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    • Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh, Anantdeep Kaur / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1607-1610 Performance Evaluation of Aodv and Dsr Routing Protocols for VBR Traffic in Mobile Adhoc Networks Gurpreet Singh #1, Atinderpal Singh#, Anantdeep Kaur* # Department of CSE & IT, BBSBEC, Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India *Assistant Professor (Management & IT), SBSSTC, Ferozepur, Punjab, IndiaAbstract Mobile Ad hoc network (MANETs) is evaluated for multimedia data in a multihop mobilerapidly growing as an important area of wireless network by taking different performance metrics. Incommunication with the revolutionary inventions this paper, we will evaluate the performance of twoin the mobile devices. Efficient routing protocols reactive protocols AODV and DSR by taking themake MANETs reliable. Despite the considerable VBR multimedia transmission in a multihop mobilesimulation works, still more investigation is network. The mobility scenario simulates therequired in the performance evaluation of environment of a modern city, where mobile nodesrouting protocols for multimedia traffic are connected to each other and communicates.especially Variable Bit Rate(VBR).In this paper, This paper is organized as follows: The nextwe will conduct a number of simulations for the section presents the main Ad hoc routing protocolsperformance evaluation of two popular routing AODV and DSR that are used in the performanceprotocols of MANET, namely AODV and DSR, evaluation process. Section III presents thefor VBR multimedia traffic using Real Time simulation set up and the performance evaluationProtocol(RTP).We will investigate the metrics. In section IV, we present the simulationperformance using four metrics-packet received, results and performance comparison. And finally,throughput, routing overhead and network load. we conclude the paper and present the plans for the future work in section V.Keywords: MANETs; AODV; DSR; VBR; RTP. II. MOBILE ADHOC ROUTINGI. INTRODUCTION PROTOCOLS A Mobile Ad hoc network (MANET) [1] There are many different ways to classify the[2] is an autonomous collection of mobile routers or routing protocols of MANETs depending upon theirnodes communicating over radio links. MANET is a network structure, communication model, routingtemporary network without infrastructure. The strategy and state information [6]. Depending uponwireless routers or nodes moves randomly and the routing strategy, there are two types of routingorganize themselves arbitrarily. The nodes directly protocols: Table Driven and Source Initiated (Oncommunicate via wireless links within each other’s Demand).radio range, while that are distant apart use other The first type is a proactive approach i.e.nodes as relay in a multihop routing function. As the table driven. Routing information in the networknodes are mobile, the structure of the network maintained up to date. Table driven protocols havechanges dynamically and unpredictably over lower latency but have high routing overhead. Thetime.Adhoc networks are self-configuring and self- routing overhead is high due to periodic updationsorganizing, so to maintain communication between of routing tables. Some of main proactive protocolsnodes in the network, each node behaves as a of MANET are DSDV, FSR and OLSR.transmitter, a host and a router. The second type is source initiated. It is alsoDue to growing usage of the portable devices and known as On Demand or Reactive. Route id createdprogress in the wireless communication, Mobile Ad only when demanded by the source node. When ahoc networks are gaining importance due to its wide node wants to communicate in the network, itrange of applications [3].Mobile Ad hoc networks initiates a route discovery process within theare used in military communication and operations, network. So, there is no need of periodic updates.home appliances, emergency services, educational Hence, the routing overhead is low but the latency isapplications and entertainment. high. Some of main reactive protocols of MANET MANET has few challenges and are AODV, DSR and TORA. The mobile Ad hoclimitations that have to be addressed [4].Limited routing protocols considered in this study areradio transmission range, routing overhead, battery described below.constraints, security, etc. are some of inefficienciesin a MANET environment. A. DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING (DSR) In [5], the performance of three popular DSR [7] [8] is an On Demand routingrouting protocols AODV, DSR and OLSR is protocol. DSR is based on the theory of source 1607 | P a g e
    • Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh, Anantdeep Kaur / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1607-1610based routing and is a very simple and efficient Mobility Random Mobilityrouting protocol. DSR is designed for use in Model Directionmultihop wireless Ad hoc networks of mobile Routing DSR, AODV Path-findingnodes. The DSR protocol works into two main Protocolsmechanisms called Route Discovery and Route MAC protocol 802.11g WirelessMaintenance. Route Discovery is the mechanism in Traffic VBRwhich a source node tending to send a packet to a Traffic rate 25 pkt/secdestination obtains a source route to destination. It is Packet Send 256kbinitiated only when a source node wants to send ratepacket to a destination and doesn’t already know the Packet Size 1 kbroute to it. And, then it maintains that route in the Pause Time 100 seccache of the nodes. Route Maintenance is themechanism in which source node is able to detect Performance Metricsthe link failures to the destination. It then repairs the Packet received [14]: It is the number of packetsroute or finds an alternate route. It is used only when received by the application layer of destinationsource is sending packets to a destination. nodes. Throughput [14]: It is the average at which dataB. ADHOC ON DEMAND DISTANT VECTOR packet is delivered successfully from one node toPROTOCOL (AODV) another over a communication network. It is usually AODV [7] [9] is a reactive distant vector measured in bits per second.protocol. It mixes the property of DSR and DSDV. Throughput = (no of delivered packets * packetRoutes discovered on demand are maintained as size) / total duration of simulationlong as they are required. AODV routing table Routing Overhead [14]: This is the total number ofmaintains routing information of any route that has routing control packets generated by all nodes to thebeen used recently within a time interval. The total data packets during the simulation time.operation of AODV is loop free by use of sequence Network Load [15]: It is the total traffic receivednumbers which indicate the freshness of the route. by the network layer from the higher MAC that isWhen links break, AODV causes the affected set of accepted and queued for transmission. It isnodes to be notified to invalidate the route. Route measured as bits per second.Request (RREQs), Route Replies (RREPs), andRoute Errors (RRERs) are three message types IV. SIMULATION RESULTS ANDdefined by AODV for its working. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON Performance of AODV and DSR routingIII. SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT protocols is evaluated under Variable Bit Rate multimedia traffic. To evaluate and compare the performanceof these routing protocols in Mobile Ad hoc 1) Packet Receivednetwork, we performed extensive simulations using In the reactive protocols, AODV and DSR,NS-2 simulator [10]-[13]. Each simulator is carried AODV outperforms the DSR in terms of number ofout under the constant mobility. packets received by all destination nodes.TABLE 1 DSR AODVTHE SIMULATION PARAMETERS 5373 20415Experiment Experiment DescriptionParameter ValueSimulation 200 S SimulationTime DurationTerrain 1000*1000 m X,YDimension Dimension of MotionNo. of Mobile 50 No. of nodes inNodes a networkNode Random ChangePlacement waypoint Direction RandomlyMobility Speed 0-50 mps Mobility of Nodes 1608 | P a g e
    • Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh, Anantdeep Kaur / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1607-1610Figure 1: Number of Packet Received of AODV and Figure 3: Routing Overhead for AODV and DSR forDSR for 50 nodes 50 nodes From the above figure, we have seen that It is observed from the figure above, inthe number of packets received in AODV protocol which DSR present the worse behavior in terms ofis very high than the number of packets received in routing overhead measurements. Although bothDSR protocol for 50 nodes. AODV and DSR are reactive protocols but in terms of Routing Overhead for VBR traffic both present a2) Throughput very different behavior. Throughput is better for AODV protocolthan DSR protocol. 