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    Jd2416001606 Jd2416001606 Document Transcript

    • Pradeep U. Verma, Anshita R. Purohit, Naimesh J. Patel / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1600-1606 Pollution Status Of Chandlodia Lake Located In Ahmedabad- Gujarat Pradeep U. Verma*, Anshita R. Purohit **and Naimesh J. Patel*** (Assistant Professor, Shri R. R. Lalan College – Bhuj-Kachchh, Kachchh University, Gujarat (India) - 370001 (Senior Research Fellow, Genetic Diagnostic center, Department of Zoology, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India) – 380009 (C.E.O., Bhishma Agri Research Biotech Co., Biotech Department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India) -380009ABSTRACT Pollution is viewed as the release of present study the sampling was done during morningsubstances and energy as waste product of human hour. The water samples were collected in theactivities which result in harmful changes within polyethylene bottles. The closed bottle was dipped inthe natural environment. In the present study the lake at the depth of 0.5 to 0.7 m, and then a bottlewater of Chandlodia lake was analyzed for was opened inside and was closed again to bring itvarious physico-chemcial parameters. The study out at the surface. The samples were collected fromwas carried out for a period of one year. Montly five different points and were mixed together todata’s been collected and were represented prepare an integrated sample. From the time ofseasonally along with standard error. Different sample collection to the time of actually analyses,parameters taken in the study were Temperature, many physical and chemical reactions would changeElectrical conductivity, Turbidity, Total dissolve the quality of the water sample; therefore to minimizesolids, pH, Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Calcium, this change the sample were preserved soon after theMagnesium, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemcial collection. The water samples were preserved byoxygen demand, Chloride, Sodium, Nitrate and adding chemical preservatives and by lowering thePhosphate. Therefore from the above result it was temperature. The water temperature, pH, DO, EC andconcluded that water of Chandlodia lake shows TDS were analyzed immediately on the spot after thevery high level of pollution. collection, whereas the analyses of remaining parameters were done in the laboratory.1. INTRODUCTION The study was carried for a period of 1 year Pollutants are defined as the substances (March 2010 to February 2011). Monthly data waswhich cause pollution. They can be physical or collected, but results were represented season wise.chemical. Each lake system is unique, and its Four month make one season [March to June summerdynamics can be understood only to a limited degree season, July to October monsoon season, andbased on information from other lakes. Just as a November to February winter season].The collectedphysician would not diagnose an individual’s medical water samples were brought to the laboratory andcondition or prescribe treatment without a personal relevant analysis was performed. pH was determinedmedical examination, a limnologist or hydrologist electrometrically using digital pH meter, electricalcannot accurately assess a lake system or suggest a conductivity was measured by conductivity meter,management strategy without data and analysis from dissolved oxygen is measured by DO meter, totalthat particular lake and its environment. The study dissolve solid was measured by using TDS meter andwas carried out to check the pollution status of similarly turbidity is measured by Nepthalo turbidityChandlodia lake. Chandlodia lake is located in meter. Alkalinity, chloride, TDS, calcium,Ahemdabad. magnesium, total hardness, nitrate and phosphate Chandlodia lake is an artificial lake, were determined by method suggested by [1] [2] [3].constructed by AUDA. Chandlodia lake is also Estimation of sodium was done by Flamelocated in the western part of Ahmedabad city. The Photometric method. The mean value of the monthlyhalf portions of the lake become dry during the data was calculated as season wise and standard errorsummer season. The people in the surrounding region was also calculated by using following formulause to throw waste into the lake and the cattle alsotake bath in the lake. The lake covers an area of Standard deviation22,940 m2. And its exact geographical location is23005’00.05” N Latitude and 72033’09.43” ELongitude. Standard error2. METHODOLOGY The present study was carried out forChandlodia Lake, located in Ahemdabad city. In the 1600 | P a g e
