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  • 1. Pritish Bhautmage, Prof. Amutha Jeyakumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1641-1644 Advanced Video Steganography Algorithm Pritish Bhautmage*, Prof. Amutha Jeyakumar**, Ashish Dahatonde*** *(Department of Elecrical Engineering, VJTI, Mumbai.) ** (Department of Electrical Engineering, VJTI, Mumbai.) *** (Department of Electrical Engineering, VJTI, Mumbai.)ABSTRACT of bits. The cover or host is the medium in which Data embedding is the process of the message is embedded and serves to hide theembedding information in a data source without presence of the message. This is also referred to aschanging its perceptual quality. Several the message wrapper. It is not required that theconstraints affect this process: the quantity of cover and the message have homogeneous to be hidden, the need for invariance of In addition, the encoder usually employs a stego-keythese data under the conditions where a host which ensures that only recipients who know thesignal is subject to distortions such as lossy corresponding decoding key will be able to extractcompression and the degree to which the data the message from a stego-message.must be immune to interception, modification or Cover objectremoval by a third party. A new technique isproposed in this paper for data embedding and Cextraction for high resolution AVI videos. In thismethod instead of changing the LSB of the cover Stego-objectfile, the LSB and LSB+3 bits are changed in Secret objectalternate bytes of the cover file. The secret Zmessage is encrypted by using a simple bit M F(C, M, K)exchange method before the actual embeddingprocess starts. An index can also be created forthe secret information and the index is placed in Stego-Keya frame of the video itself. With the help of thisindex, we can easily extract the secret message, Kwhich can reduce the extraction time. Thedifferent techniques and advantages of video Fig 1. Digital Steganographic Encodersteganography is discussed in this paper.Keywords – Encryption, Index Creation, LSB The original cover file may or may not beTechnique, Stego Key. required; in most applications it is desirable that the cover file not be needed to extract the message.I. INTRODUCTION It requires the cryptographic decoding key In conventional cryptography, even if the to decipher the encrypted message[3]. Theinformation contents are protected by encryption, requirements of any data embedding system can bethe existence of encrypted communications is categorized into security, capacity and robustness.known. In view of this, digital steganography All these factors are inversely proportional to eachprovides an alternative approach in which it other creating so called data embedding dilemma.conceals even the evidence of encrypted messaging. We focus at maximizing the first two factors of dataGenerally, steganography is defined as the art and embedding i.e., security and capacity. We havescience of communicating in a covered fashion[1][2]. attempted on videos rather than on audio and image.It utilizes the typical digital media such as text, The objective of the paper is to develop animage, audio, video, and multimedia as a carrier algorithm for data embedding in AVI videos.(called a host signal) for hiding private information The proposed scheme is a data embeddingin such a way that the third parties (unauthorized method that uses high resolution digital video as aperson) cannot detect or even notice the presence of cover signal. The proposed scheme provides thethe communication. In this way, steganography ability to hide a significant quality of informationallows for authentication, copyright protection, and making it different from typical data embeddingembedding of messages in the image or in mechanisms because we consider application thattransmission of the image. A typical digital require significantly larger payloads like video-in-steganographic encoder is shown in Figure (1). The video and image-in-video[4]. The purpose ofmessage is the data that the sender wishes to remain embedding such information depends on theconfidential and can be text, images, audio, video, application and the needs of the owner/user of theor any other data that can be represented by a stream digital media. 1641 | P a g e
  • 2. Pritish Bhautmage, Prof. Amutha Jeyakumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1641-1644Data embedding requirements include the following: modifications in case a lossy compression algorithm1) Imperceptibility: The video with data and original like JPEG is being used[6].data source should be perceptually identical. In transform based data embedding, the cover2) Robustness: The embedded data should survive image is transformed into another domain. Then theany processing operation the host signal goes data is embedded in the transform coefficients. Thisthrough and preserve its fidelity. method is highly robust and complex. The major3) Capacity: Maximize data embedding payload. transformations used are DCT and DWT. DCT is4) Security: Security is in the key for embedding or used in JPEG compression algorithm to transformencryption of data. successive 8_8 pixel blocks of the image, into 64 DCT coefficients each. After calculating the The paper is organized as follows. Related coefficients, the quantizing operation is of the proposed technique is explained in Although a modification of a single DCT will affectsection II. The methodology of the proposed all 64 image pixels, the LSB of the quantized DCTtechnique is described in section III. Section IV coefficient can be used to embed information.concludes the paper. When information is hidden in video, the program or person embedding the information willII. RELATED WORK usually use the DCT method. DCT works by slightly There are mainly three basic data changing the coefficients of each of the images inembedding techniques for images in practice, the