4) Network Load Network Load is very high for DSR protocol than DSR AODV AODV protocol. DSR AODV 98.67 265.44 8.17 1.003 Figure 2: Throughput of AODV and DSRfor 50 nodes Figure 4: Network Load for AODV and DSR for 50 nodes From above figure, it is observed that theAODV protocol outperforms the DSR protocol in As shown in the above figure that DSR has higherterms of throughput when the number of nodes is Network Load than AODV. It increases as the50. number of hops increases.3) Routing Overhead Routing Overhead is higher in case of DSR than V. CONCLUSION AND FUTUREAODV. WORK This evaluation work is carried out using DSR AODV network simulator NS-2 to compare the performance of AODV and DSR protocols under 43903 20438 VBR traffic. The performance is compared in terms of number of packet received, throughput, routing 1609 | P a g e
    • Gurpreet Singh, Atinderpal Singh, Anantdeep Kaur / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1607-1610overhead and network overload when number of mobile Ad hoc networks”,IFIPnodes is constant. Simulation results show that in WMNC’2011.case of number of packets received AODV is ahead [6] Mehran Abolhasan, Tadeusz Wysocki, andof DSR. And for throughput, AODV outperforms Eryk Dutkiewicz, “A review of routingDSR. This means that AODV has high reliability. protocols for mobile ad hoc networks”,And high routing overhead and network load of Technical report, Telecommunication andDSR worsen the performance of DSR as compared Information Research Institute, Universityto AODV. This is due to source routing for route of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522;discovery and hop by hop packet forwarding in Motorola Australia Research Centre, 12DSR. So, AODV is best suited for delay sensitive Lord St., Botany, NSW 2525,RTP applications which do not allow latency in the Australia,2003.network. Thus from above investigations we [7] Georgios Kiou Mourtzis, “Simulation andconclude that AODV is a better option for VBR Evaluation of Routing Protocols for Mobilemultimedia traffic. Ad hoc Networks”, Master thesis in In our future work, we will intend to do Computer Science and Engineering, Navalmore simulations to evaluate more multimedia Postgraduate School, Monterey California,centric metrics for multimedia data transmission. In September, 2005.addition to it, we plans to investigate the [8] D.B Johnson, D.A Maltz, and Yih-Chunperformance of these protocols for congestion Hu., “The Dynamic Source Routingcontrol mechanism by varying the number of nodes Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networksfor VBR traffic. (DSR)”, Internet draft (draft-ietf-manet- dsr- 10.txt), 19 July 2004.REFERENCES [9] C. Perkins E. Belding-Royer, and S.Das, [1] Vasudha Arora and C. Rama Krishna, “Ad hoc On- Demand Distance Vector “Performance Evaluation of Routing (AODV) Routing”, RFC 3561, July2003. protocols for MANETs under Different [10] “The Network Simulator version 2”, the Traffic Conditions”, 2nd IEEE source code of ns-allinone-2.34 can be International Conference on Computer downloaded from Engineering and Information Technology, http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ns-build.html 2010. [11] Kevin Fall, Kannan Varadhan, and the [2] Vikas Singla and Parveen Kakkar, “Traffic VINT project (May, 2010), available at Pattern based performance comparison of http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ns- Reactive and Proactive Protocols of Mobile documentation.html Ad-hoc Networks”, International Journal of [12] Marc Gresis, “Tutorial for the network Computer Applications, Volume 5-No. 10, simulator (ns- 2)”, available at August 2010. http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/tutorial/index. [3] Mobile Ad Hoc Networking: “An Essential html Technology for Pervasive Computing”, [13] NS by example available at Jun-Zhao Sun Media Team, Machine http://nile.wpi.edu/NS Vision and Media Processing Unit. [14] Satveer Kaur, “Performance Comparison of [4] Krishna Moorthy Sivalingam, “Tutorial on DSR and AODV Routing Protocols with Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, 2003. Efficient Mobility Model in Mobile Ad- [5] George Adam, Vaggelis Kapoulas, Hoc Network”, IJCST Vol. 2, Issue 2, June Chhristos Bouras, Georgios Kioumourtzis, 2011. Apostolos Gkamas and Nikos Tavoularis, [15] G.Rajkumar, R.Kasiram and D.Parthiban,” “Performance Evaluation of Routing Optimizing Throughput with Reduction in Protocols for multimedia transmission over Power Consumption and Performance Comparison of DSR and AODV Routing Protocols”, [ICCEET],2012. 1610 | P a g e