedback controller can effectively enhance the disturbance rejection capability compared to the stationary frame feedback controller design [16]. The proposed inrush current mitigation technique utilizes a flux linkage closed-loop control, and this feature elevates even further the disturbance rejection characteristics of the sag compensator for(c). Load current iL the fundamental frequency load current. The disturbance rejection capability can be characterized by the transfer function between the compensator output voltage and the load current. Equation (11) and (12) show the disturbance rejection capability of the compensator under the conventional voltage-current state feedback controller and the proposed inrush current mitigation technique integrated with state feedback controller respectively.(d). Flux linkage of d axis λeLdFig.10. Experimental waveforms with the inrushcurrent mitigation technique Note that three assumptions are made for simplicity, namely 1) cross-coupling terms in Figure 11 makes a comparison between the physical model has been decoupled by theproportion gain KPλ and flux linkage tracking error controllers, 2) and the utility voltage is a voltage(λe*Ld -λeLd). As the figure shows that the tracking stiff, 3) the parameter of proportion gain is selectederror approaches steady state very quickly as a high as Kpλ=KIvKpi.Kpλ is selected as control gain. Moreover, the higherKpλ can benefit the disturbance rejection capability Figure 12 illustrates a Bode diagram of thein the range between fundamental frequency and both the transfer functions. The figure shows thatmiddle frequency. More details will be discussed in the system is very critical in shaping the Bodethe next section. diagram of this disturbance rejection transfer function if the inrush current mitigation technique is integrated with controllers. This advantage benefits the power quality of the compensator output voltage. Analysis of the experimental results shows that the total harmonic distortion (THD) of load voltage without inrush current mitigation is 5.49% and with inrush current mitigation is 5.16%. The TABLE II summarizes the relationship between the error of fundamental component of load voltage and control gain KIλ. The rejection ratio of the fundamental frequency can be increased by selecting a high control gain KIλ.Fig. 11. The flux linkage tracking error betweenλe*Ld and λeLd under different control gain Kpλ 1794 | P a g e
  • 8. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796 REFERENCES [1] Amit Kumar Jena, BhupenMohapatra, KalandiPradhan, “Modeling and Simulation of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)”, Project Report,Bachelor of Technology in Electrical Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha-769008Fig. 12. Comparison between conventional [2] Roger C. Dugan. Electrical Power Systemsvoltage-current state feedback controller and the Quality.Editorial McGraw–Hill, 1996.proposed inrush current mitigation technique [3] Ministerio de Economía. Real Decretointegrated with state feedback controller in 1955/2000 porelque sedisturbance rejection capability. regulanlasactividades de transporte, distribución,comercialización,suministro y procedimientosdeautorización de instalaciones de energíaeléctrica. BOE,Diciembre 2000. [4] Facts Controllers In Power Transmission and Distribution by Padiyar, K.R. , ISBN: 978-81-224- 2142-2: June, 2007. [5] J. G. Nielsen, M. Newman, H. Nielsen, and F. Blaabjerg, “Control and testing of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) at medium voltage level,” IEEE Trans. PowerVII.CONCLUSION This paper proposes an improvement of Electron., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 806–813, May 2004.transient current response with inrush current [6] M. Vilathgamuwa, A.A.D. RanjithPerera,mitigation technique incorporating with the full S.S. Choi, “Performance improvement ofstate feedback controller to prevent the inrush the dynamic voltage restorer with closed-current during the voltage compensation process. loop load voltage and current-modeThe controller includes a voltage control, a current control,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,control and a flux linkage control. The proposed Vol. 17, on 5, pp. 824 – 834, Septembercontrol method is based on the synchronous 2002.reference frame which enables voltage sag [7] M. J. Ryan, W. E. Brumsickle, and R. D.compensator to achieve fast voltage injection and Lorenz, "Control topology options forprevent the inrush current. When voltage sagoccurs, the controller can track the transient flux single-phase UPS inverters," Industrylinkage and calculate a required compensation Applications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 33, pp. 493-501, 1997.voltage in real-time for fast compensation and [8] W. E. Brumsickle, R. S. Schneider, G. A.elimination of flux linkage DC offset caused by Luckjiff, D. M. Divan, M. F.voltage sags. The effectiveness of the proposed flux McGranaghan, “ Dynamic sag correctors:linkage compensation mechanism is validated by cost-effective industrial power linelaboratory test results. The disturbance rejection conditioning”, IEEE Transactions oncharacteristics of the proposed method are also Industry Applications, vol.37, pp. 212-217,examined in the frequency domain for better Jan.-Feb. 2001.understanding of the control gains selection and its [9] D. M. Vilathgamuwa, A. A. D. R. Perera,effect. It shows that the proposed control methodprovides a high disturbance rejection capability for S. S. Choi, “Voltage sag compensationvoltage sag compensator compared with with energy optimized dynamic voltage restorer”, IEEE Transactions on Powerconventional voltage-current state feedback control Delivery, vol.18, pp.928-936, July 2003.method. The proposed method can be easily [10] Chi-Jen Huang, Shyh-Jier Huang, Fu-integrated with the existing voltage sag Sheng Pai, “Design of dynamic voltagecompensation control system without using any restorer with disturbance-filteringextra sensors. enhancement”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol.18, pp.1202-1210, Sept. 2003. 1795 | P a g e
  • 9. SHANMUKHA NAGARAJU.V, DR.M.SRIDHAR / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue5, September- October 2012, pp.1788-1796[11] P.T. Cheng; C. -C. Huang; C. – C. Pan; S. Bhattacharya, “Design and implementation of a series voltage sag compensator under practical utility conditions”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Applicat., Vol. 39, pp. 844-853, May- June 2003.[12] B.H. Li, S.S. Choi, D.W. Vilathgamuwa, 2001, “Design Considerations on the line- side filter used in the Dynamic Voltage Restorer,” IEE Proc. Generat. Trans. Distribut., 148(1), pp. 1-7.[13] Rosh Omar, NasrudinAbd Rahim, MarizanSulaiman, 2010, “New Control Technique Applied in Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Voltage Sag Mitigation,” American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(1), pp. 858-864.[14] K. Chan, 1998, “Technical and Performance Aspects of aDynamic Voltage Restorer,” Proceeding of the IEE Half Day Colloquium on Dynamic Voltage Restorers – Replacing Those Missing Cycles, IEEE Xplore Glasgow, UK, pp. 5/1-525.[15] R. Buxton, 1998, “Protection from Voltage Dips with the Dynamic Voltage Restorer,” Proceeding of the IEE Half Day Colloquium on Dynamic Voltage Restorers – Replacing Those Missing Cycles, IEEE Xplore Glasgow, UK, pp. 3/1-3/6.[16] P. T. Cheng, C. L. Ni, J. M. Chen, ”Design of a state feedback controller for series voltage sag compensators,” Power Conversion Conference, pp. 398-403, April 2007.[17] L. Yun Wei, F. Blaabjerg, D. M. Vilathgamuwa, and A. P. C. L. Poh Chiang Loh, "Design and Comparison of High Performance Stationary-Frame Controllers for DVR Implementation," Power Electronics, IEEETransactions on, vol. 22, pp. 602-612, 2007.[18] M. H. Rashid, Power Electronics-Circuits, Devices and Applications, 3rd ed. India: Prentice-Hall of India, Aug. 2006. 1796 | P a g e