video, only so much that it is not noticeable bynamely Least Significant Bit (LSB) Method, the human eye. Data embedding in videos is similarMasking and filtering and Transform based[5]. to that of data embedding in images, apart from The primitive method is embedding in information is hidden in each frame of the video.LSB. Although there are several disadvantages to When only a small amount of information is hiddenthis approach, the relative easiness to implement it in a video, generally it is not noticeable. However,makes it a popular method. In this method we when more information is hidden, it will be moreembed information in the LSB of pixels colours. noticeable.The changes of LSB may not be noticeable because DWT is based on sub-band coding and isof the imperfect sensitivity of the human eyes. On found to yield a fast computation of Waveletan average, only half of the bits in an image will Transform. It is easy to implement and reduces theneed to be modified to embed a secret message computation time and resources required. A 2-Dusing the maximal cover size. While using a 24-bit DWT transforms an image into four sub bands: LL,image gives a relatively large amount of space to LH, HL and HH where L and H stands for Low andhide messages, it is also possible to use an 8-bit High. The LL sub band contains the averageimage as a cover source. Because of the smaller information and the other three sub-band gives thespace and different properties, 8-bit images require a finer details of the image. Even if the three sub-more careful approach. Where 24-bit images use bands LH, HL, HH are made zero, the LL alone canthree bytes to represent a pixel, an 8-bit image uses give the average image (an image of lower quality,only one. Changing the LSB of that byte will result with no finer details). We can embed the messagein a visible change of colour, as another colour in image in two LSB planes of LH, HL and HH subthe available palette will be displayed. Therefore, bands. Data is embedded in LL sub-band to avoidthe cover image needs to be selected more carefully compression losses. Human Visual System (HVS)and preferably be in gray scale, as the human eye model points out different insensitivities amongwill not detect the difference between different gray different level sub bands. More insensitive to HVSvalues as easy as with different colours[4]. means that more data can be embedded without Masking and filtering techniques, usually causing notable visual artifacts.restricted to 24 bits or gray scale images, take adifferent approach to embedding a message. These Transform-based method is found to bemethods are effectively similar to paper watermarks, superior compared to spatial-domain method . It iscreating markings in an image. This can be more imperceptible and robust though moreachieved, for example, by modifying the luminance complex. With the advent of high speed Internet andof parts of the image. While masking does change demand for larger payload, video signal will be thethe visible properties of an image, it can be done in perfect cover signal for the years to come.such a way that the human eye will not notice thedifference. Since masking uses visible aspects of the III. PROPOSED METHODimage, it is more robust than LSB modification with There are two distinct method to embed arespect to compression, cropping and different kinds secret message file in the cover file. The blockof image processing. The information is not hidden diagram of video steganography (Encoding ) isat the noise level but is in the visible part of the shown in fig2.image which makes it more suitable than LSB 1642 | P a g e
  • 3. Pritish Bhautmage, Prof. Amutha Jeyakumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1641-1644(1) We encrypt the secret message file using simple video itself. With the help of this index, the framesbit shifting and XOR operation in the secret containing the secret information are located.message file. Hence, during the extraction process, instead of(2) The encrypted secret message we embed in the analyzing the entire video, the frames containing thecover file in alternate byte. We substitute bits in secret data are analyzed with the help of index at theLSB and LSB+3 bits in the cover file. receiving end. When steganographed by this method, the probability of finding the hidden1. Bit Exchange method information by an attacker is lesser when compared Simple bit exchange method is introduced for to the normal method of hiding information frame-encrypting any file. The following are the steps for by-frame in a sequentialencryption method. Step-1: Read one by one byte from the secret Cover message file and convert each byte to 8-bits Video file Then we apply 1 bit right shift operation on the entire file so that each byte will be modified accordingly. Step-2: We read 8 bits at a time and divide into Collect two blocks 4 bits each and then perform the information of XOR operations with 4-bits on the left side with video 4 bits on the right side and substitute the new bits in right 4-bit positions. The same thing repeated for all bytes in the file. Step-3: Repeat step-1 by performing 2 bits right Cover Frames shift for all bytes in the secret message file. Then repeat step-2 again. In this paper, maximum 5 bits are shifted toright. But the user can take more bits for right shiftoperation to make the secret file more random. Inthe decryption process we follow the reverseprocess. Secret Frame message Other2. Steganography Algorithm: In this paper we have use the substitution framesof LSB and LSB+3 bits of the cover file in alternatebytes. The last 300 bytes of the cover file we use for Stego frameembedding password, size of the secret message file.After that we start to embed the secret message file.We read one byte from encrypted secret messagefile and convert it into 8 bits and then we take 2 bitsof the encrypted secret message and substitute the Stego framesLSB and