    • Pradeep U. Verma, Anshita R. Purohit, Naimesh J. Patel / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1600-16063. RESULT AND DISCUSSION3.1 Temperature 3.4 Total Dissolve solids The temperature plays a crucial role in Total dissolved solids denote mainly thephysico-chemical and biological behavior of aquatic various kinds of mineral present in the water.system [4]. Temperature is one of the most important Dissolved solid do not contain any gas and colloids.factors in the aquatic environment [5]. The In natural water dissolved solids are composedtemperature of Chandlodia lake ranges between 16 ± mainly of carbonates, bicarbonates of calcium,1.47 to 29 ± 1.58. The maximum temperature was magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron and manganeserecorded during summer season and minimum was etc. The amount of total dissolve solid in Chandlodiarecorded during winter season. lake ranges between 963 ± 31.5 to 1264 ± 39. The Generally water temperature correspond maximum amount of total dissolve solid waswith air temperature indicating that the samples recorded during monsoon season and minimum wascollected from shallow zone has a direct relevance recorded during winter.with air temperature, shallow water reacts quickly The high value of TDS during monsoon maywith changes in atmospheric temperature [6] [7] [8] be due to addition of domestic waste water, garbage[9] [10] [11]. and sewage etc in the natural surface water body. Indeed, high concentration of TDS enriches the3.2 Electrical Conductivity nutrient status of water body which was resulted into Electrical conductivity in the water is due to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystem [5] [20].salt present in water and current produced by them. Itmeasures the electric current which is proportional to 3.5 pHmineral matter present in water. A high level of pH measure the concentration of hydrogenconductivity reflects on the pollution status as well as ion in water. It is the measurement of acidity ortrophic levels of the aquatic body [12]. Conductivity alkalinity. Generally in India many small confinedof water depends upon the concentration of ions and water pockets particularly, are alkaline in nature [21].its nutrient status and variation in dissolve solid The pH value ranges between 8.7 ± 0.17 to 9.1 ±content. Electrical conductivity recorded in 0.18. The maximum pH was recorded duringChandlodia lake ranges between 2.78 ± 0.07 to 3.24 ± monsoon and minimum pH was recorded during0.26. The high value of conductivity was recorded summer season.during monsoon season were as low value was High pH values promote the growth of algaerecorded during summer season. and results in heavy bloom of phytoplankton [22] The water during the summer decrease as a [23] [24] [25]. The pH values above 8 in naturalresult some of the aquatic plant got destroyed and water are produced by photosynthetic rate thatvery few plants remain in the water. Therefore demand more CO2 than quantities furnished byaquatic plants are in very rare amount in monsoon respiration and decomposition [26]. The pH of waterseason, thus electrical conductivity is more in also depends on the relative quantities of calcium,monsoon because water is free from vegetation and carbonate and bicarbonate.aquatic life therefore all the ion are accumulated inwater. The decomposition of plants and animals 3.6 Alkalinityreleased the ion back in water [13]. Alkalinity in natural water is due to free hydroxyl ion and hydrolysis of salts formed by weak3.3 Turbidity acid and strong bases and also due to salt containing Turbidity is the measure of the light carbonates and bicarbonates silicate and phosphatescattered by suspended particles. It is due to the along with hydroxyl ion