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  • 1. P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.1660-1665 A Hybrid Cascaded Seven-Level Inverter With Novel Pulse Width Modulation Technique For Pv Applications P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam PG student, Power & Industrial Drives, Department of EEE, VIIT, Visakhapatnam,(A.P), India. Assistant professor, EEE Dept, VIIT, A.P, India.ABSTRACT The most popular cascaded H-bridge inverter. The inverter converts dc to ac power. Butapart from other multilevel inverters is the the inverter produces square wave ac. The squarecapability of utilizing different dc voltages on the wave contains infinite number of harmonics areindividual H-bridge cells which results in presented. The multilevel inverter means the levelsplitting the power conversion amongst higher- refers to the various voltage values in a cycle. Thevoltage lower-frequency and lower-voltage multilevel inverter output levels increase near to thehigher-frequency inverters. This paper proposes sine wave shape formed. Then the number ofa single-phase seven-level inverter for grid- harmonic content reduced in the output of theconnected photovoltaic systems, with a novel multilevel inverter output.pulse width-modulated (PWM) control scheme.Three reference signals that are identical to each II. PHOTO VOLTAIC SYSTEMSother with an offset that is equivalent to the A Photovoltaic (PV) system directlyamplitude of the triangular carrier signal were converts sunlight into electricity. The basic deviceused to generate the PWM signals. The inverter of a PV system is the PV cell. Cells may be groupedis capable of producing seven levels of output- to form panels or arrays. The voltage and currentvoltage levels (Vdc, 2Vdc/3, Vdc/3, 0, available at the terminals of a PV device may−Vdc,−2Vdc/3,−Vdc/3) from the dc supply directly feed small loads such as lighting systemsvoltage. In this paper a new nine level multilevel and DC motors. A Photo voltaic cell is basically ainverter with reduced number of switches is semiconductor diode whose p–n junction is exposedproposed and MATLAB/Simulink results are to light. Photovoltaic cells are made of several typespresented. of semiconductors using different manufacturing processes. The incidence of light on the cell Keywords —Grid connected, modulation index, generates charge carriers that originate an electricmultilevel inverter, photovoltaic (PV) system, pulse current if the cell is short circuited.width-modulated (PWM), total harmonic distortion(THD).I. INTRODUCTION Nowadays, the non conventional energysources are used compared with conventionalenergy source because day by day the conventionalenergy sources are reduces. The main energysupplier of the worldwide economy is fossil fuel. Fig.1 Equivalent cirucuit of a PV device includingThis however has led to many problems such as the Series and Parallel Resistances. The equivalentglobal warming and air pollution. Therefore, with circuit of PV cell is shown in Figure 1. In the aboveregard to the worldwide trend of green energy, solar diagram the PV cell is represented by a currentpower technology has become one of the most source in parallel with diode. 𝑅𝑠 and 𝑅𝑝 representpromising energy resources. The number of PV series and parallel resistance respectively. Theinstallations has had an exponential growth mainly output current and voltage from PV cell aredue to the governments and utility companies who represented by I and the idea of the green energy. One of themost important types of PV installation is the gridconnected inverter configurations. The PV cells areproducing the dc sources. But all electricalequipments are operated ac supply. So I want the acsupply by using inverters photovoltaic cells are mostpopularly used. So the photo voltaic cells are Fig.2 Characteristic I-V curve of the PV cellproducing the dc source. These dc sources give to 1660 | P a g e