LSB+3 bits of the cover file and then leaveone byte of the cover file intact. Then againsubstitute 2 bits. The same process we repeat for all8 bits of the secret message. Fig 2. Block diagram of LSB Video Steganography Here the change is prominent as we embed technique (Encoding). manner. It also reduces thein text characters but if we do the same in some computational time taken for the extraction process.image then the changes made here will not be verysignificant as our eye will not be able to differentiate 4. Stego Keybetween two colors. To embed secret message we To make the system more secured we havehave to first skip 300 bytes from the last byte of the introduced the password(Stego key) whilecover file. After that we start to embed bits of the embedding an encrypted secret message file. Ifencrypted secret message into the cover file. The password is correct then the program will read thesize of the secret message file must be less than 10% file size from the cover file and start to work on theof the cover file. For .EXE or .DOC file the size of cover file.the secret message file must be 1-5% of the cover To extract the secret message we performfile. exactly the reverse process of the encryption method. The program first matches the password. If3. Index Creation it is correct then it will read the size of the secret We can also create index for the secret message file from the embedded cover file. Then itinformation and the index is placed in a frame of the will read 8 bytes and extract 8 bits from 4 alternate 1643 | P a g e
  • 4. Pritish Bhautmage, Prof. Amutha Jeyakumar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 3, Issue 1, January -February 2013, pp.1641-1644bytes and convert them to a character and write ontoan external file. Once all bytes extracted from the REFERENCEScover file then we run the decryption program to get [1] A.Nath, S.Das, A.Chakrabarti, Data Hidingthe original secret message file. This steganography and Retrieval, Proceedings ofalgorithm can be applied on different cover files IEEEInternational conference onsuch as image file, audio file, video file, word Computer Intelligence and Computerfile, Excel file, Power point file, .exe file. This Network held at Bhopal from 26-28 Nov,method could be most appropriate for hiding 2010.any file in any standard or non standard cover [2] Samir K Bandyopadhyay, Debnathfile such as word, excel, .ppt, .exe, image, Bhattacharyya1, A Tutorial Review onaudio, video files. Steganography, UFL & JIITU, IC-2008, pp. 105-114.5. ADVANTAGES [3] A.Nath, S.Ghosh, M.A.Mallik, Symmetric Highly secure key cryptography using random key Since random data are also placed in generator, Proceedings of Internationalunused frames in the video, the attacker is left conference on SAM- 2010 held at Lasclueless to know the real secret data hidden in the Vegas(USA) 12-15 July, 2010, Vol-2, Hence highly confidential data like military 239-244secrets and bank account details can be easily [4] Arup Kumar Bhaumik, Minkyu Choi,steganographed in ordinary video and can be Rosslin J. Robles, and Maricel O.transmitted over internet even in unsecured Balitanas, Data Hiding in Video,connection. International Journal of Database Theory Capacity and Application, June 2009. Text based steganography has limited [5] Joyshree Nath, Sankar Das, Shalabhcapacity and Image steganography tried to improve Agarwal and Asoke Nath , Advancedthe capacity where 50% of original image size can steganographic approach for hidingbe used to hide the secret message. But there is encrypted secret message in LSB, LSB+1,limitation on how much information can be hidden LSB+2 and LSB+3 bits in non-standardinto an image. Video Steganography has been found cover files, International Journal ofto overcome this problem. Computer Applications(0975-8887) Vol 14- Imperceptibility No7, Feb 2011 Lowest chances of perceptibility because of [6] Yongjian Hu, and Heung Kyu Lee, andquickly displaying of the frames, so it’s become Jianwei Lee, DE-based reversible dataharder to be suspected by human vision system. hiding with improved overflow location Video error correction map, IEEE Transaction on circuits and Since the transmission of any data is always systems for video technology, volume 19,subject to corruption due to errors, then the video number 2, February, pp. 250-260, 2009.transmission must deal with these errors without [7] Joyshree Nath and Asoke Nath, Advancedretransmission of corrupted data. This is another Steganography Algorithm using encryptedapplication for steganography rather than security secret message, International Journal ofpurpose. Advanced ComputerScience and Less computational time Application (IJACSA)Vol-2 No.3, pp. 19- Since use of indexing concept, the process of 24, March (2011).retrieving the secret data from the steganographed [8] Agniswar Dutta, Abhirup Kumar Sen,video becomes very simple and requires very less Sankar Das, Shalabh Agarwal, Asoke Nath,time. New Data Hiding Algorithm in MATLAB using Encrypted secret message,IEEEIV. CONCLUSION ICCSNT-201,pp.262-267. In this paper a robust method of [9] R. Balaji, G. Naveen, Secure Dataimperceptible audio, video, text and image hiding is Transmission Using Video Steganography.proposed. This system is to provide a good, efficient [10] V.S.,K.Balasuhramaniyam ,N.Murali,method for hiding the data from hackers and sent to M.Rajakumaran, Vigneswari, Data Hidingthe destination in a safe manner. Thus it can be in Audio Signal, Video Signal, Text andconcluded that Bit Exchange Method and indexing JPEG Images,IEEE ICAESM -2012, proposed method can be used which will bring 741-746.various advantages which can be used for a number (11) G. Doerr and J. Dugelay, "Security pitfallsof purposes other than covered communication or of frame-by-frame approaches to videodeniable data storage. watermarking", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 52, 2004, pp. 2955- 2967 1644 | P a g e