in the Free states. Thesubstances not present in the form of solution. Clay, change in alkalinity depend on carbonates andslit, organic matter, phytoplankton and other bicarbonates, which in term depend upon release ofmicroscopic organisms cause turbidity in pond water CO2. Change in carbonates and bicarbonates also[14]. Light penetration is also highly affected by depend upon release of CO2 through respiration ofturbidity. Turbidity in Chandlodia lake recorded living organisms. The amount of total alkalinity inranges between 16 ± 1.47 to 22 ± 0.91. The Chandlodia lake ranges between 192 ± 3.65 to 214 ±maximum turbidity in water was recorded during 6.87. The minimum value of alkalinity was recordedmonsoon season and minimum turbidity was during summer season and maximum value wasrecorded during summer season. recorded during monsoon season High turbidity in lake water during monsoon The addition of large amount of sewageseason is due to addition of sand, clay, slit, dung and waste and organic pollutant in the lake also effectvarious other pollutant along with rain water from the photosynthesis rate, which also result in death ofsurrounding area into the lake [15] [16] [17] . High plants and living organism. The degradation ofturbidity during monsoon season may be due to plants, living organism and organic waste might alsoinflow of storm water from the surrounding area [18] be one of the reasons for increase in a carbonate and[19]. bicarbonate, resulting an increase in alkalinity 1601 | P a g e
    • Pradeep U. Verma, Anshita R. Purohit, Naimesh J. Patel / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1600-1606value[27] [28] [29]. Increase in alkalinity during and sulphate [37]. Various sub-processes like bating,monsoon was due to input of freshwater and picking, tanning, dyeing and fat liquoring causesdissolution of calcium carbonate ions in the water water pollution [38]. Magnesium is vitalcolumn [30]. micronutrient for both plant and animal.3.7 Total Hardness 3.10 Dissolved Oxygen Water hardness is the traditional measure of The oxygen in water can be dissolved fromthe capacity of water to react with soap, hard water air or is produced from the photosynthetic organismrequiring a considerable amount of soap to produce like algae and aquatic plants oxygen is poorly solublelather. Hardness of water is not a specific constituent gas in water and it solubility depend on thebut is a variable and complex mixture of cations and temperature of water and its partial pressure. Theanions. The total hardness recorded in the water of solubility of oxygen also decreases with increasingChandlodia lake ranges between 304 ± 6.58 to 328 ± salinity of water. [39] has established a direct8.29. The maximum amount of total hardness in the relationship between photosynthesis and dissolvedwater of Chandlodia lake was recorded during oxygen. Measurement of dissolved oxygen is amonsoon season and minimum amount was recorded primary parameter in all pollution studies. Theduring winter season. amount of dissolved oxygen recorded in the water of Total hardness is mainly due to calcium Chandlodia lake ranges between 2.14 ± 0.07 to 5.08 ±magnesium and eutrophication [31]. The high value 0.07. The minimum amount of dissolved oxygen inof hardness during monsoon may be due to presence the water of Chandlodia lake was recorded duringof high content of calcium and magnesium in winter season whereas maximum amount wasaddition to sulphate and nitrate in the sewage waste recorded during monsoon seasonadded during monsoon [32] [33]. The high temperature and addition of sewage and other waste might be responsible for low3.8 Calcium value of DO [40] [41]. Depletion of dissolve oxygen Calcium is an important nutrient for aquatic, in water is due to high temperature and increasedorganism and it is commonly present in all water microbial activity [42]. Dissolve oxygen with highbodies [16]. The amount of calcium in the water of value observed during monsoon may be as a result ofChandlodia lake ranges between 66 ± 3.92 to 82 ± the increased solubility of oxygen at lower4.32. The maximum amount of calcium in the water temperature [43].of Chandlodia lake was recorded during monsoonseason and minimum amount was recorded during 3.11 Biochemical oxygen demandwinter season. BOD refers the oxygen used by the Calcium is present in water naturally, but the microorganism in the aerobic oxidation of organicaddition of sewage waste might also be responsible matter. Therefore with the increase in the amount offor the increase in amount of calcium [32] [34]. The organic matter in the water the BOD increases. Thedecrease in amount of calcium may be due to its BOD value in Chandlodia lake ranges between 1.96 ±absorption by living organisms. 