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    • DEBNATH D., BARUAH R.S. / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1603-1606 “Problems And Prospect Of Teaching Electricity And Electrical Devices In Primary Classes” DEBNATH D., BARUAH R.S. Department of Physics, Dhing College, Dhing, Nagaon, AssamAbstract:. Young children have curiosity about the conductor is also associated with a magnetic field,phenomena taking place around them and which is used in electrical bells.teachers have the responsibility to create an The elementary school years especially areenvironment so that a positive attitude grows up important because this is the time in which childrenamong the pupils in their early stage of learning. develop a foundation of science for entire life. So itSince electrical energy is the basic need of is very important to guide them carefully. Electricitymodern age, students must have to enhance in primary classes is the basic of science. If thestorehouse of knowledge about electricity. status of science education is to changed then theTherefore in order to make teaching electricity education of teachers who have the responsibility foreffective & yet interesting, several techniques teaching those children will be a critical factor.may have to be adopted. Elementary school teachers were far more sanguine about their working conditions, when compared toIntroduction their middle and high school counterparts and The importance of science education in the Teachers who report relatively low levels ofearly childhood / elementary years is very important satisfaction with their professional developmentif we are to expect the young people of this nation to often do not have access to the kinds of training theybecome active & interested in science and believe they need. Teacher must have sufficienttechnology. The school years are very important content knowledge and skill in different teachingbecause it is this precious years children develop a techniques, an ability to evaluate and use appropriatefoundation of science. Here the prime responsibility tools to supplement the text. In elementary, middleof the teachers is to make science interesting to the and secondary school education, the study suggestsstudents from the early years of schooling. These that the activity of story telling has an impact onskills are required for processing information in to a Participants interpersonal relationships, empathy,developing system of knowledge. and senseof“Connectedness" in the classroom and It is here that an assessment needs to be built teacher-student friendly relation regardingdone regarding the effectiveness of teaching education and knowledge. Teachers who intend toprocedure, additional requirements of the school leave their schools and teaching are more likely tochildren and the teachers and the reforms that are have grave concerns about their lack ofneeded to make science an enjoyable learning empowerment, poor school leadership, and the lowsubject. levels of trust and respect inside their buildings (Barnett Berry, Mark Smylie & Ed Fuller,ELECTRICITY-AN INTRODUCTION: November 2008). This paper describes the use of ELECTRICITY is the branch of Physics autobiographical storytelling, personal myths, andwhich deals with movements of electrons that is the visual imagery in preparing elementary and specialflow of electric charges constitutes an electric educators for activist roles in creating effective,current. The conventional direction of flow of inclusive schools. (Jackie Baldwin and Katecurrent is taken as the direction of flow of positive Dudding)charges. Electron is an elementary particle havingmass 9.110x10-31 kg and charge 1.602x10-19 Aims and objective:coulomb .Unit of electric current is ampere and is The following are the objectives of the study-measured with the help of ammeter. As metals a) To discuss the concept of current,contain free electrons .which are capable of moving electrical equipment and devices andfreely within the metal, just like molecules of liquid, find out simplest & interesting way ofconstituting current. Dry cells, keys, wire are the teaching electricity in primaryrequired materials for making electrical circuits. standard.When current flows through a circuit heat is b) How to operate and handled householdgenerated all along the length of the conductor and electric and electronic devices andthe effect is called Joules heating effect of electrical precautions should be taken beforecurrent. Electrical heater, iron, safety fuse etc. are using these devices.the examples of this effect. Again current carrying 1603 | P a g e