  • 2. P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.1660-1665The I-V characteristics of PV cell are shown in voltage steps to obtain improved power quality,Figure 2. The net cell current I is composed of the lower switching losses, better electromagneticlight-generated current 𝐼𝑃𝑉 and diode current 𝐼𝑑. compatibility, and higher voltage capability. One of the significant advantages of multilevel I= 𝐼𝑃𝑉 - 𝐼𝑑 (1) configuration is the harmonic reduction in the outputWhere waveform without increasing switching frequency 𝐼𝑑 =𝐼0 exp (qV/akT) or decreasing the inverter power output. The output 𝐼0 = leakage current of the diode voltage waveform of a multilevel inverter is q=electron charge composed of the number of levels of voltages, k=Bolzmann constant typically obtained from capacitor voltage sources. T=temperature of pn junction The so-called multilevel starts from three levels. As a=diode ideality constant the number of levels reach infinity, the output THDThe basic equation (1) of PV cell does not represent approaches zero. The number of the achievablethe I-V characteristic of a practical PV array. voltage levels, however, is limited by voltagePractical array are composed of several connected unbalance problems voltage clamping requirement,PV cells and the observation of the characteristics at circuit layout, and packaging constraints. A single-the terminals of the PV array requires the inclusion phase grid-connected inverter is usually used forof additional parameters to the basic equation. residential or low-power applications of power 𝐼=𝐼𝑃𝑉 - 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑉+𝑅𝑠𝐼𝑉𝑡𝑎 −1 −𝑉+𝑅𝑠𝐼𝑅𝑝 (2) ranges that are less than 10 kW.Where As the number of level increases, the THD 𝑉𝑡= 𝑁𝑠𝑘𝑇/𝑞s is the thermal voltage of the array content approaches to small value as expect. Thus itwith 𝑁𝑠 cells connected in series. Cells connected in eliminates the need for filter. Though, THDparallel increase the current and cells connected in decreases with increase in number of levels, someseries provide greater output voltages. The I-V lower or higher harmonic contents remain dominantcharacteristics of a practical PV cell with maximum in each level. These will be more dangerous inpower point (MPP), short circuit current (Isc) and induction circuit voltage (Voc) is shown in Figure 3. The A novel PWM modulation technique isMPP represents the point at which maximum power used to generate switching signals for the switchesis obtained. and to generate seven output-voltage levels: 0, +Vdc/3, +2Vdc/3, +Vdc, Vdc/3, -2Vdc/3,-Vdc. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed inverter configuration. This paper recounts the development of a novel modified H-bridge single-phase multilevel inverter that has two diode embedded bidirectional switches and a novel pulse width modulated (PWM) technique. IV. HYBRID SEVEN LEVEL INVERTERFig.3 I-V Characteristic of the practical PV cell A Full H-Bridge:Vmp and Imp are voltage and current at MPPrespectively. The output from PV cell is not thesame throughout the day; it varies with varyingtemperature and insolation (amount of radiation). S1 S3Hence with varying teperature and insulationmaximum power should be tracked so as to achievethe efficient operation of PV system. Vout Vdc III.MULTILEVEL INVERTERS The multilevel inverter are three types. S4They are 1.Diode clamped multilevel inverter S22.Flying capacitor multilevel inverter 3.Cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter.The multilevel invertersare used for high power rating compared to theinverters. A multilevel inverter not only achieveshigh power ratings, but also improves the Figure. 4 Full H-Bridgeperformance of the whole system in terms of Fig.4 shows the Full H-Bridge Configuration. Byharmonics, dv/dt stresses, and stresses in the using single H-Bridge we can get 3 voltage levels.bearings of a motor. The concept of multilevel The number output voltage levels of cascaded Fullinverters performing power conversion in multiple H-Bridge are given by 2n+1 and voltage step of 1661 | P a g e
  • 3. P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.1660-1665each level is given by Vdc/n. Where n is number of INVERTERH-bridges connected in cascaded. The switchingtable is given in Table 1.Table 1. Switching table for Full H-Bridge Fig.6. A single phase hybrid cascaded seven-level grid-B Hybrid H-Bridge connected inverter for photovoltaic systems. The proposed single-phase seven-level inverter was developed from the five-level inverter S1 S3Vdc/2 D1 D3 in. It comprises a single-phase conventional H- bridge inverter, two bidirectional switches, and a Sa Vout capacitor voltage divider formed by C1, C2, and C3, as shown in Fig. 1. The modified H-bridge topology Vdc/2 is significantly advantageous over other topologies, S4 S2 D4 D2 i.e., less power switch, power diodes, and less capacitor for inverters of the same number of levels. Photo voltaic (PV) arrays were connected to the inverter via a dc–dc boost converter. The power Figure. 