0.08 to 3.38 ± 0.3. The minimum demand of oxygen in the water was recorded during summer season,3.9 Magnesium whereas maximum demand was recorded during Magnesium is found in various salt and monsoon seasonminerals, frequently in association with iron The higher value of BOD during monsooncompound. Magnesium is vital micronutrient for both was due to input of organic wastes and enchancedplant and animal. Magnesium is often associated with bacterial activity [44]. The reason of high BOD incalcium in all kind of water, but it concentration monsoon might also be due to presence of severalremain generally lower than the calcium [35]. microbes in water bodies, which accelerate theirMagnesium is essential for chlorophyll growth and metabolic activities with the increase in concentrationact as a limiting factor for the growth of of organic matter in the form of municipal andphytoplankton [18]. In Chandlodia lake the amount domestic waste which was discharge into waterof magnesium recorded ranges between 30 ± 2.58 to bodies and so the demand of oxygen increased [45].34 ± 2.12. The maximum amount of magnesium inthe water was recorded during winter season and 3.12 Chlorideminimum amount was recorded during summer The greater source of chlorides in lake waterseason is disposal of sewage and industrial waste. Human Decrease in level of magnesium reduces the body release very high quantity of chlorides throughphytoplankton population. [36] suggested that the urine and fasces. The chloride concentration wasconsiderable amount of magnesium influence water used as an important parameter for detection ofquality. Magnesium is essential for chlorophyll contamination by sewage. Prior to development ofbearing plant. Magnesium enters into combination bacteriological and other test like BOD and COD.Thewith anions other than CO2 in lakes such as chloride amount of chloride recorded in the water of 1602 | P a g e
    • Pradeep U. Verma, Anshita R. Purohit, Naimesh J. Patel / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1600-1606Chandlodia lake ranges between 88 ± 4.97 to 122 ± and animal; over 85% of total phosphorous is usually4.97. The minimum amount of chloride in the lake found in organic form. In Chandlodia lake thewater was recorded during winter season and the amount of phosphate recorded ranges between 1.24 ±maximum amount was recorded during summer 0.05 to 1.92 ± 0.11. The minimum amount ofseason. phosphate recorded in the water of lake was during The higher concentration of chloride during winter season and the maximum amount wassummer month may be associated with frequently recorded during monsoon season.run-off loaded with contaminated water from the The maximum value of phosphate duringsurrounding [46] [47]. The high chloride monsoon may be attributed to surface runoff duringconcentration of the lake water may be due to high rainy season receiving huge quantity of domesticrate of evaporation [48] or due to organic waste of sewage, cattle dung and detergents from theanimal origin [49]. surrounding catchment area. Catchment area activities are enriching phosphate in the lake [55].3.13 Sodium The lower value of phosphate in summer month may Sodium is a natural constituent of raw water, be due to more uptake of phosphate for luxuriantbut its concentration is increased by pollutional growth of macrophytes.sources such as rock salt, precipitation runoff, soapysolution and detergent. The amount of sodium 4. CONCLUSIONrecorded in the water of Chandlodia lake ranges Therefore comparing the result with [56]between 38 ±4.97 to 65 ±2.89. The minimum amount [57] standard it was concluded that water ofof sodium in the water