    • DEBNATH D., BARUAH R.S. / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1603-1606 c) To enhance the skill of science teachers Since the study was conducted during the festive regarding the use of the electrical and season as well as examination season, the desired electronic devices. maximum number of respondents could not be met d) Public awareness through the students by us. A total of 170 Students were made to minimized accident due to mis- respondents. handlelling of electrical and electronic devices. Analysis of students feed back: e) To identify problems with text book. % of f) And to asses the requirements of Total no. Averag Sl. correc additional support material for teaching Name of the of e No t electricity. school question correct . answe s answer rMATERIALS AND METHOD Bhumoragur 25 14 56% Since the objective of the study was very i S.S. 1difficult, a complete and comprehensive analysis Madhabdevwas only possible if the views and apprehensions of ME Schoolall the parties i.e. students, science teachers as well Batadrava 25 10 40%as the Head of the institution were surveyed and Anchalic 2studied. Different sets of questionnaire were Girls MEprepared for students, teachers & HOD of the Schoolinstitutions to identity the right need. The key Athgaon 25 12 48%findings are presented in the form of tables, graphs, 3 MV School,charts. The questionnaires of the student‟s had 25 Dhingquestions regarding concept on electricity and Dhing 25 9 36%electronic device, problems of text book, problems 4 Public Highof science teachers etc. School Dhing 25 16 64%Limitations of the study: 5 G.B.H.S. Because of the poor attendance of the Schoolstudents due to festive season, socio-economic Dumdumia 25 11 44%census duties and forthcoming examination, it was 6 Balisatranot possible to meet all the students, science teacher H.S. Schooland head of the institution the schools.Field study Average percentage of the average correctSample Size: answer is 48%. It reveals that the knowledge A total of 6 Schools were covered in gathered from text book is average.Batadraba Education Block and 170 School childrenwho were present were made respondents. 25Sl. Name of the Total no. ofNo. School respondents 20 school1 Bhumoraguri 10 S.S. school21 15 Madhabdev school3 ME School Batadrava 15 school4 102 Anchalic Girls school5 ME School school6 Athgaon MV 45 53 average School, Dhing Dhing Public 304 High School 0 Dhing 20 No. of5 G.B.H.S. questions School Dumdumia 506 Balisatra H.S. Fig. shows the comparative study of School questionnaire of different schools. 1604 | P a g e
    • DEBNATH D., BARUAH R.S. / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1603-1606 The students of in all schools were asked even a single school I visited had library /questions about the teaching method by teachers. library facility which is considered as a25% of the students said that the science teacher minimum requirements for a good school.only read from the text book (without using black In absence of a library, students are not ableboard) & they (students) listen. It is practically a to refer to books (other than text books) andmonologue. Only 52% science teacher make use of thus are being deprived of quality /black board and 23% give examples while additional information.explaining the text books. While testing the basicknowledge of the students questions were asked Conclusion and Recommendations:from the questionnaire, It was found that 48% During our project period, our team wantedcorrect answers was given by the students, which to visit 6 schools in Batadrava Block. But, due towere very basic. Al most 70% of the students have time constrain, it was not possible to collect datanot been handled electrical devices although the from all schools. So we collected samples from 6tools are readily available. schools. And after analyzing the data the following In this regards, teacher should take conclusions were drawn:necessary steps and work on it. The learning abilities (i) Although the phenomenon of electricity isof the students to a large extent are dependent upon very interesting but students are not eager enough tothe way the teacher is able to make his /her views learn because the teaching-learning process ismore easily acceptable as well as interesting. examination oriented. The tests of students revealedTeaching electricity is never very easy since it that they are not able to answer basic questions. As arequires adequate communication skills by the result it can be concluded that there is a gap betweenteacher concerned. In terms of „communication the knowledge gathered through books and itsskills‟ the teachers just manages to meet the average applicability in real life.standards. It is observed that most of schools do not (ii) Laboratory facility as well as experimentalhave sufficient furniture‟s in the class room.. tools is an essential parameter for teaching. If anLaboratory facilities are not up to the mark in many electrical phenomenon is explained with tools likeschools. It may be noted that the necessary battery, wires, ammeter, voltmeter etc. the topicfurniture‟s, laboratory facilities are very essential for seems to be very easy to learn. But there are fewteaching and