5 Hybrid H-Bridges generated by the inverter is to be delivered to the Fig. 5 shows the Hybrid H-Bridge power network, so the utility grid, rather than a load,configuration. By using single Hybrid H-Bridge we was used. The dc–dc boost converter was requiredcan get 5 voltage levels. The number output voltage because the PV arrays had a voltage that was lowerlevels of cascaded Hybrid H-Bridge are given by than the grid voltage. High dc bus voltages are4n+1 and voltage step of each level is given by necessary to ensure that power flows from the PVVdc/2n. Where n is number of H-bridges connected arrays to the grid. A filtering inductance Lf was usedin cascaded. The switching table of Hybrid H- to filter the current injected into the grid. ProperBridge is given in Table 2. switching of the inverter can produce seven output-Table 2. Switching table for Hybrid H-Bridge voltage levels (Vdc, 2Vdc/3, Vdc/3, 0,−Vdc,−2Vdc/3,−Vdc/3) from the dc supply Switches Turn On Voltage Level voltage. The proposed inverter operation can be divided into seven switching states, as shown in the table-3. Sa, S1 Vdc/2 a.To obtain + Vdc: S1 is ON and S4 is ON. All other controlled switches are OFF, the voltage S1,S2 Vdc applied to the load terminals is + Vdc. b. To obtain + 2Vdc/3: The bidirectional switch S5 S4,D2 0 is ON and S4 is ON. All other controlled switches are OFF, the voltage applied to the load terminals is + Sa,S3 -Vdc/2 2Vdc /3. c. To obtain + Vdc /3: The bidirectional switch S6 is ON S3,S4 -Vdc and S4 is ON. All other controlled switches are OFF, the voltage applied to the load terminals is + Vdc /3. V HYBRID CASCADED MULTILEVEL 1662 | P a g e
  • 4. P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.1660-1665d) To obtain Zero output: This level can beproducedby two switching combinations; switches S3 and S4areON, or S1and S2 are ON, and all other controlledswitches are OFF, the voltage applied to the loadterminals are zero.e) To obtain - Vdc /3: The bidirectional switch S5is ONand S2 is ON. All other controlled switches areOFF,the voltage applied to the load terminals is - Vdc /3.f) To obtain -2Vdc/3: The bidirectional switch S6is ON Fig. 7. Switching pattern for the single-phase seven-and S2 is ON. All other controlled switches are level inverter.OFF,the voltage applied to the load terminals is - 2Vdc Fig.7 shows the resulting switching pattern./3. Switches S1, S3, S5, and S6 would be switching atg) To obtain - Vdc: S2 is ON and S3 is ON. All the rate of the carrier signal frequency, whereas S2other and S4 would operate at a frequency that wascontrolled switches are OFF, the voltage applied to equivalent to the fundamental frequency.the load terminals is - Vdc. For one cycle of the fundamental frequency, theTABLE 3 proposed inverter operated through six modes.OUTPUT VOLTAGE ACCORDING TO THE Fig. 8shows the per unit output-voltage signal forSWITCHES’ ON–OFF CONDITION one cycle. The six modes are described as follows: Mode 1 : 0 < ωt < θ1 and θ4 < ωt < π Mode 2 : θ1 < ωt < θ2 and θ3 < ωt < θ4 Mode 3 : θ2 < ωt < θ3 Mode 4 : π < ωt < θ5 and θ8 < ωt < 2π Mode 5 : θ5 < ωt < θ6 and θ7 < ωt < θ8 Mode 6 : θ6 < ωt < θ7.Table 3 shows the switching combinations thatgenerated the seven output-voltage levels(0,−Vdc,−2Vdc/3,−Vdc/3, Vdc, 2Vdc/3, Vdc/3).V PWM MODULATION A novel PWM modulation technique wasintroduced to generate the PWM switching signals.Three reference signals (Vref1, Vref2, and Vref3)were compared with a carrier signal (Vcarrier). Thereference signals had the same frequency and Fig. 8. Seven-level output voltage (Vab) andamplitude and were in phase with an offset value switching angles.that was equivalent to the amplitude of the carriersignal. The reference signals were each compared VI MATLAB/SIMULINK MODEL andwith the carrier signal. If Vref1 had exceeded thepeak amplitude of Vcarrier, Vref2 was compared SIMULATION RESULTSwith Vcarrier until it had exceeded the peakamplitude of Vcarrier. Then, onward, Vref3 wouldtake charge and would be compared with Vcarrieruntil it reached zero. Once Vref3 had reached zero,Vref2 would be compared until it reached zero.Then, onward, Vref1 would be compared withVcarrier. 1663 | P a g e