of Chandlodia lake was Chandlodia lake shows very huge level of pollutionrecorded during winter and maximum amount was and similar condition continue the lake with soonrecorded during monsoon season become ecological inactive. The high level of sodium during monsoonmay be attributed to the rain water as it carries the REFERENCESsalt dissolved from the surrounding area [50]. The [1] APHA, AWWA. Standard. Methods for theaddition of waste water containing soap solution and examination of water & waste water.detergent from the surrounding slummy area are also (Washington DC 18th Edition, 1985).responsible for the increase in sodium level in the [2] S.M. Kumar and S. Ravindranath, “Waterwater bodies. Studies – Methods for monitoring water quality”. (Banglore, Karnataka, Center for3.14 Nitrate Environment Education (CEE), 1998). Nitrates are contributed to freshwater [3] R.K.Trivedy and P.K. Goel, Chemical andthrough discharge of sewage and industrial wastes biological methods for water pollutionand run off from agricultural fields. Some ground studies. (Karad, Maharashtra (India),waters naturally have high nitrate concentration. In Environmental Publication,1984).Chandlodia lake the amount of nitrate recorded [4] B.K. Dwivedi and G.C. Pandey, Physico-ranges between 5.8 ± 0.18 to 7.4 ± 0.22. The chemical factors and algal diversity of twominimum amount of nitrate in the water of ponds in Faizabad, India Poll.Res. 21(3),Chandlodia lake was recorded during summer season, 2002, 361-370.whereas maximum amount of nitrate in the water was [5] R.P. Singh and P. Mathur, Investigation ofrecorded during monsoon season. variations in physicochemical characteristics The high nitrate concentration during of a fresh water reservoir of Ajmer city,monsoon might be due to influx nitrogen rich flood Rajesthan, Ind. J. Environ. Science, 9, 2005,water that brings about large amount of contaminated 57-61.sewage waste. The monsoon season was the period [6] P.S. Welch, Limonology, (N.Y. 2nd Ed.,with the highest nitrate-nitrogen concentration which McGraw Hill Book Co.,1952).is known to support the formation of blooms [51] [7] P.C. Joshi and A. Singh, Analysis of certain[52] [53]. Nitrate content was higher in monsoon physicochemical parameters and plankton ofseason, which can be attributed to the nitrate leached freshwater hill stream at Nanda devifrom the surrounding area. But lower concentration biosphere reserve. Uttarpradesh J. Zool., 21,in summer was due to utilization by plankton and 2001, 177-179.aquatic plants [54]. [8] B.B. Ghose and A.K. Basu, Observation on estuarine pollution of Hoogly by the3.15 Phosphate effluents from a chemical factory complexat Excess amount of phosphate may cause Reshase, West Bengal. Journal of Env.eutrophication leading to extensive algal growth Health. 10, 1968, 209-218.called algal blooms. Total phosphates in water [9] J.O. Young, Seasonal and diurnal changes ininclude both organic and inorganic phosphates. the water temperature of a temperate pondOrganic phosphates are part of living and dead plants 1603 | P a g e
    • Pradeep U. Verma, Anshita R. Purohit, Naimesh J. Patel / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1600-1606 (England) and tropical pond (Kenya). Agra. Indian J. Environ Hlth, 23, 1981, 118- Hydrobiol. 47, 1975, 513-526 122. [10] H. S. Sehgal, Limnology of lake Sruinsar, [22] M.G. George, Diurnal variation in two Jammu with reference to zooplankton and shallow ponds in Delhi , India. Hydrobiol., fisheries prospectus, doctoral diss., 3, 1962, 265. University of Jammu, 1980. [23] A.M. McCombie, Factors Influencing the [11] M. Jayanti, A comprehensive study of three growth of phytoplankton Canada. J. Fish contrasting lentic system in the content of Res. Ed., 10, 1953, 253-282. Aquaculture, doctoral diss., Bharathidasan [24] S.N. Nandan and R.J. Patel, Ecological University, Tiruchirappalli, 1994. studies of algae in aquatic ecology (New [12] A.A. Ahluwalia, Limnological Study of Delhi, Ashis Publishing House, 1992). wetlands under Sardar Sarovar command [25] S.K. Moitra and B.K. Bhattacharya, Some area. doctoral diss., Gujarat University, hydrological factors affecting plankton Ahmedabad, 1999. production in fish