learning. Since the schools do not have schools which provide such equipments.laboratory facilities with Laboratory equipments, it iii) This may suggest that not all teachers areis not possible to impart “practical base knowledge confident in their ability to use available laboratoryin electricity” to the students. They just go through equipment. The survey administered to seventy-ninethe usual process i.e. black board and text book, thus science teachers asked if they are comfortable usingmaking the learning process monotonous which is the following: microscopes, Bunsen burners,also reflected in the survey which shows that 55% of balances, thermometers, autoclaves. The datathe students are able to understand the subject matter reveals that teachers are comfortable with someclearly. This is a big loophole. On the other hand, types of equipment, but not others.only a few teachers have attended carrier iv) Although all science teachers are qualified,enhancement course / orientation course. As a result but in absence of proper training of modern methodsteachers are not aware of modern methods of of teaching, their competency level has remainedteaching. No additional tools (computer/ study tour/ static. These aspects need to be looked into.practical / others) are used by the teachers to make Teachers must be able to evaluate students learningthe subject matter interesting & interactive. and competence level beyond the school text book. (v) The quality of the text book both in terms of Three vital areas of improvements were material and content is not sufficiently good. Paperidentified in the text book. There are - & quality, diagram, definitions etc. needs to be (i) Most of the teachers are not satisfied with improved and made simple. Al most all teachers the various definitions and explanation have acknowledged that the absence of a library given in the text book. So, the definitions hamper the teaching process. should be very clear in simple language so that children can easily understand the Recommendations: subject matter.  A good, well equipped laboratory is one of (ii) Secondly, printing and paper quality. the very basic needs of science department Printing & paper quality must be improved of a school. There for a science laboratory to make it more attractive which 90% of is a must for each school. teachers suggested. And  A good library acts a reservoir of Also emphasize should be given in proper information. Emphasize must be laid to labeling (specifically in pictorial depiction provide library facility to each school. or in diagrams) to make things crystal clear  There is a need to evaluate students to the students. Lastly, surprisingly not learning and competence level beyond the 1605 | P a g e
    • DEBNATH D., BARUAH R.S. / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.com Vol. 2, Issue 5, September- October 2012, pp.1603-1606 school text books. Therefore at least 30% of AUTHORS the annual marks must be based on student First Author–Debabrata Debnath, M.Sc. activity in laboratory, project work, Associate Professor, Dhing College, participation in science exhibition etc. Dhing,Nagaon,Assam.  The quality of text book needs to be looked Second Author- Rabindra Sarmah Baruah, into especially paper quality, illustrations, M.Sc. Associate Professor, Dhing College, ray diagrams, definitions etc. The text book Dhing,Nagaon,Assam. needs to be scientifically and professionally reviewed.  The other important basic needs of schools are – Drinking water facility Ideal teacher- student ratio Class room infrastructure and desk- bench Well equipped laboratory facility Power supply in class room  Other issues, directly related to science teaching process – (a) Mandatory participation of the students in different projects, science exhibition etc. (b) Establishment of periodic and compulsory feedback mechanism by the students about teaching methods. (c) Organizing regular science quiz, preparation and handling electric circuit and devices and science related tours to create interest in science. (d) Publication of annual school science magazine with the involvement of students will help create an interesting learning environment. (e) For nightly holding a “Science awareness day and exhibition”.Final Word: Teaching electricity in primary classes withthe usual & monotonous way of teaching is of nohelp. The simplest way of teaching is thedemonstration of electrical phenomenon with thehelp of lab equipment‟s and electrical devices.REFERENCES 1. Brijlal N.S. 1989.Electricity and Magnetism Vasudeva D.N. 1983.Fundamentals of Magnetism and Electricity Chaudhury, A. 1998.Elements of physics.(459-577) 2. Chattopadhyay D. and Rakshit P.C.2003. Electricity and Magnetism Barnett Berry, Mark Smylie & Ed Fuller, Barnett Berry, Mark Smylie & Ed Fuller, Centre for Teaching quality, November,2008. 3. Jackie Baldwin and Kate Dudding, www.storytellinginschools.org,2007. 1606 | P a g e