  • 5. P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.1660-1665Fig. 9 Matlab/Simulink model of Grid connectedPV systemFig. 9 shows the Matlab/ Simulink model of grid Fig.12 Matlab/SImulink modle of proposed Nineconnected photovoltaic system. It consist of a DC to level InverterDC conversion stage and Dc to AC multilevelinversion stage. Fig. 12 shows the Matlab/Simulink model of proposed nine level Hybrid H-Bridge inverter. Fig.13 Nine level output of proposed converterFig.10. Grid Voltage and Grid Current Fig. 13 shows the output of proposed nine level inverter. In proposed converter for nine level seven switches are required. In order to produce the same levels cascaded H-Bridge requires sixteen switches. VII CONCLUSION Multilevel hybrid cascaded inverter for seven level has been simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. Multilevel inverters offer improved output waveforms and lower THD. This paper has presented a novel PWM switching scheme for the proposed multilevel inverter. It utilizes three reference signals and a triangular carrier signal to generate PWM switching signals. The behavior of the proposed multilevel inverter was analyzed inFig. 11. Seven Level Voltage output detail. Finally a nine level hybrid H-bridge inverter is proposed and simulation results are presented.Fig. 11 shows the seven level PWM output. Fig. 10shows the grid voltage and grid current. From the VI. REFERENCESfigure it is clear that grid voltage and current are inpahse. 1664 | P a g e
  • 6. P.C Chakravarthy, M.Daivaasirvadam / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 Vol. 2, Issue 6, November- December 2012, pp.1660-1665[1] M. Calais and V. G. Agelidis, ―Multilevel Authors: converters for single-phase grid connected photovoltaic systems—An overview,‖ in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Ind. Electron., 1998, vol. 1, pp. 224–229.[2] S. B. Kjaer, J. K. Pedersen, and F. M. Daivaasirvadam was born in Andhra Blaabjerg, ―A review of single-phase grid Pradesh, India, Received the B.Tech Electrical and connected inverters for photovoltaic Electronics Engineerining from Godavari Institute modules,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, of Information Technology, affiliated to JNT no. 5, pp. 1292–1306, Sep./Oct. 2005. University Hyderabad, and M-Tech Computer[3] P. K. Hinga, T. Ohnishi, and T. Suzuki, ―A controlled industrial power from National Institute new PWM inverter for photovoltaic power of Technology (NIT), Calicut, India. He is currently generation system,‖ in Conf. Rec. IEEE as a lecturer of Electrical and Electronics Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 1994, pp. Department at Vignan’s Institute Of Information 391–395. Technology, Visakapatnam Affiliated to JNT[4] Y. Cheng, C. Qian, M. L. Crow, S. University , Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh , India. Pekarek, and S. Atcitty, ―A comparison of diode-clamped and cascaded multilevel converters for a STATCOM with energy storage,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 1512– 1521, Oct. 2006.[5] M. Saeedifard, R. Iravani, and J. Pou, ―A P. C Chakravarthy was born in Andhra space vector modulation strategy for a pradesh, India, Received the B.E Electrical and back-to-back five-level HVDC converter Electronics Engineerining from Sir C R Reddy system,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. College of engineering, affiliated to Andhra 56, no. 2, pp. 452–466, Feb. 2009. University Visakhapatnam, India. He is currently as[6] S. Alepuz, S. Busquets-Monge, J. a PG Student of Electrical and Electronics Bordonau, J. A. M. Velasco, C. A. Silva, J. Department at Vignan’s Institute Of Information Pontt, and J. Rodríguez, ―Control strategies Technology, Visakapatnam Affiliated to JNT based on symmetrical components for grid- University , Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh , India. connected converters under voltage dips,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 6, . pp. 2162–2173, Jun. 2009.[7] J. Rodríguez, J. S. Lai, and F. Z. Peng, ―Multilevel inverters: A surveyof topologies, controls, and applications,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 724–738, Aug. 2002.[8] J. Rodriguez, S. Bernet, B. Wu, J. O. Pontt, and S. Kouro, ―Multilevel voltage-source- converter topologies for industrial medium- voltage drives,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 2930–2945, Dec. 2007.[9] M. M. Renge and H. M. Suryawanshi, ―Five-level diode clamped inverter to eliminate common mode voltage and reduce dv/dt in medium voltage rating induction motor drives,‖ IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1598– 1160, Jul. 2008.[10] E. Ozdemir, S. Ozdemir, and L. M. Tolbert, ―Fundamental- frequencymodulated six-level diode- clamped multilevel inverter for three-phase stand-alone photovoltaic system,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 4407–4415, Nov. 2009. 1665 | P a g e