pond in Kalyani, West [13] H.A. Solanki and B.R. Pandit, Trophic Bengal, India. Icthyalogia 4 (1& 2), 1965, status of lentic waters of ponds water of 8–12. Vadodara, Gujarat state, India. Int. J. of [26] I.A. Wani and Subla, Physicochemical Bioscience Reporter 4 (1), 2006, 191–198. features of two shallow Himalayan lakes. [14] A.K.Das and N.P. Shrivastva, Ecology of Bull Eviron. Sci., 8, 1990, 33-49. Sarni Reservoir (M. P.) in the context of [27] M. Chaurasia and G.C. Pandey, Study of Fisheries. Poll Res. 22(4), 2003, 533–539. physico- chemical characteristic of some [15] K.L. Saxena, R.N. Chakraborty, A.Q. Khan water pond of Ayodhya –Faizabad. Indian J. and S.N. Chattopadhya, Pollution studies of of Environmental protection, 27 (11), 2007, the river Ganga near Kanpur. Indian J. 1019-1023. Environ. Hlth. 8, 1966, 270-285. [28] S.A. Abbasi, F.J. Khan, K. Sentilevelan and [16] K.K. Ansari, and S. Prakash, Limnological A. Shabuden, Indian J. Env. Hlth.. 14(3), studies on Tulsidas Tal of Tarai region of 1999, 176-183 Balrampur in relation to fisheries Poll. Res. [29] C.K. Jain, K.K.S. Bhatica and T. Vijay, 19(4), 2000, 651-655. Ground water quality in coastal region of [17] H.A. Solanki, Study on pollution of soils Andraapradesh. Indian J. of Environmental and water reservoirs near industrial areas Health. 39 (3), 1997,182-190. of Baroda, doctoral diss., submitted to [30] S. Padma and Periakali, Physicochemical Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar, 2001. and geochemical studies in Pulicat lake, east [18] Dagaonkar and D.N. Saksena, coast of India. Indian J.Mar. Sci., 28, 1999, Physicochemical and biological 434-437. characterization of a temple tank, Kaila [31] N.K. Patel and B.K. Sinha, Study of the Sagar, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh. J. pollution load in the pond of Burla area near Hydrobiol. 8 (1), 1992, 11-19. Hirakund dam at Orissa. J. Env. Poll. 5, [19] R.K. Garg, R.J. Rao and D.N. Saksena, 1998, 157-160. Assesment of physicochemical water quality [32] S.B. Angadi, N. Shiddamaliayya and P.C. of Harsi Reservoir, District Gwalior, Patil, Limnological study of papnash pond, Madhya Pradesh. J. Ecophysiol. Occupat. Bidar (Karnataka). J. Env. Biol., 26, 2005, Health 6, 2006, 33-40. 213-216. [20] N. Swarnalatha and A. Narasingrao, [33] A.K. Tripathi and S.N. Pandey, Water Ecological studies of Banjara lake with pollution (New Delhi, Ashish Publishing reference to water pollution. J. Environ. House, 1990). biol. 19 (2), 1998, 179-186. [34] J. UdhayaKumar, D. Natarajan, K. [21] K.D. Sharma, N. Lal and P.D. Pathak, Water Srinivasan, C. Mohansundari, and M. quality of sewage drains entering Yamuna at [35] Balasurami, Physicochemical and waste stabilization pond. J. Ecotoxicol. Bacteriological Analysis of water from Environ. Monit., 1(1), 1991,53-58. Namakkal and Erode Districts, Tamilnadu, [38] V.G. Jhingran, Fish and Fisheries of India India. Poll Res. 25(3), 2006, 495-498. (Delhi (India), Hindustan Publ. Corp., [36] R. Venkatasubramani and T. Meenambal, 1975). Study of subsurface water quality in [39] R.L. Bolton and L. Klein, Sewage treatment Mattupalayam Taluk of Coimbatore district basic principles and trends (London, Tamil Nadu. Nat. Environ. Poll. Tech. 6, Butterworths, 1971). 2007, 307-310 [40] S. Vijayaraghavan, Seasonal variation in pri. [37] V.S. Govindan and R. Devika, Studies on Productivity in three tropical ponds. Heavy metal profiles of Adyar river and Hydrobiol. 38, 1971, 395-408. 1604 | P a g e
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    • Pradeep U. Verma, Anshita R. Purohit, Naimesh J. Patel / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue4, July-August 2012, pp.1600-16068. Calcium in ppm 76 ±3.92 82 ±4.32 66 ±3.929. Magnesium in ppm 30 ±2.58 31 ±1.73 34 ±2.1210. Dissolved Oxygen in ppm 2.14 ±0.07 5.08 ±0.07 3.28 ±0.2211. Biochemical Oxygen Demand in ppm 1.96 ±0.08 3.38 ±0.3 2.20 ±0.2112. Chloride in ppm 122 ±4.97 93 ±4.65 88 ±4.9713. Sodium in ppm 44 ±3.65 65 ±2.89 38 ±4.9714. Nitrate in ppm 5.8 ±0.18 7.4 ±0.22 6.7 ±0.3215. Phosphate in ppm 1.66 ±0.12 1.92 ±0.11 1.24 ±0.05 [S.E. = Standard error] CHANDLODIA LAKE CHANDLODIA LAKE SATELLITE IMAGE REAL IMAGE 1606 | P a g e